22 025 views

CLEMENTS MARKHAM. THE CONQUEST OF NEW GRANADA.
Клемент Маркхэм. Завоевание Новой Гранады.

THE CONQUEST

OF NEW GRANADA

SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM,

K.C.B.. D.Sc. (CAM.)

HONORARY MEMBER OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ANTIOQUIA.

Siempre la brevedad es una cosa

Con gran razón de todos alabada,

Y vemos que una platica es gustosa

Quanto mas breve y menos afectada.

Araucana. Canto xxvi

LONDON

SMITH, ELDER & CO., 15 WATERLOO PLACE

1912

All rights reierved

DEDICATED

(by permission)

TO HIS EXCELLENCY DON CÁELOS E. RESTEEPO

PRESIDENT

OP THE

REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA

PREFACE

SOME knowledge of the civilisation of the Aztecs

and Incas, of the conquests of Mexico and Peru as

told by Prescott, with the stories of Cortes and

. Pizarro, is part of a liberal education. But the

civilisation of the Chibchas and the story of the

conquest of New Granada by Quesada has found

no Prescott, and is unknown to our English

literature.

A great many years ago, General Mosquera—

a former well-known President of New Granada

—dined with Sir Roderick Murchison at the Geo-

graphical Club, and took me in his carriage to the

meeting. In conversation the General expressed

regret that although Mexico and Peru had found

a historian, writing in the English language, bis

own country—the story of which was quite as

interesting—had not. General Mosquera was

himself an author.1

1 Geografía de la Nueva Granada, por General Tomas Cipriano de

Mosquera (New York, 1858). General Mosquera was born at

Popayán in 1798. He was a comrade and intimate friend of

Bolivar. President, 1844-49; again in 1863 and 1866. , He died

in 1878.

viii

PREFACE

I pondered over this expression of regret by

an eminent Colombian. At that very time I was

consulting the most important of the New Granada

chronicles, by Fray Pedro Simon, for another

purpose.1 I was then led to read ' Piedrahita/ a

later chronicle, and to translate 6 Cieza de Leon *;

and I received encouragement to write on the

subject from Sir Woodbine Parish.

But I waited for some more competent person

with greater local knowledge to undertake the task

of presenting to English readers the story of

Chibcha civilisation and of the conquest of New

Granada. I have waited for fifty years.

My personal knowledge of Colombia is confined

to Santa Martha, Cartagena, and the Isthmus.

But I have had occasions for studying the geo-

graphy of that interesting country for official

purposes. It became an object, in connection

with chinchona cultivation in British India, to

obtain and publish the valuable drawings of plants

of the chinchona genus growing in Colombia,

by Mutis, which I found in the tool-house of the

Botanical Gardens at Madrid. I then obtained

sanction for their publication under the editorship

1 I was writing the Introduction to a volume of the Hakluyt

Society entitled The Search for El Dorado,

PREFACE

ix

of an eminent Colombian botanist, Don José

Triana.1 Afterwards I employed Mr. Cross, a very

able gardener and traveller, to explore the region

of the G. Pitayensis, to the east of Popayán and

Timaná. He brought me back a detailed descrip-

tion of that interesting region. I also published,

in 1867, translations of the works of Dr. Mutis and

of Dr. Karstan on the chinchona genus, with intro-

ductory notes and lives. A letter from Señor Don

Narciso Lorenzano, dated March 1864, on the sub-

ject of the cultivation of chinchona-trees in their

original habitat, led to my publication, in Spanish,

in 1867, of a handbook of chinchona cultivation for

the use of Colombian proprietors. I subsequently

had some official correspondence on Colombian

forest conservancy, and was elected an Honorary

Member of the Historical Society of Antioquia.

In obtaining the MS. of the fourth part of the

work of Mutis at Madrid, and printing it for

the first time, M. Weddell was so good as to say

that I rendered great service to the memory of

the illustrious botanist of Colombia.

I mention these transactions to show that

circumstances have conduced to a continuance of

1 Nouvelles études sur les quinquinas accompagnées de facsimile

des dessins de la quinologie de Mutis, por J. Triana (folio, Paris,

1870).

X

PREFACE

that interest in the land of the Chibchas which

was first aroused by my conversation with General

Mosquera.

I submit the following brief account of Chibcha

civilisation and of the conquest of New Granada

without any thought of its taking a place by the

side of the works of Prescott. My intention is far

enough from that. Its object is only to stop a

gap in English literature until such time as it

may be worthily filled by another more detailed

work from the pen of some one who is intimately

acquainted with all the localities, as well as with all

the original sources of information, some of which

are still undiscovered. I trust that such a future

author may already exist, or will exist in due

course. I have to offer my cordial thanks to His

Excellency Don Ignacio Gutierrez-Ponce for assis-

tance and advice. Don Ignacio is descended from

three of the companions in arms of Quesada.

CLEMENTS B. MARKHAM.

21 ECCLESTON SQUAKE, S.W.

September, 1912.

ANALYTICAL TABLE OF

CONTENTS

DEDICATION.........

PREFACE.........

CHAPTER I

TELLERS OF THE STORY

Reports of actual actors in the scenes they describe: Vasco

Nuñez de Balboa, Pascual de Andagoya, Heredia, Cieza

de Leon, Gonzalo Jimenes de Quesada, Castellanos, Pedro

Simon, Piedrahita, Zamora, Fresle Ocariz, Cassini,

Herrera, Oviedo, Duquesne, Lugo, Uricoechea, Acosta

CHAPTER II

THE CHIBCHA NATION

Influence of environment—Mountains and Rivers of Colom-

bia*—Tribes of the Cauca Valley—Cemetery of Zenu—

Country of the Chibchás—Chibcha People: their agri-

culture, appearance, commerce, manufactures, houses,

progress—its causes.......

CHAPTER III

THE CHIBCHA RELIGION

The great • first cause—Sun-worship—Myths—The Bachue

myth—The Bochica myth—Deities—The Garachacha

myth—The Tequendama myth—The Guatavita myth

and festeval—El Dorado—Gold in the Guatavita Lake—

The Temples—Human Sacrifices-Sun and Moon—Their

marriage—Link between celestial and anthropomorphic

ideas .........

xii

CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER IV

THE CHIBCHA LANGUAGE AND CALENDAR

The language progressed with the advance of the people—

Now a dead language—Grammars and Vocabularies—

Grammatical construction—Words for degrees of relation-

ship—Numeration—Times and Seasons—Hieroglyphics of

first ten numerals—System of intercalation—Duquesne's

explanation of the Calendar—the Cycle—Point reached

in civilisation........31

CHAPTER V

CHIBCHA GOVERNMENT : THE ZIPA AND THE ZAQUE

The Zipa, the Zaque, and the Iraca—Rule for succession

—Capital and pleasure houses of the Zipa—Interments—

the Zaque of Tunja—the Zipa Saguanmachica's wars

—the Zipa Nemequene's wars—the Zipa Thisquezuza—

Influence of the Iraca—the Great Chief Tutasua—

Retrospect of what is known of the Chibchas—Preserva-

tion of their history—Lost Work of Quesada ... 40

CHAPTER VI

SPANIARDS ON THE COAST

Expedition of Bastidas—Ojeda and Nicuesa—Defeat of

Ojeda—Ojeda in the Gulf of Urabá—Failure and death

of Ojeda and Nicuesa—Relief expedition of Enciso—

Rise of Vasco Nunez de Balboa—Expedition of Pedrarias

—Description of the coast by Enciso .... 49

CHAPTER VII

VASCO NUNEZ DE BALBOA

Early days of Vasco Nuñez—Took command of Ojeda'*

starving colony—His capacity—His measures—His good

treatment of natives—Account of Coiba and Comogre

—Natives of the Isthmus—Vasco Nuñez received informa-

tion of Dobaibe and his gold—Love for the daughter of

CONTENTS

Careta—News of the Pacific Ocean—Ships arrive with

provisions—Letter to Charles V.—Discovery of the Pacific

Ocean—Arrival of Pedrarias—Pedrarias brings robbery

and murder—Atrocities of Morales—Vasco Nuñez writes

again to Charles V.—Character of Pedrarias—Stores

and fittings for shipbuilding—Building of the ships—

Betrayal of Vasco Nuñez—Murder of the great discoverer

—His death a calamity—Panama founded—Nicaragua—

Death of Pedrarias—Destruction of the natives of the

Isthmus—Retreat of survivors—Brave defence and inde-

pendence .........

CHAPTER VIII

SETTLEMENTS ON THE COAST

Bastidas, first Governor of Santa Martha—His murderer—

Palomino the second Governor—Vadillo and Palomino

—Garcia de Lerma, fourth Governor of Santa Martha—

Exploring the Magdalena—Oidor Infante, fifth Governor—

Pedro de Heredia, Governor of Cartagena—Expeditions

of Heredia and Cesar—The Velzer rule in Venezuela-—

Cruelty of Alfinger—Expedition of George of Spires—

Expedition of Pederman......

CHAPTER IX

DARE: CLOUDS GATHERING TO THE SOUTH AND WEST

Story of. the discovery of the Cauca Valley—Origin of

Sebastian de Belalcazar—Founding of Popayán by Belal-

cazar—Aldana appointed to supersede him—Vadillo's

flight from justice—Cieza de Leon—Vadillo's expedition—

Cesar's experience—The chief Nutibara and his brother—

Defeat of Spaniards by Nutibara—Buriticá chief burnt by

Vadillo—Vadillo reaches the Cauca—Death of Cesar—Dis-

covery of the Cauca Valley—Vadillo sent home—Robledo

appointed by Aldana—Cruelty of Robledo—Cartago and

Antioquia founded—Robledo sent to Spain—Andagoya

lands at Buenaventura—Character of Aldana—Añasco—

Founding of Timaná—Andagoya at Popayán—Return of

Belalcazar—Services in Peru—Belalcazar and Heredia—

xiv

CLEMENTS MARKHAM. THE CONQUEST OF NEW GRANADA.
Tagged on:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

Залишити відповідь

7 visitors online now
7 guests, 0 members
All time: 12686 at 01-05-2016 01:39 am UTC
Max visitors today: 17 at 12:07 pm UTC
This month: 45 at 10-18-2017 08:41 am UTC
This year: 62 at 03-12-2017 08:20 pm UTC
Read previous post:
PEDRO DE CIEZA DE LEON. PARTE IV DE LA CRÓNICA DEL PERÚ. TERCERO LIBRO DE LAS Guerras civiles del Perú, EL CUAL SE LLAMA LA GUERRA DE QUITO (Libro III).

PEDRO DE CIEZA DE LEON. PARTE IV DE LA CRÓNICA DEL PERÚ. TERCERO LIBRO DE LAS Guerras cipiles del Perú,...

Ulrico Schmidl. DERROTERO Y VIAJE AL RIO DE LA PLATA Y PARAGUAY.

Ulrico Schmidl. DERROTERO Y VIAJE AL RIO DE LA PLATA Y PARAGUAY. Ульрих Шмидль. Путешествие к Рио-де-ла-Плата и Парагваю, и...

Close