Narratives of the rites and laws of the Yncas (1873). Рассказы об обычаях и законах Инков

Narratives of the rites and laws of the Yncas (1873)

Narratives of the rites and laws of the Yncas.











ESIitfj Notes ana an Entrotiuction,




Published by


514 West n3th Street

New York 25, N. Y.



An Account of the Fables and Rites of the Yncas, by Christoval

de Molina . . _ . Page 3


An Account of the Antiquities of Peru, by Juan de Santa Cruz

Pacbacuti-yamqui Salcamayhua – – – C



A Narrative of the errors, false gods, and other superstitions and
diabolical rites in which the Indians of the province of
Iluarochiri lived in ancient times, by Dr. Francisco de Avik 123

Report by Polo de Ondegardo – – – 151


I.— Subjects – – – – – 173

II. — Names of Places – – – – – 177

III.— Quichua “Words – – – – – 186

IV. — Names of Gods and Huacaa – – – – 211

V. — Names of Indian men, women, lineages, and tribes – 214

VI. — Names of Spaniards – – ” – – 219


Much as students would now prize the information
that was collected by the Spaniards who first over-
ran the New World, they can only obtain a smaU
fraction of it. In these days, when scientific me-
thods are understood, and aU evidence can be sifted
and receive its relative weight, much of that evi-
dence is lost. Of all the narratives and reports fur-
nished to Herrera, for his history of the Indies, and
of which he made such scanty and unintelligent use,
very few have been preserved. Diligent search, for
which we have to thank Don Pascual de Gayangos,
has brought four such documents to fight, relating
to ancient Peruvian history, translations of which
have been selected by the Council of the Hakluyt
Society to form a volume of their series. The ori-
ginals are manuscripts in the National Library at
Madrid, marked B 135.

The first of these manuscripts is a report on the
fables and rites of the Yncas, addressed by Christoval
de Molina, the priest of the hospital for natives, at
Cuzco, to Dr. Don Sebastian de Artaun, the bishop
of that ancient capital. It must have been written
between 1570 and 1584; the period during which
Artaun was bishop of Cuzco.


The second is an account of the antiquities of
Peru, by an Indian named Juan de Santa Cruz
Pachacuti-yamqui Salcamayhua. His great-great
grand parents were living at the time of the Spanish
conquest of Peru ; so that the author may have
written in about 1620.

The third is an account of the religion and tradi-
tions of the Indians of the mountainous province of
Huarochiri, on the Pacific slope of the maritime
Cordillera, near Lima, by a resident priest, named
Dr. Francisco de Avila. It was written in 1608.

The fourth is a report, written in a memorandum
book, apparently as a rough draft, among the papers
of the Licentiate Polo de Ondegardo, an able and
accomplished statesman, who was Corregidor of
Cuzco, in 1560.

The first of these documents is the most important.
Cristoval de Molina had pecuUar opportunities for
collecting accurate information. He was a master
of the Quichua language ; he examined native chiefs
and learned men who could remember the Ynca em-
pire in the days of its prosperity, and he was inti-
mately acquainted with the native character, from
his position in the hospital at Cuzco. In his open-
ing address to the bishop, he mentions a previous
account which he had submitted, on the origin, his-
tory, and government of the Yncas. Fortunately
this account has been preserved, by Miguel Cavello
Balboa,^ who tells us that his history is based on the

1 A French translation of the work of Balboa was published by
Ternanx Compans, in the second series of his translations, in 1840.


learned writings of Christoval de Molina. The pre-
sent manuscript shows the importance of Molina as
an authority, and a special value is thus given to Bal-
boa’s work, which may now be looked upon as the
most authentic version of early Yncarial traditions
and history.

The report on the fables and rites is supple-
mentary to the history used by Balboa ; but which
is not now extant as a separate work. It contains
a minute and detailed account of the ceremonies
performed in the different months throughout the
Ynca year, with the prayers used by the priests on
each occasion in Quichua and Spanish, the sacrifices,
and festivities. There are some very interesting
points, which must be noticed in their order, in con-
nection with Molina’s account of the Yncas ; for they
throw fresh light on several doubtful questions.

The first of these points is the position held by
the Supreme Being or Creator, in the religion of the
Yncas. Our knowledge of this subject has hitherto
been derived from Garcilasso de la Vega, who tells
“US that, besides the Sun, the Yncas worshipped the
true supreme God and Creator; that they called him
Pachacamac, a name signifying ” He who gives ani-
mation to the universe,” or ” He who does to the
universe what the soul does to the body;” that they
held Him in much greater inward veneration than
the Sun ; but that they did not build temples to him,

Balboa commenced his work at Quito in 1576, and completed it
in 1586 ; the very period when Molina was prosecuting his re-
searches at Cuzco.


nor ofFer him sacrifices.^ He quotes from Bias Valera,
that all subjugated tribes were ordered to worship
the most powerful god Ticci-Uira-ccocha, otherwise
called Pachacamac ;’^ and in another place, he says
that the temple of Pachacamac, on the sea-coast, was
the only one to the Supreme Being throughout the
whole of Peru.”*

1 have discussed the questions relating to the
temple on the sea coast, in my introduction to the
” Reports on the Discovery of Peru” (Hakluyt So-
ciety, 1872) ; and have shown that it was not dedi-
cated to the Supreme Being of the Yncas. Garcilasso
de la Vega wrote the particulars touching what he
had heard in Peru, after a lapse of many years, but
without conscious exaggeration. Indeed his state-
ments, as a rule, are w^onderfuUy accurate, as I shall
presently show. But the evidence of Molina is more
reliable, because he wrote on the spot, with a full
knowledge of the language, and after carefully ex-
amining the surviving priests and wise men of the
old Ynca court.

The name Pachacamac occurs three times in the
prayers given by Molina, as an attribute of the
Deity ; but the term most constantly used was Pa-
chayachachic, “the teacher of the universe.” Another
name was Tecsi-viracocha, which Molina interprets,
“the incomprehensible God.” In the prayers, how-
ever, the first word is Aticsi, probably from Atini
(I conquer), and the meaning would rather be the

2 G. de la Vega, i, p. 106. » jj^i^j^ j,^ p 33.
4 Ibid., ii, p. 186.


conquering Uiracocha. Respecting the meaning of
the word Uira-cocha, I am at present doubtful ; but
Garcilasso has clearly shown that it does not mean,
as has been suggested by writers unacquainted with
the language, “the foam of the sea.”^ The usual
names for the god of the Yncas, and those which
occur in their prayers, are Pachayachachic Aticsi-
Uiracocha. Molina relates that one of the Yncas
erected a temple to the Supreme Being at Cuzco,” on
a site now occupied by the Church of the Nazarenes,
and in Molina’s days by the house of Hernan Lopez
de Segovia/ The Indian Salcamayhua also mentions
this temple, and it is quite true that on the site
indicated, there are the walls of an ancient edifice,
with serpents carved in relief on the stones. Molina
adds, that there was a golden statue to represent the
Creator in this temple, which received honours at all
the periodical festivals.

The sun, moon, and thunder, appear to have been
deities next in importance to Pachayachachic ; sacri-
fices were made to them at all the periodical festivals,
and several of the prayers given by Molina are ad-
dressed to them. Another image, called Huanacauri,
which is said to have been the most sacred of the
ancestral gods of the Yncas, received equal honours.
In all this we may discern the popular religion of the
Andean people, which consisted in the belief that all
things in nature had an ideal or soul which ruled
and guided them, and to which men might pray for

5 G. de la Vega, ii, p. 66. ^ p, n.

‘ P. 11.


help. This worship of nature was combined with
the worship of ancestors; the nature gods being
called huaca, and the ancestral deities pacarina or
pacarisca. The universal tradition pointed to a
place called Paccari-tampu, as the cradle or point of
origin of the Yncas. It was, from Cuzco, the near-
est point to the sun-rising ; and as the sun was
chosen as the pacarisca of the Yncas, the place of
their origin was at first assigned to Paccari-tampu.
But when their conquests were extended to the
CoUao, they could approach nearer to the sun, until
they beheld it rising out of lake Titicaca, and hence
the inland sea became a second traditional place of
royal origin.

The language of the Collas, Pacasas, and Lupacas,
the people in the basin of the lake Titicaca (erro-
neously called Aymara), added very few words to the
rich idiom of the Yncas ; but a vast number of Qui-
chua words were adopted by the Collas. Two or
three Colla words, however, occur in the manuscripts
of Molina and Salcamayhua, which may give rise to
speculation. According to Molina, the Ynca name
for the sun was Punchau,^ the god of day, and not
Ynti, as giv(3n by Garcilasso. In the prayers, the
word used is always Pimchau. But Salcamayhua
records a speech which the chief of the Collas made
to the Ynca : “Thou art Lord of Cuzco, I am Lord
of the Collas. I have a silver throne, thy throne is
of gold. Thou art a worshipper of Uira-ccocha Pa-

^ See also Arriaga. Extirpacion Je la idolatria del Peru.


chayachachic. I worship Ynti.”^ Further on we are
told that Ynti was the god of the Collas,^ and that
the Ynca adopted the name when he set up an image
at Titicaca.^ According to these accounts, Punchau
was the sun-god of the Yncas, and Ynti was that of
the Collas. Yet the modern word for the sun, in the
Collao, is Lupi, from the Quichua word Rupay,
meaning heat and warmth. The word for the moon
in the CoUa dialect (Pacsa) also occurs twice in the
manuscript of Molina. He speaks of Pacsa-mama,^
in one place, as the name of the moon-god, the Qui-
chua word being Quilla; and he gives two names for
the month of July.”* One is Tarpui-quilla, composed
of two Qichua words, meaning “the sowing month.”
The other is Moron-pasca, the last word being the
Colla name for the moon.

A fourth point of interest is the additional proof
furnished in these manuscripts of the antiquity of
the Quichua drama of OUanta.^ Hitherto no evi-
dence has been discovered of the word Ollanta being
as old as the time of the Yncas ; and the place now
called Ollantay-tampu, the traditionary scene of the
events recorded in the drama, is simply called Tampu
by all other old Spanish writers. But both Molina*’
and Salcamayhua” speak of it as Ollanta-tampu,
This is a proof that the name is not of modern origin.

9 p. 90. ^ P. 101. 2 p. 112.

3 p. 37. * P^. 19.

^ See ” Ollanta, an ancient Ynca Drama, translated from the
original Quichua, hy Clements II. Markham, G.B. (Triihier, 187 IJ
^ p. 51. ^ P. 116.


In the Introduction to my translation of the Quichua
drama,^ I gave a derivation of the word Ollanta, sug-
gested by Senor Barranca. A more probable etymo-
logy has since been given by Dr. Vicente Lopez. ^
Oil, he says, should be Uill or Villa, a legend, from
UiUani (I record) ; and Anta, the Andes — Ollanta,
”a legend of the Andes.” So that before the Spanish
conquest, as we now learn from Molina and Salcamay-
hua, there was a place called Ollanta-tampu — ” the
site of the legend, or drama of the Andes.” Salca-
mayhua mentions plays as being enacted at the fes-
tivals of the Yncas ; one called Anay-sauca, which
means literally, “How pleasant!” another ZTa^/ac/mco,
and others.

The full details of Ynca ceremonies given by
Molina furnish incidental evidence of the truthfulness
of Garcilasso de la Vega. Thus the account of the
feast of Skua, in the Royal Commentaries,^ would
serve as a very accurate abstract of the fuller and
more detailed narrative of Molina.’^ Garcilasso wrote
from memory, forty years after he had left Peru, with
the aid of letters from coiTCspondents.^ His main
object was to publish a commentary, correcting the
errors of Spanish authors who professed to give a
history of the Yncas without being acquainted with
their language. In doing this, he added much
precious information from the storehouse of his own

8 P. 11.

^ Les races Aryennes du Perou, p. 327.

1 See my translation, ii, p. 228. 2 pp_ 90-34.

^ See my translation of the Royal Commentaries, i, p. 76.


memory, and the more his work is sifted and examined,
the more clearly does it appear that he was scru-
pulously truthful, and that, allowing for the disad-
vantages under which he laboured, his statements are
wonderfully accurate. Perhaps the excellence of the
Ynca’s memory is best shown in his topographical
details. He gives the conquests of each successive
Ynca, mentioning the places through which the
conquerors marched in the gradual acquisition of their
vast empire. He enumerates three hundred and
twenty places in Peru, yet, in describing the marches,
he does not make a single mistake, nor give one of
these places out of its order, or in the wrong position.
AVhen Garcilasso’s routes of each conquering Ynca are
placed on a map, they furnish convincing proofs of the
remarkable accuracy of the author. The narrative of
Molina also supplies more than one incidental corrobo-
ration of the correctness of Garcilasso’s statements.

The words of the prayers actually offered up by the
Ynca Priests to their Deities are the most valuable
part of Molina’s report. He gives fourteen of these
prayers : four to the Supreme Being ; two to the Sun ;
one for fruitful flocks ; four for the Yncas ; two for
or to the other Iiuacas or gods, and one to the earth.
Unfortunately the Quichua words have, in many
instances, been incorrectly transcribed, so that the
meaning is not always clear ; and the translations in
Spanish, which are now given in English, are in some
cases far from literal. Under these circumstances I
have thought the best course would be to give all the
Quichua words in an alphabetical index, with the


English meanings of those which can be recognized.^
The translations in the text give the meaning of the
Quichua with general accuracy.

The second Report, entitled “An Account of the
Antiquities of Peru,” by an Indian named Salcamayhua,
was written about forty years after the time of Molina.-
It is curious and valuable, because it gives the tradi-
tions of Ynca history, as they were handed down by
the grandchildren of those who were living at the
time of the Spanish conquest, to their grandchildren.
Salcamayhua gives two prayers which are traditionally
attributed to Manco Ccapac, the first Ynca, in the ori-
ginal Quichua, and two or three other Quichua prayers
and speeches. His narrative of events, and record of
customs and ceremonies, are valuable so long as they
are given their due place. They are entitled to a
certain authority as coming from a recipient of native
tradition, living a generation or two after the death
of the last man who had seen the Ynca empire in the
days of its glory. Salcamayhua, as an authority,
ranks after Cieza de Leon, Polo de Ondegardo, Molina,
Balboa, and Garcilasso de la Vega ; but before Span-
ish writers who were ignorant of the native language,
though they lived and wrote before his time, such as
Zarate, Fernandez, and Acosta. Montesinos both
wrote after Salcamayhua, and is totally unreliable.
The Indian Salcamayhua was intimately acquainted
with the language, which was his own, and he received
the traditions from his own people. But neither he
nor Molina corroborate one of the fabulous stories

4 Sec p. 186.


told by Montesinos ; whose pretensions to having
received his list of a hundred kings, and other
absurdities, from the Indian Amautas or wise men,
are discredited by the absence of all corroborative
testimony. It is clear that Montesinos was ignorant
of the Quichua language, and his work, in my opinion,
is quite inadmissible as an authority.

The third document in the present collection is a nar-
rative of the false gods and other superstitions of the
Indians of the province of Huarochiri, by the Dr. Fran-
cisco de Avila, Priest of the principal village in the
province. This is one of the very few fragments from
which we can glean some slight knowledge of the
mysterious civilized nation which occupied the coast of
Peru, before the Ynca conquest. Kesearches into the
history of this coast-people are surrounded by peculiar
difficulties. The Yiicas conquered the Peruvian coast
two or three generations before the arrival of the
Spaniards, and used all their influence and power to
substitute the Quichua language, and to destroy the
separate polity and religion of the conquered race.
Hence many Quichua words appear in their traditions,
as told by Father Avila, and the student must care-
fully eliminate them, before forming any conclusions
respecting the intellectual position of the original
people of the Pacific coast. For instance, the god of
the Huarochiri is said to be Coniraya Uiracoclia, the
former w^ord being indigenous, and the latter a foreign
term introduced by the Yncas; just as we should say
the God Vishnu, combining an English and a Hindu
word. The root Con, in the words Cormriya and


Conopa, is the term for the deity, or for anything
sacred in the languap^e of the coast, and has nothing
to do with Quichua.

The province of Huarochiri, of which a map is
given to illustrate the curious narrative of Avila, is
very mountainous. It occupies the western slopes of
the maritime cordillera of the Andes, overhanging
the coast plain from the latitude of Lima to that of
Pachacaraac. Avila unconsciously furnishes evidence
that the inhabitants of Huarochiri originally came
from the coast. ” They declare,” he says, ” that in
the days of Coniraya their country was yuncap “and
that the crops ripened in five days.” Avila enters
into an elaborate explanation to prove that this is
impossible. But obviously the tradition referred to
the time when the ancestors of the Huarochiri people
inhabited the yuncas of the coast.

The sources of information respecting the civilized
race of the Peruvian coast are very scanty, and con-
sequently very precious. We have the silent
testimony of the grand ruins of Chimu near Truxillo,^
and m other coast valleys, of the great mounds, and
of the works of irrigation. There is a grammar and
vocabulary of their language, written by Fernando
de la Carrera in 1644 ; and the Lord’s Prayer in
Mocliica, one of their dialects, preserved by Bishop
Ore, and published at Naples in 1602. Cieza de
Leon^ travelled through the coast valleys in the early

^ Yutica is a warm tropical plain or valley.

^ Described by Ilivcro, and photographed, in detail, by Mr.
Squier. ” See my translation, pp. 233-63.


days of the Spanish conquest, and gave an interesting
account of what he saw, to which Garcilasso de la
Vega** has added some additional particulars. Balboa^
relates the legends of the coast Indians of Lambayeque
respecting their first arrival by sea ; and the curious
report of Arriaga^ on the destruction of idols in the
provinces of Yauyos and Conchucos, has some bearing
on the people of the coast. But here again great care
must be taken to eliminate all Ynca words and ideas,
before use can be made of the report, in an inquiry
as to the Yuncas of the sea board. A still more
remarkable report was made by an Augustin^ friar,
in 1555, on the idolatry and superstitions of the
inhabitants of the province of Huamachuco, which,
like Conchucos, Yauyos, and Huarochiri, overhangs
the coast valleys. It is from these scanty materials
that some knowledge can be acquired, after careful
study, of the civilized race on the coast, and of the
extent to which branches from it had spread over the
mountainous districts of the maritime cordillera. The
most curious of these sources of information, is, I
think, the narrative of Father Avila, which has never
been printed in Spanish, and a translation of which is
now printed for the first time.

8 See my translation, ii, pp. 147, 154, 185, 193, 195, 424, 428,
460. 9 P. 89 (Ternaux Compans’ ed.)

1 Extirpacion de la idolatria del Peru, dirigido al Rey N.S., en
su real Consejo de Indias : por el Padre Pablo Joseph de Arriaga
de la Campania de Jesus {Lima, 1621.)

2 Translated into French by M. Ternaux Compans, in his Re-
cueil de Documeiits et Memoires origlnavx sur VHistoire des Possessions
Esixignolcs diUiK Vximeriqne (Paris, 1840), p. 85.


The last document in this volume is a Report by-
Polo de Ondegardo, an accomplished lawyer and
statesman who came to Peru with the President
Gasca. He was Corregidor of Charcas, and after-
wards of Cuzco, and studied the language and laws
of the Yncas with minute care, in order that he might
be better able to conduct the administration of the
provinces under his charge. The document is in the
form of a rough draft or set of notes, apparently
intended as material for a more finished report. He
describes the principle on which the Ynca conquests
were made, the division and tenure of land, the system
of tribute, the regulations for preserving game and
for forest conservancy, and other administrative de-
tails; and he points out, here and there, the way in
which the wise legislation of the Yncas ought to be
utilized and imitated by their conquerors.

These four curious papers, which have never been
printed in the language in which they were written,
are now translated for the first time ; and it is
believed that they will form an important addition to
the sources of knowledge respecting the early civiliz-
ation of the American races.







Priest of the Parish of Our Lady of Healing of the Hospital for
Natives in the City of Cuzco ;’

Addressed to the Most Reverend Lord Bishop Don Sebastian pk
Artaun,2 Qf the Council of His Majesty.

As in the account which I submitted to your most illustrious
Lordship of the origin, lives, and customs of the Yncas,
Lords of this land, of the names and number of their v^ives,
of the laws they gave and the wars they waged, and of the
tribes and nations they conquered ; I also treated, in some
places, of the ceremonies and worship they established,
though not very fully ; I now propose, chiefly by reason of
the wish expressed by your reverend Lordship, to take
similar pains to describe the ceremonies, worship, and idola-
tries of these Indians. For this purpose I assembled a
number of aged persons who had seen and participated in
them in the days of Huayna Ccapac, of Huascar Ynca, and
of Manco Ynca, as well as some leaders and priests of those

1 For an account of the origin of this hospital, see my translation of
O. de la Vega, ii, p. 258.
• Bishops of Cuzco —

1534. Fray Vicente de Valverde.
1543. Fray Juan Solano, to 1550.

1570. Sebastian de Artaun. Died at Lima 1584, at a Pro-
vincial Council.
1584-93. Fray Gregorio de Montalvo.


And first with regard to the origin of their idolatries, it
is so that these people had no knowledge of writing. But,
in a house of the Sun called Poquen Cancha, which is near
Cuzco; they had the life of each one of the Yncas, with the
lands they conquered, painted with figures on certain boards,
and also their origin. Among these paintings the following
fable was represented.

In the life of Manco Ccapac. who was the first Ynca, and
from whom they began to be called children of the Sun,
and to worship the Sun, they had a full account of the
deluge. They say that all people and all created things
perished in it, insomuch that the water rose above all the
highest mountains in the world. No living things survived
except a man and a woman who remained in a box, and when
the waters subsided, the wind carried them to Huanaco,^
which will be over seventy leagues from Cuzco, a little more
or less. The Creator of all things commanded them to
remain there as mitimas ;* and there, in Tiahuanaco, the
Creator began to raise up the people and nations that are
in that region, making one of each nation of clay, and
painting the dresses that each one was to wear. Those that
were to wear their hair, with hair ; and those that were to
be shorn, wdth hair cut ; and to each nation was given
the language that was to be spoken, and the songs to be
sung, and the seeds and food that they were to sow. When
the Creator had finished painting and making the said
nations and figures of clay, he gave life and soul to each one,
as well men as women, and ordered that they should pass
under the earth. Thence each nation came up in the places
to which he ordered them to go. Thus they say that some
came out of caves, others issued from hills, others from
fountains, others from the trunks of trees. From this cause,
and owing to having come forth and commenced to multiply,

^ Tia-huanacu.

< Mitiuiac, a colonist or settler.— See G. de la Vega, i, lib. iii, cap. 19. FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 5 from those places,, and to having had the beginning of their hneage in them^ they made huacas and places of worship of them in memory of the origin of their lineage which proceeded from them. Thus each nation uses the dress with which they invest their huaca ; and they say that the first that was born from that place was there turned into stones, others say the first of their lineages were turned into falcons, condoles, and other animals and birds. Hence the huacas they use and woi'ship are in different shapes. There are other nations which say that when the deluge came, all people were destroyed except a few who escaped on hills, in caves, or trees, and that these were very few, but that they began to multiply, and that, in memory of the first of their race who escaped in such places, they made idols of stone, giving the name of him who had thus escaped to each Jtnaca. Thus each nation worshipped and offered sacrifices of such things as they used. There were, however, some nations who had a tradition of a Creator of all things. They made some sacrifices to him, but not in such quantity, or with so much veneration as to their idols or huacas. But to return to the fable. They say that the Creator was in Tiahuanaco, and that there was his chief abode, hence the superb edifices, worthy of admiration, in that place. On these edifices were painted many dresses of Indians, and there were many stones in the shape of men and women, who had been changed into stone for not obeying the commands of the Creator. They say that it was dark, and that there he made the sun, moon, and stars, and that he ordered the sun, moon, and stars to go to the island of Titicaca, which is near at hand, and thence to rise to heaven. They also declare that when the sun, in the form of a man, was ascending into heaven, very brilliant, it called to the Yncas and to Manco Ccapac,as their chief, and said : — " Thou and thy descendants are to be Lords, and are to subjugate many nations. Look upon me as thy father, and thou shalt be my 6 AN ACCOUNT OP THE children, and thou shalt worship me as thy father.'^ And with these words it gave to Manco Ccapac, for his insignia and arms, the suntur-paucar^ and the cJiampi,^ and the other ensigns that are used by the Yncas, Hke sceptres. And at that point the sun, moon, and stars were commanded to ascend to heaven, and to fix themselves in their places, and they did so. At the same instant Manco Ccapac and his brothers and sisters, by command of the CreatoT', descended under the earth and came out again in the cave of Paccari- tambo,'' though they say that other nations also came out of the same cave, at the point where the Sun rose on the first day after the Creator had divided the night from the day. Thus it was that they were called children of the Sun, and that the Sun was worshipped and revered as a father. They also have another fable, in which they say that the Creator had two sons, the one called Ymaymana Viracocha, and the other Tocapo Viracocha. Having completed the tribes and nations, and assigned dresses and languages to them, the Creator sent the sun up to heaven, with the moon and stars, each one in its place. The Creator, who in the language of the Indians is called Pachayachachi^ and Tecsiviracocha, which means the incomprehensible God, then went by the road of the mountains, from Tiahuanaco, visiting and beholding all the nations, and examining how they liad begun to multiply, and how to comply with his com- mands. He found that some nations had rebelled and had not obeyed his commands ; so he turned a large number of them into stones of the shape of men and women, with the same dress that they had worn. These conversions into stone were made at the following places : in Tiahuanaco, and in Pucara, and Xauxa, where they say that he turned » One name for the Ynca's head-dress. The " brilliant circle". ^ The battle-axe used with one hand. — G. de la Vega^ i, lib. 9, cap. 31. ' Near Cuzco. From Paccari, the dawn, and tompu, an inn. » " Teacher of the World." FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 7 the huaca called Huarivilca into stone, and in Pacliacamac and Cajarmarca, and in other parts. In truth there are great blocks of stone in those places, some of which are nearly the size of giants. They must have been made by human hands in very ancient times ; and, by reason of the loss of memory, and the absence of writing, they invented this fable, saying that people had been turned into stones for their disobedience, by command of the Creator. They also relate that in Pucara, which is forty leagues from the city of Cuzco on the Collao road, fire came down from heaven and destroyed a great part of the people, while those who were taking to flight were turned into stones. The Creator, who is said to be the father of Ymaymana Viracocha, and of Tocapo^ Viracocha, commanded that the elder, named Ymaymana Viracocha, in whose power all things were placed, should set out from this point, and go by the way of the mountains and forests through all the land, giving names to the large and small trees, and to the flowers and fruits that they bear, and teaching the people which were good for food or for medicine, and which should be avoided. He also gave names to all the herbs, and ex- plained which had healing virtues and which were poison- ous. The other son, named Tocapo Viracocha, which means in their language " the maker," was ordered to go by the way of the plains, visiting the people, and giving names to the rivers and trees, and instruction respecting the fruits and flowers. Thus they went until they reached the sea, whence they ascended to heaven, after having accomplished all they had to do in this world. They also relate, in this same fable, that at Tiahuanaco, where all mankind was created, all the difierent kinds of birds were made, male and female, and that each was given the songs they were to sing ; those that were to live in the 9 The "Tocay" of the tradition given by G. de la Vega, i, lib. i, cap. 18. 8 AN ACCOUNT OF THE forest being sent there, and eacli kind to its respective place. In like manner all the different beasts were created, male and female, and all the serpents and lizards that are met with in the land ; and the people were taught the names and qualities of each of these birds, beasts, and reptiles. These Indians believed for a certainty that neither the Creator nor his sons were born of woman, that they were unchangeable and eternal. The tribes have many other fables teaching their origin, insomuch that if all were to be told, there would be no end. I will, therefore, only insert some of these fables. In the kingdom of Quito, there is a province called Canaribamba, and the Canaris Indians are so named from their province.^ These Canaris say that, at the time of the deluge, two brothers escaped to a very high mountain called Huaca-ynan. As the waters rose the hill also increased in height, so that the waters never reached them. After the flood had subsided, their store of provisions being ended, they came forth and sought for food in the hills and valleys. They built a very small house in which they dwelt, living on herbs and roots, and suffering much from hunger and fatigue. One day, after going out in search of food, they returned to their little house, and found food to eat and cJiicha to drink, without knowing who could have prepared or brought it. This happened for ten days, at the end of which time they consulted how they should see and know the being who did them so much good in their great need. So the elder of the two agreed to remain concealed. Presently he saw two birds, of the kind called agua, and by another name torito. In our language they are called guacamayos.^ They came dressed as Canaris, with hair on their heads fastened in front as they now wear it. The concealed 1 See my translation of G. de la Vega^ ii, pp. 241, 336, 527. ' A macaw. FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 9 Indian saw them begin to prepare the food they brought with thenij as soon as the}'' came to the house, the larger one taking off the lliclla or mantle worn by the Indians. When the concealed man saw that they were beautiful, and that they had the faces of women, he came forth ; but as soon as they saw him, they were enraged and flew away without leaving anything to eat on that day. When the younger brother came home from searching for food, and found nothing cooked and ready as on former days, he asked his brother the reason, who told him, and they were very angry. On the next day the younger brother resolved to remain in concealment, and to watch whether the birds returned. At the end of three days the two guacamayos came back, and began to prepare the food. The men Cwatched for an opportune time when they had finished cooking, and shutting the door, enclosed them inside. The birds showed great anger; but while they were holding the smaller one, the larger went away. Then they had carnal knowledge of the smaller one, and had by it six sons and daughters. It lived with them for a long time on that hill, and they subsisted on the seeds they sowed, which were brought by the guacamayo. And they say that from these brothers and sisters, children of the guacamayo, all the Caiiaris proceed. Hence they look upon the hill Huaca yvHn as a huaca, and they hold the guacamayos in great veneration, and value their feathers very highly, for use at their festivals. In the province of Ancasmarca, which is five leagues from Cuzco, in the Anti-suyu division, the Indians have the following fable. They say that a month before the flood came, their sheep displayed much sadness, eating no food in the day-time, and watching the stars at night. At last the shepherd, who had charge of them, asked what ailed them, and they said that the conjunction of stars showed that the world would be 10 AN ACCOUNT OP THE destroyed by water. When he heard this, the shepherd consulted with his six children, and they agreed to collect all the food and sheep they could, and to go to the top of a very high mountain, called Ancasmarca. They say that as the waters rose, the hill grew higher, so that it was never covered by the flood ; and when the waters subsided, the hill also grew smaller. Thus, the six children of that shepherd returned to people the province. These and other tales are told, which I do not insert, to avoid prolixity. The chief cause of the invention of these fables, was the ignor- ance of God, and the abandonment of these people to idola- tries and vices. If they had known the use of writing they would not have been so dull and blind. Nevertheless, they had a very cunning method of counting by striugs of wool and knots, the wool being of different colours. They call them qicipus, and they are able to understand so much by their means, that they can give an account of all the events that have happened in their land for more than five hundred years. They had expert Indians who were masters in the art of reading the quipus, and the knowledge was handed down from generation to generation, so that the smallest thing was not forgotten. By the quipus, which are like these strings that old women use for praying in Spain, only with ends hanging from them, they keep such an account of the years and months, that no error is committed in the record. The system became more complete under the Ynca Yupan- qui, who first began to conquer this land, for before his time the Yncas had not advanced beyond the vicinity of Cuzco, as appears from the account now in the hands of your Reverence. This Ynca appears to have been the first to order and settle ceremonies and religions. He it was who established the twelve months of the year, giving a name to each, and ordaining the ceremonies that were to be observed in each. For although his ancestors used months and years counted by the quipus, yet they were never pre- FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 1 I viously regulated in such order until the time of this Lord. He was of such clear understanding, that he reflected upon the respect and reverence shown by his ancestors to the Sun, who worshipped it as God. He observed that it never had any rest, and that it daily journeyed round the earth ; and he said to those of his council that it was not possible that the Sun could be the God who created all things, for if he was he would not permit a small cloud to obscure his splendour ; and that if he was creator of all things he would sometimes rest, and light up the whole world from one spot. Thus, it cannot be otherwise but that there is some- one who directs him, and this is the Pacha- Yachachi or creator. Influenced by this reasoning and knowledge, he ordered the houses and temple of Quisuar-cancha^ to be made, which are above the houses of Diego Ortiz de Guz- man,"* coming towards the great square of Cuzco, where Hernan Lopez de Segovia now lives. Here he raised a statue of gold to the creator, of the size of a boy of ten years of age. It was in the shape of a man standing up, the right arm raised and the hand almost closed, the fingers and thumb raised as one who was giving an order. Although the Yncas had a knowledge of a creator of all things from the first, whom they reverenced and to whom they ofiered sacrifices ; yet he never was held in such great veneration as from the time of this Ynca, who gave orders to the heads of provinces throughout his dominions that temples should be erected to him, and that he should have flocks, servants, farms, and estates, out of which the sacrifices should be provided. This also was the Ynca who so sumptuously erected the house of the Sun at Cuzco : for * Quisuar is the name of a tree {Buddleia Incana). Cancha, a place. * See G. de la Vega^ i, p. 295, and ii, p. 243, of my translation ; and the plan of Cuzco. There is still an ancient wall, with serpents carved on it, at this spot. 12 A\ ACCOUNT OF THE before his time it was very small and poor. The cause of this is related in the following fable. They say that, before he succeeded, he went one day to visit his father Viracocha Ynca, who was in Sacsahuana, five leagues from Cuzco. As he came up to a fountain called Susur-puquio/ he saw a piece of crystal fall into it, within which he beheld the figure of an Indian in the fol- lowing shape. Out of the back of his head there issued three very brilliant rays like those of the Sun. Serpents were twined round his arms, and on his head there was a Uaidu^ like that of the Ynca. His ears were bored, and ear-pieces, like those used by the Yncas, were inserted. He was also dressed like the Ynca. The head of a lion came out from between his legs, and on his shoulders there was another lion whose legs appeared to join over the shoulders of the man ; while a sort of serpent also twined over the shoulders. On seeing this figure the Ynca Yupan- qui fled, but the figure of the apparition called him by his name from within the fountain, saying : — " Come hither, my son, and fear not, for I am the Sun thy father. Thou shalt conquer many nations : therefore be careful to pay great reverence to me, and remember me in thy sacrifices." The apparition then vanished, while the piece of crystal remained. The Ynca took care of it, and they say that he afterwards saw everything he wanted in it. As soon as he was Lord, he ordered a statue of the Sun to be made, as nearly as possible resembling the figure he had seen in the crystal. He gave orders to the heads of the provinces in all the lands he had conquered, that they should make grand temples richly endowed, and he commanded all his subjects to adore and reverence the new Deity, as they had hereto- fore worshipped the Creator. In the narrative of his life, which your Lordship has, it is related that all his conquests ' Puquio, a spring or source. ^ The royal fringe, worn across the forehead. FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 13 were made in the name of the Sun his Father^ and of the Creator. It was this Ynca, also, who commanded all the nations he conquered to hold their huacas in great venera- tion, and to propitiate them by sacrifices, saying that thus they would not be enraged at not receiving their due quan- tity of reverence and worship. He also caused worship to be offered to the thunder, and he had a statue of a man erected in gold, in a temple in the city of Cuzco. This hvaca also had a temple^ near that of the Sun, in all the provinces, with estates^ flocks, and servants for the celebra- tion of sacrifices. But as my intention is to touch upon worship and ceremonies, and not to treat of laws and cus- toms, I will pass on to the other points of my present treatise. They also had, in some nations, many huacas and temples where the devil gave answers ; and in the city of Cuzco there was the huaca of Huanacauri.^ There were many kinds of wizards in the provinces, with names and attributes difier- ing one from the other. The names and offices were as follows : — Galjparicu, which means those who bring luck and suc- cess, and were expected to obtain the things that were desired. With this object they killed birds, lambs, and sheep, and, inflating the lungs, through a certain vein, they discerned certain signs, by which they declared what was about to happen. There were others called Virapiriciic, who burnt the breasts of sheep and coca in the fire, and foretold what would occur from certain signs at the time the things were burning. Those who consulted them said that they were the least to be relied on, because they always lied. ' Mentioned four times by Garcilasso de la Vega, i, pp. 65, 66, and ii, pp. 169 and 230. He says that the first settlement, made in the valley of Cuzco, was on the hill called Huanacauri, and that a temple was built there. It was looked upon as very sacred, and was the spot whence races were run. 14 AN ACCOUNT OP THE Others were called Achicoc, who were the sorcerers that told fortunes by maize and the dung of sheep. They gave their replies to those who consulted them, according as the things came out in odd or even numbers. Others were called Camascas, who declared that their grace and virtue was derived from the thunder; saying that, when a thunder-bolt fell, and one of them was struck with terror, after he came to himself he proclaimed how the thunder had revealed to him the art of curing by herbs, and how to give replies to those who consulted them. In like manner, when one escaped from some great danger, they said that the devil had appeared ; and those who wished to be cured by herbs were also said to be instructed. Hence many Indians are great herbalists. Others were shown the poisonous herbs, and these were called Camascas, Others were called Yacarcaes, and these were natives of Huaro. They had mighty pacts with the devil, as appears from the ceremony they performed, which was as follows : — ■ They took certain tubes of copper mixed with silver, about the length of an ordinary arquebus ; and some brass vessels in which they light fires with charcoal, which they blew and made to blaze up by means of the tubes. It was in these fires that the devils delivered their replies, and the sorcerers said that it was concerning the soul of such a man or woman that they were making inquiry, who might be in Quito or in any other part of the empire which the Yncas had con- quered. The principal questions they asked were whether such an one was against the Sun his father, or whether such others were thieves, murderers, or adulterers. By means of this invocation the Ynca knew all that passed in his dominions, with the help of the devil. These Yacarcaes were much feared, as well by the Ynca as by the people, and he took them with him wherever he went. There were other sorcerers who had charge of the huacas, among whom there were some who conferred with the devil. FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 15 and received his replies, telling the people what they wished to know, but they very seldom gave correct answers. Ac- cording to the accounts they give, all the people of the land confessed to the sorcerers who had charge of the huacas ; and these confessions were made publicly. In order to test the truth of the confessions, the sorcerers tried them by consulting signs, and in this way, with the aid of the devil, they discovered who had confessed falsely, and upon these they inflicted severe punishments. Those who had grave crimes to confess, which merited death, confessed them in secret to the sorcerer. The Yncas, and the people of Cuzco, always made their confessions in secret, and generally they confessed to those Indian sorcerers of Huaro who were employed for this oflSce. In their confessions they accused themselves of not having reverenced the sun, the moon, and the huacas, with not having celebrated the feasts of the Raymis, which are those in each month of the year, with all their hearts ; with having committed fornication against the law of the Ynca not to touch a strange woman or to seduce a virgin unless given by the Ynca, and not because fornication was a sin. For they did not understand this. They also accused themselves of any murder or theft, which we hold to be grave sins, as also were murmurs, especially if they had been against the Ynca or against the Sun. They also confess, O most reverend Sir, that the people before the flood were made, with all other things, by the Creator ; but they are ignorant of the order in which they were made, nor how, beyond what has already been said concerning Tiahuanaco. This is what I have been able to learn, touching their fables and their origin, from all the old men with whom I have conversed on this subject. The form of the worship and sacrifices that they established for each month, was as follows : — 10 AN ACCOUNT OF THE May. They commenced to count the year in the middle of May, a few days more or less, on the first day of the moon; which month, being the first of their year, was called Uauca and Llusque, and in it they performed the following ceremonies, called Yutip-RayTni, or the festivals of the Sun. In this month they sacrificed to the Sun a great quantity of sheep of all colours. Those called huacar-pana were white and woolly. Others were called huanacos ; and others, also white and woolly, were called pacos-cuyllos. Others, which were females with a reddish woolly fleece, were called paucar-paco. Other pacos were called uqui-paco. Other large sheep were called chumpi, which was their colour, being almost that of a lion^s coat. Other sheep were called Uanca-llama, which were black and woolly. At this season they also sacrificed lambs of the same colours. The sacrifices were performed in the following order : — They went to Curicancha^ in the morning, at noon, and at night, bringing the sheep that were to be sacrificed on that day, which they carried round the idols and huacas called Punchao Ynca^ which means the Sun ; and Pachaya- chachi,^ another idol in the shape of a man. The word means a Creator ; and Ghuqui yllayllapa,^ which was the huaca of lightning and thunder, and thunderbolt. It also was in the form of a person, though the face could not be seen, and it had a llautu of gold, and ear-rings of gold, and medals of gold called canipo. These huacas were placed on a bench, and the live sheep were taken round them, while the Priests said : — " O Creator, and Sun, and Thunder, be for ever young ! do not grow old. Let all things be at peace! let the people « " Place of gold." The temple of the Sun at Cuzco. * Punchau, " day". A name for the Sun. ' "■ Teacher of the World." « Thunder and lightning. FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 17 multiply, and their food, and let all other things continue to increase." These sayings were addressed to the Creator, and to the Sun they prayed that he might always be young, and con- tinue to give light and splendour. They did not know the Sun as their Creator, but as created by the Creator. To the thunder and lightning they prayed that it might rain, in order that they might have food. They also knew that the rain came with thunder and lightning, by command of the Creator. Then, in the morning, they sent a sheep to Huanacauri, which is their principal huaca, where it was killed and burnt by the tarpuntaes,^ who were those that had the duty of supplying food to the huacas. While the sacrifice was burning, at the rising of the Sun, many Yncas and Caciques came, and, pulling the wool off the sacrifice before it was consumed, walked round it with the wool in their hands, crying out and saying : — " Creator, Sun, and O Thunder, be for ever young, multiply the people, and let them always be at peace." At noon, in the same order, they burnt another in the court of the Coricancha or house of the Sun, which is now the cloister of the Friars of the Lord St. Domingo : and in the evening they took another to the hill called Achpiran, because there the Sun sets, which they sacrificed with the same ceremonies. They also offered up to the same huacas, certain cestos* of coca, called pmicar-runcu, and others called paucar-quintu like coca, and some toasted maize, and red and yellow sea shells called mullu, in the shape of maize. In addition to these ceremonies, on every other day of this month, they went to burn sheep and the other offerings at the following places : on a hill called Sicccanca, on another caWed Omoto-y ana cauri, on another called Ccopac-taZca, which » Priests. The word does not occur in Garcilasso de la Vega. Tar- puni is the verb " to sow". * Baskets. 18 AN ACCOUNT OP THE is three leagues from Huanacauri, and on others called Queros-huanacauri, Rontoca which is in the Quehuares,^ Collapata in Pumacancha, fourteen leagues from the city, on a plain called Yana-yana, on another hill called Guti in the jjuna of Pumacancha, and continuing along the same road they came on the next day to Vilcanota, which is twenty-six leagues from Cuzco. The reason for taking this direction in this month is because they say that the Sun was born in that part,® and thus they went on that road, performing the sacrifices. On a plain near Rurucache they made the same oflFering, aS well as on another hill called Suntu, near to Sihuana in Cacha, in another hill called Cacha-Uiracocha, in another called Yacalla-huaca , and in another called Rurama, on the plain of Quiquijana.^ The same was done in Mullipamjpa, in JJrcos, on a hill called JJrcos JJiracocha, on a plain called Anta-huaylla,^ on another plain near Anta- huayla, called Pati, on another called Acahuara, on a hill in Quispicancha, and on another called Sulcanca. The Tar- puntaes went by one road and came back by another. The Ynca, with all his lords, went to Mantucalla, and there remained to drink and enjoy himself in revelry and taquis.^ They called this taqui Huallina,^ and it was a dance with singing, which was performed four times in the day. The Yncas alone celebrated this feast ; and the mama-cunas, women of the Sun, gave drink to those who performed it ; their own wives did not enter the place where the Yncas were, but remained outside in a court. All the vases and utensils from which they ate and drank, and with which they cooked the food were of gold. Thus they performed the 5 A tribe south of Cuzco. « On leaving Cuzco, this road is nearly east. ' All these places are in the vale of Vilca-mayu, up which the road passes from Cuzco to lake Titicaca. * Not Andahuaylas, but a village near Cuzco, now called Andahuay- lillas. '' ® Music. 1 More correctly Huayllina^ a song. FABLES AND RTTES OF THE YNCAS. 19 taqui called Huayllina, and in it they worshipped the Creator. At this festival they brought out the two female figures called Pallasillu and Ynca uillu, covered with very rich clothes and small plates of gold, called llancapata, colcapata and jpaucaruncti. In front they bore the suntur-paucar and certain great figures of the size of sheep, two of gold and two of silver, with cloths placed over the loins in the fashion of horse cloths. They were carried on litters, and this was done in memory of the sheep which, they say, came forth from the tambo with them. The Indians who carried them were principal lords, dressed in very rich clothes, and they call the figures of gold and silver sheep corinapa collque- napa? The Ynca remained at Mantucalla until the end of the month, and when that time arrived he went to the square in front of the church of Cuzco, called uacay-pata, the path by which he came being strewn with plumes of bird's feathers of all colours. There he drank during the remainder of the day, and at night he went to his house. Thus this month was ended. June. The month of June was called Canay, and by another name Chahuarhuay. The people were entirely occupied in irrigating their fields, and in arranging the distribution of water from the channels. July. They called the month of July Moronpassa tarpuiquilla,^ and in it they celebrated the festivals called yahuayra, when they besought the Creator to grant them a full harvest in that year, for this was the month for sowing the seeds. The following ceremonies were then performed. The Tarpuntaes, who are a sort of priests, were careful « Ccuri, gold ; Collque^ silver ; Napa, salutation, ^ Tarpuy-quUla^ the sowing month. 20 AN ACCOUNT OF THE to fast from tlie time the maize was sown until it was a finger's length out of the ground. Their wives and children also fasted, eating nothing during that time but boiled maize and herbs. They drank no chicha, but only muddy stuff called concho, and they chewed no coca. In this season they carried a little row of maize in their chuspas, which they put in their mouths. All the common people celebrated a feast called yahuarjra, from the name of the song they chaunted in which they besought the Creator to grant them a prosperous year. They sang it dressed in red shirts reaching to the feet, and no mantles. Then they came out to sing and dance in the place now called by the Spaniards Limapampa,* which is beyond the square of San Domingo. Here the Priests of the Creator sacrificed a white sheep, maize, coca, plumes of coloured feathers, and sea shells called mullu, in the morning; beseeching the Creator to grant a prosperous year, and that, as He had made all things out of nothing and given them being, so he would be pleased to comply with their prayer. The Priests of the Sun, called Tarpuntaes, and the Priests of the Thunder also offered up sacrifices, praying the Sun to give warmth that so their food might be produced, and the Thunder, called Chuqui Yllapa, to send its waters to assist in the production, and not to bring down hail. As soon as the sacrifices were completed, the labourers went to their work, and the nobles to the house of the lord Ynca, until the month, which in their language was called quispe/ was ended. August. . , ' The month of August was called Coya-raymi ; and in it they celebrated the Situa. In order to perform the cere- monies of this festival, they brought the figures of their huacas from all parts of the land, from -Quito to Chile, and placed them in the houses they had in Cuzco, for the pur- * Rimac-parapa. — G. de la Vega, ii, p. 239. *- Quespi, crystal. FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 21 pose wliicli we shall presently explain. The reason for celebrating the feast called Situa, in this month, was, because the rains commenced, and with the first rains there was generally much sickness. They besought the Creator that, during the year, he would be pleased to shield them from sickness, as well in Cuzco, as throughout the territory conquered by the Yncas. On the day of the conjunction of the moon, at noon the Ynca, with all the chiefs of his coun- cil, and the other principal lords who were in Cuzco, went to the Ccuricancha, which is the house and temple of the Sun, where they agreed together on the way in which the festival should be celebrated ; for in one year they added, and in another they reduced the number of ceremonies, according to circumstances. All things having been arranged, the High Priest addressed the assembly, and said that the ceremonies of the Sitiia should be performed, that the Creator might drive all the diseases and evils from the land. A great number of armed men, accoutred for war, with their lances, then came to the square in front of the temple. The figures called (//iitgwiZZa^ and UiracochaJ were brought to the temple of the Sun from their own special temples in Paca-marca and Quihuar-cancha, which are now the houses of Dona Ysabel de Bobadilla. The priests of these huacas joined the assembly, and, with the concurrence of all present, the priest of the Sun proclaimed the feast. First, all strangers, all whose ears were broken, and all deformed persons were sent out of the city, it being said that they should take no part in the qeremony, because they were in that state as a punishment for some fault. Unfortunate people ought not" to be present, it was believed, because their ill-luck might drive away some piece of good fortune. They also drove 01^ the dogs, that they might not howl. Then the people, who were armed as if for war, went to the square of Cuzco, « Thunder. ' The Creator. 22 AN ACCOUNT OF THE crying" out : " sicknesses, disasters, misfortunes, and dangers, go forth from the land." In the middle of the square, where stood the urn of gold which was like a fountain, that was used at the sacrifice of chiclia, four hundred men of war assembled. One hundred faced towards Colla-suyu, which is the direction of the Sun-rising. One hundred faced to the westward, which is the direction of Chinchasuyu. Another hundred looked towards Antisuyu, which is the north, and the last hundred turned towards the south. They had with them all the arms that are used in their wars. As soon as those who came from the temple of the Sun arrived in the square, they cried out and said : " Go forth all evils. ^' Then all the four parties went forth to their appointed places. Those for Collasuyu set out with great speed, and ran to Angostura de Acoya-puncu, which is two short leagues from Cuzco, crying out as they ran " Go forth all evils." The people of Huvin-Cuzco car- ried these cries, and there they delivered them over to the mitimaes of Huayparya, who in their turn passed them to the mitimaes of Antahuaylla, and thus they were passed to the mitimaes of Huaray-pacha, who continued them as far as the river at Quiquisana, where they bathed themselves and their arms. Thus was the shouting ended in that direction. The Indians who passed the shouting along the Colla-suyu road from Cuzco, were of the lineage of Usca Mayta Ayllu,^ Yapomayu Ayllu, Yahuaymin Ayllu Sutic, and Marasaylla . Cuynissa Ayllu. Those who went out to the west, which is towards Chin- chasuyu, shouting in the same manner, were of the lineage of Ccapac Ayllu,^ and Hatun Ayllu, Vicaquirau^ and Chamin- Cuzco Ayllu, and Yaraycu Ayllu. These went shouting as far as Satpina, which will be a little more than a league 8 Descendants of Ynca Mayta Ccapac. ® Descendants of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui. ' Vicaquirau. Descendants of Ynca llocca. FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 23 from Cuzco. There they passed the cries on to the miti- maes of Jaquijahuana/ and these delivered them to the mitimaes of Tilca, which is above Marca-huasi, about ten leagues from Cuzco, who carried them on to the river Apu- rimac, where they bathed and washed their clothes and arms. Those who carried the cries in the direction of Anti-suyu were of the following lineages, TJsca-panaca Ayllu, Aucaylli Ayllu, Tarpuntay Ayllu, and Saiiu Ayllu. They ran as far as Chita, which is a league and a half from Cuzco, and handed them to the mitimaes of Pisac, who are those of the Coya and PauUu/ and these carried them forward to the river at Pisac, and there bathed and washed their arms. Those who went towards Cunti-suyu were of the following lineages. Yaura-panaca* Ayllu, and China-panaca Ayllu, and Masca-panaca Ayllu, and Quesco Ayllu. They ran as far as Churicalla, which is two leagues from Cuzco, and there they delivered them to the mitimaes of Yaui^isquis, which will be about three leagues from Cuzco. These passed them on to those of Tautar, which is four leagues from Cuzco, who carried them on to the river of Cusipampa, where the Friars of La Merced have a vineyard. This is seven leagues from Cuzco, and there they bathed and washed their arms.^ Such was the ceremony for driving the sicknesses out of Cuzco. Their reason for bathing in these rivers was because they were rivers of great volume, and were supposed to empty themselves into the sea, and to carry the evils with them. When the ceremony commenced in Cuzco, all the people, great and small, came to their doors, crying out. * Sacsaliuana or Xaquixaquana. 3 Ccoya, the Princess, and PauUu, a son of the Ynca Huayna Ccapac. They were the lords of the Pisac vassals when Molina was writing. * Panaca is a term for lineage. — See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 631. Per- haps from Pana, sister of a brother. * See the account of the ceremonies in G. de la Vega, ii. 24 AN ACCOUNT OF THE shaking their mantles and lUcllas, and shouting, '^ Let the evils be gone. How greatly desired has this festival been by us. O Creator of all things_, permit us to reach another year, that we may see another feast like this.^' They all danced, including the Ynca, and in the morning twilight they went to the rivers and fountains to bathe, saying that their maladies would come out of them. Having finished bathing, they took great torches of straw, bound round with cords, which they lighted and continued to play with them, passing them from one to the other. They called these torches of straw pancurcu. At the end of their feast they returned to their houses, and by that time a pudding of coarsely ground maize had been prepared, called sancu and elba. This they applied to their faces, to the lintels of their doors, and to the places where they kept their food and clothes. Then they took the sancu to the fountains, and threw it in, saying, " May we be free from sickness, and may no maladies enter this house." They also sent this sancu to their relations and friends for the same purpose, and they put it on the bodies of their dead that they also might enjoy the benefits of the feast. Afterwards the women ate and drank their food with much enjoyment; and on this day each person, how poor soever he might be, was to eat and drink, for they said that on this day they should enjoy themselves, if they had to pass all the rest of the year in labour and sorrow. On this day no man scolded his neighbour, nor did any word pass in anger, nor did any- one claim what was owing to him from another. They said that there would be trouble and strife throughout the year, if any was commenced on the day of the festival. In the night, the statues of the Sun, of the Creator, and of the Thunder, were brought out, and the priests of each of these statues warmed it with the before mentioned sancu. In the morning they brought the best food they could pre- pare to present at the temples of the Creator, of the Sun, FABLES AND EITES OF THE TNCAS. 25 and of the Thunder; which the priests of those huacas received and consumed. They also brought out the bodies of the dead lords and ladies which were embalmed, each one being brought out by the person of the same lineage who had charge of it. During the night these bodies were washed in the baths which belonged to them when they were alive. They were then brought back to their houses, and warmed with the same coarse pudding called gancu ; and the food they had been most fond of when they were alive was placed before them, and afterwards the persons who were in charge of the bodies consumed the food. The persons who had charge of the huaca called Guana- caucique,^ which is a great figure of a man, washed it and warmed it with the sancu; and the principal Ynca lord and his wife, after they had finished their bath, put the same sancu in their house, and on their hands. Afterwards, they placed certain plumes on their heads, of a bird caWed pialco, which are of a changing colour. The same was done with, the figure of the Creator, and those who had charge of it called this ceremony Pilcoyacu. At about eight or nine in the morning the principal lord Ynca, with his wife, and the lords of the council who were in his house, came forth into the great square of Cuzco, richly dressed. They also broiaght out the image of the Sun called Apwpunchau^ which was the principal image among those in the temple. They were accompanied by all the priests of the Sun, who brought the two figures of gold, and their women called Ynca-Ocllo and Palla-Ocllo. There also came forth the woman called Coya-facssa, who was dedicated to the Sun. She was either the sister or the daughter of the ruler. The priests carried the image of the Sun, and placed it on a bench prepared for it in the square. The priests of the Creator likewise brought forth his image, and deposited it in its place. So also did the priests of the Thunder, called ® Huanacauri. ' Apu-ppunchau. The lord of day. 26 AN ACCOUNT OF THE Chuqui-ylla, bring forth his image. Each had its bench of goldj and before them were borne yauris, which were made like sceptres of gold. The priests of these huacas came in very rich dresses, to celebrate this feast. Those who had charge of the huaca called Huanacauri, also brought its figure into the square. They say that a woman was never assigned to the huaca of the Creator. It was believed that the Creator did not need women, because, as he created them, they all belonged to him. In all their sacrifices, the first was ofiFei-ed to the Creator. At this feast they brought out all the embalmed bodies of their lords and ladies, very richly adorned. The bodies were carried by the descendants of the respective lineages, and were deposited in the square on seats of gold, according to the order in which they lived. All the people of Cuzco came out, according to their tribes and lineages, as richly dressed as their means would allow ; and, having made reverences to the Creator, the Sun, and the lord Ynca, they sat down on their benches, each man according to the rank he held, the Hanan-Cuzcos being on one side, and the Hurin-Cuzcos^ on the other. They passed the day in eating and drinking, and enjoying themselves ; and they performed the tauqi called alariQitua saqui, in red shirts down to their feet, and garlands called pilco-casa on their heads; accompanied with large or small tubes of canes, which made a kind of music called tica-tica. They gave thanks to the Creator for having spared them to see that day, and prayed that they might pass another year without sickness ; and they did the same to the Sun and to the Thunder. The Ynca came with them, having the Sun before him. He had a great vase of gold containing chicha. It was received by the priest, who emptied it into the urn, which, as has been said, is like a stone fountain plated with gold. This urn had a hole made in such a way, that the chicha could enter a pipe or sewer passing under the ground * Upper and Lower Cuzco, FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 27 to the houses of the Sun/ the Thunder, and the Creator. The priests came in procession, and the families of Hurin and Hanan Cuzco, each with the embalmed bodies of their ancestors. They passed that day in the manner already described, and in the evening they took back the Sun and the other huacas to their temples, and the embalmed bodies to their houses. The Yncas, and the rest of the people also returned to their homes. The next day they all came to the great square in the same order, placing the huacas on their benches as before. The Ynca and the people brought with them a very great quantity of flocks from all the four quarters of Colla-suyu, chinchay-suyu, Antis-suyu, and Cunti-suyu. The number of animals was so great, according to those who made this de- claration, that they amounted to more than one hundred thou- sand, and it was necessary that all should be without spot or blemish, and with fleeces that had never been shorn. Pre- sently the priest of the Sun selected four of the most perfect, and sacrificed them in the following order : one was offered to the Creator, another to the Thunder, another to the Sun, and another to Huanacauri. When this sacrifice was off'ered up, the priest had the sancu on great plates of gold, and he sprinkled it with the blood of the sheep. The white fleece- bearing sheep were called euijllu; and the plates containino* sanco were in front of the bench of the Sun. The high priest then said in alc^d voice so that all might hear: ''Take heed how you eat this sancu ; for he who eats it in sin, and with a double will and heart, is seen by our father, the Sun, who will punish him with grievous troubles. But he who with a single heart partakes of it, to him the Sun and the Thun- der will show favour, and will grant children and happy years, and abundance, and all that he requires.'' Then they all rose up to partake, first making a solemn vow before eating the yahuar-sancu,^ in which they promised never to ^ See also G. de la Vega. ^ Yahuar, blood ; Sancu, pudding. 28 AN ACCOUNT OF THE murmur against the Creator, the Sun, or the Thunder; never to be traitors to their lord the Ynca, on pain of receiving condemnation and trouble. The priest of the Sun then took what he could hold on three fingers, put it into his mouth, and returned to his seat. In this order, and in this manner of taking the oath, all the tribes rose up, and thus all partook down to the little children. They all kept some of the yahuar-sancu for those who were absent, and sent some to those who were confined to their beds by sickness ; for they believed it to be very unlucky for any one not to par- take of the yahuar-sancu on that day. They took it with such care that no particle was allowed to fall to the ground, this being looked upon as a great sin. When they killed the sacrificial sheep, they took out the lungs and inflated them, and the priests judged, from certain signs on them, whether all things would turn out prosperously in the coming year or not. Afterwards, they burnt them before the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder. The bodies of the sheep were divided and distributed, as very sacred things, a very small piece to each person. The rest was given to the people of Cuzco to eat, and each man, as he entered the square, pulled off a piece of the wool, with which he sacrificed to the Sun. When they distributed the sheep, the priests ofiered up the following prayers. Prayer to the Creator. Aticsi-Uiracochau[caylla] cay- Creator! [0 conquering lla-Uiracochan tocapo ac niipo Uirachocha ! Ever present Ui- viracochan camachurac carica- racocha !] Thou who art with- chun huarmicachun uis pallurac out equal unto the ends of rurac camas cayqui churascai- the earth ! Thou who givest qui casilla quespilla canca mu- life and strength to mankind, sac maipimcanqui ahuapichu saying, let this be a man and ucupichu pusupichu llantupichu let this be a woman : And as huyarihuay hayniquay yuihuay thou sayest, so thou givest life, jTnaypachacama haycaypacha- and vouchsafest that men shall FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 29 cama canca chihuay marcari- huay hatallihuay cajcustayri chasquihuay may piscapapas Uiracochaya. live in health aud peace, and free from danger : — Thou who dwellest in the heights of heaven, in the thunder, and in the storm clouds, hear us ! and grant us eternal life. Have us in thy keeping, and receive this our offering, as it shall please thee, Creator ! Another Prayer for Fruitful Flocks. Uiracochan apacochan titu-Ui- Creator ! w ho doest won- racochan hualpai huana-Uiraco- ders and marvels. most chan topapo acnupo Uiracochan merciful and almighty Creator ! runayachachachuchun hucerma- multiply our flocks and cause yachachachun mirachun llacta- them to bring forth young, let pachacasilla quispillacachun ca- the land continue in peace and mas-cayqui taquacaycha yata- free from danger, and these lliymay Pachacama haycay Pa- whom thou hast made, hold chacama. them in thy hand. To the Coy [caylla] Uiracochan ticgi Uiracochan hapacochan hualpai huanaUiracochan chanca-Uiraco- chan acsa-Uiracochan atun-Uira- cochan caylla-Uiracochan tacan- cuna himichic llaularuna y acha- cuc ccapac hahuay pihucupi Puris papas. Huacas. Creator, thou who art co- eval with the world ! Chanca- Uiracocha ! Atun-Uiracocha ! grant our prayer, that thou wilt, with the Creator, give health and prosperity to the people. Chanca-Uiracocha was a huaca in Chuqui-chaca, where was Manco Ynca. Atun-Uiracocha is in the huaca of Urcos ; where there was an eagle and a falcon carved in stone at the entrance of the huaca. and an image of a man with a white robe reaching to his feet, and coming down to his waist. Apotin-Uiracocha is in Amaybamba, beyond Tampu. Urusayna-Uiracocha is in the same place. Chuqui-chanca- Uiracocha is in Huaypau. 30 AN ACCOUNT OF THE Another Uiracochan cusiussapochay lipo-Uiracochaya runacay am ay- cay miruna yana huaccha quis- aruua yquicauras cayquichuras cayquicasiquis-pilla camachun huarmay huanchurin huanchin canta amaquaquinta huarya yaichichuruay huasa causachun mana alleas pamana pitispa mucumuchun, Upia muchun. Another Uiracochay [aticja ticQi-Ui- racochaya hualparillac camac- churac cay hurin pacha pimicu- chun upiachun fiispachurascay quictacamascay quita micuynin yachachun papacara ymaymana micuncancachun nis-cayqui ta- camachic michachic mana mu- chuncunpac mana muchuspa- cau ySincampac araaca^achun- chu amachupichupichichunchu casilla huacaychamuy. Prayer to Uiracocha yapunchau cachun- tutacachiin nispac nicpacai'ichun yllarichun Sispac nicpunchao- churi yquicta casillacta quis- pillacta purichic runarunascay quicta cauchay uncancampac Uiracochaya casilla quispilla punchau yncarunayanani uhis- cayquita quillari canchari ama- huncochispa amananu chispa cacicta quispicha huacus-chaspa. Prayer. most fortunate and propi- tious Creator, have pity and mercy upon all men whom thon hast made. Keep thy poor ser- vants in health. Make them and their children to walk in a * straight road, without thinking any evil. Grant that they may have a long life, and not die in their youth, and that they may live and feed in peace. Prayer. Creator ! Lord of the ends of the earth ! most merciful ! Thou who givest life to all things, and hast made men that they may live, and eat, and mul- tiply. Multiply also the fruits of the earth, the papas and other food that thou hast made, that men may not suffer from hunger and misery. preserve the fruits of the earth from frost, and keep us in peace and safety. the Sun. Creator ! Thou who gavest being to the Sun, and after- wards said let there be day and night. Raise it and cause it to shine, and preserve that which thou hast created, that it may give light to men. Grant this, Creator ! Sun ! Thou who art in peace and safety, shine upon us, keep us from sickness, and keep us in health and safety. FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 31 Prayer for the Ynca. A - Uiracochan tic^i - Uiraco- O pious Creator, who ordered chan hualpa y huaua - Uiraco- and saw fit that there should be chan atun-Uiracochan Tarapaca- a Lord Ynca, grant to the Ynca Uiracochan capaccachun Ynca- that he may be kept in peace, cachun nispachucapac churas- with his servants and vassals, pac quicta Ynca catnascayquita that he may obtain the victory casillacta quispullacta Huacay- over his enemies and always be chamuy runan yananya cha- a conqueror. Cut not short his chuchun accari punari usachun days, nor the days of his child- ymaypacha cama ama allca- ren, and give them peace, chispa churinta mitanta quanpas Creator ! huacay chay chayca^illacta uira- cu-chaya. Another Prayer. Uiracochaya qualpay huana- Creator ! Vouchsafe that Uiracochaya ninacta casi quis- the subjects of the Ynca may pillacta capac Ynca-churi yqui- have peace while thy son the guarmayqui pacamascayqui hua- Ynca lives, to whom thou hast cay chamuchun hatallimuchun said : Be thou Lord ! Grant pachachacara ruua llama micuy that they may multiply. Keep paycaptin yacachun ccapac Ynca them in peace, let their days be camascayquita Uiracochaya ayni prosperous, let their farms yield huui marcari hatalli ymaypacha- increase ; and keep this Lord caina. Ynca in thy hand for ever, Creator ! Another Prayer. Pachacama casillacta quispil- O Creator of the world, keep lacta Ccapac Ynca huahuay quic- thy child the Ynca in peace and ta marcari atalli. security upon it. Prayer for all the Yncas. Apunchau Ynca Yutiryayay Sun ! Thou who hast said, Cuzco tampu cachun aticoclla let there be Cuzcos and Tampus, saccoccachun nispa churac camac grant that these thy children muchas-cay quicusiquispu ca- may conquer all other people. chun amatisca amalla sasca We beseech thee that thy child- 32 AN ACCOUNT OV THE cachunchu aticuc paella sacapac ren the Yncas may be con- camascayqui churascayqui. querors always, for this hast thou created them. Prayer for all the Huacas. pachachulla Uiracochan sacred Huacas, ancestors, ucuhulla Uiracochan huaca-vil- graudsires, and parents ! O cacachun nispacaraacatu napa- Hatun-apu ! Hualpa-huana- huay pihuana tayna allastu Uira- tayua ! Apu Allastu ! bring cochaya hurinpacha auacpacha us near to the Creator, us thy cachun nispa nicocupa chapipuca sons, and our children, that they umacta churachay nihuay huni- may be fortunate and near the buay quispicasica musac Uiraco- Creator, as thou art. chaya micuy niocmin cacyoc curayoc llamayoc ymayna yo- chaycaymayoc amacacharihuay cuchuy maymana aycay mana chiquimanta catuimau manta nacasca hustusca amusca manta. When they had distributed the flocksj the sheep were killed in great numbers, to be eaten on that day. Then a vast quantity of chicha was brought into the square, from the store houses where it was kept. It was made of boiled white maize, in the valley of Cuzco. The flocks that were used at this festival, were the property of the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder, from their estates set apart in all the provinces of Peru. Having finished eating with much rejoicing, they performed their taquis, and drank in the same order as on the day before. This continued for four days. The first day of the festival was called Gitua, and it was then that they ate the saricu called yahuar-sancu. The second day was dedicated to the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder, when they performed sacrifices, and a prayer was offered up for the Ynca. The fourth day was for the Moon and the Earth, when the accustomed sacrifices and prayers were offered up. On a subsequent day people of all the FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 33 nations^ that had been subdued by the Yncas, came with their huacas and in the , richest costumes, peculiar to their respective countries^ that they could procure. The priests, who had charge of the huacas, carried them on litters. When they entered the square, coming from the direction of the four Suyus already mentioned, they made reverences to the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder, and to the Hua- nacauri, a huaca of the Yncas, and then they did the same to the Ynca, who was in "the square on that occasion. Having made these obeisances, they proceeded to the places assigned to them, and, in order to make more room, the,' families of Hanan-Cuzco and Hurin-Cuzco formed them- selves into one, and thus left more space in the square. As soon as all the people were in their places, the High Priest of the Sun sprinkled a large quantity of sancu with blood, and the Caciques rose up in their order, and repeated the following : — Prayer to the Creator. Atic^i Uiracochan caylla Uira- Creator ! 1 [0 conquering cochan tocapu acnupu Uiraco- Viracocha! Ever present (cayZ^a) chan camac churac carica chuyu- Viracocha !] Thou who art in armicachun nispallutac rurac the ends of the earth without camascay quichuras cayquica- equal ! Thou who gavest life silla quispilla causamus ay may- and valour to men, saying, Let pincanqui ahuapichu ucupichu this be a man ! and to women, llantupichu uyarihua ayrihuay saying, Let this be a woman ! ynihuay ymay pachacamac can- Thou who madest them and 9achihuay marcallihuay attoUi- gave them being ! Watch over huay caycoscay tarichasquihuay them that they may live in may picaspapaa Uiracochaya. health and peace. Thou who art in the high heavens, and among the clouds of the tempest, grant this with long life, and accept this sacrifice, Creator ! Then the Priest of the Sun distributed the sancu, and afterwards the people ate the flesh of the sheep which had been sacrificed to the Creator, thq Sun, and the Thunder. 34 AN ACCOUNT OP THE Each nation passed the rest of the day in performing the taqui and in singing and dancing, according to the custom of their respective countries before they were subdued by the Yncas. On this day all the deformed persons, who had previously been expelled from Cuzco, were allowed to join the feast. This part of the feast lasted for two days, and at its conclusion, in the evening, they burnt in sacrifice a sheep, and a vast quantity of clothes of many colours. Then those who had to return to their homes, sought permission from the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Ynca, which was granted, and they left at Cuzco the Imacas they had brought there in that year. They returned to their homes with the huacas they had brought for the festival of the previous year, and, as a recompense for their trouble in having come from such great distances, their chiefs were given gold and silver and clothes and servants, and permis- sion to travel in litters. Their huacas were also granted estates and attendants to wait on them, and so they returned to their homes. The inventor of this feast was Ynca Yupanqui, at least he established the above ceremonies, for though it was celebrated from the time that there ever were Yncas, it was not performed in the order described above. The rest of the month was passed as each man found it convenient, or as suited him best. The same feast, called Situa, was celebrated at the chief places in all the provinces, by the Ynca governors, wherever they might be : and, although the ceremonies were less grand, and the sacrifices fewer, no part of the festival was omitted. September. They call the month of September Tfma-Raymi, because the Indians of Uma, which is two leagues from Cuzco, cele- brated the feast of Hurachillo} This was the occasion 2 Huarachicu. FABLES AND EITES OF THE YNCAS. 35 when the youths were admitted to knighthood, and when their ears were pierced, as we shall mention in its place. The women of Cuzco, whose sons were to have their ears bored, and to perform the huarachicu, employed their time in sewing the cloths in which their sons were to be dressed on the day of the feast of the huarachicu. Several relations assembled to help them to sew, and to rejoice and drink for some days in their houses : and so the month ended. October. They called the month of October Aija Marca Raymi, because the Indians of the village of Ayamarca performed the feasts of huarachicu, and the youths of that tribe had their ears bored, and were admitted to knighthood, with the ceremonies we shall presently describe. In Cuzco, the people were employed in preparing a great quantity of chicha, for the feast called Ccapac Bmjmi. This way of making chicha was called cantoray. The youths who were about to receive their arms, went to the huaca called Huanacauri, to offer sacrifice, and to ask permission to receive knighthood. For this was their principal huaca, the brother, as was said, of Manco Ccapac, whence they descend. But, to avoid prolixity, I will not here give the tradition respecting this huaca, referring for an account of it, to the history of the Yncas which I have written. The youths who were to be armed as knights, passed that night on the hill of Huanacauri, where the huaca was kept, in memory of the journey which their ancestors commenced from that spot. On the next day they returned in the afternoon, bringing with them loads of straw, on which their parents and relations might sit. On this day the youths fasted ; and the month was passed in preparing many kinds of chicha for the festival. At this time, and indeed through- out the year, the priests of the Creator, of the Sun, and of Thunder, and those who had charge of the huaca of 36 AN ACCOUNT OF THE ITuanacauri, made three daily sacrifices; oflfering up three sheep, one in the morning-, one at noon, and a third at nioht, with other food that was dedicated to these deities. The liuacas were supposed to consume it where they were; but they carried the food to the hills in the feast of Yntic- raymi. The persons also, who had charge of the embalmed bodies, never came forth to ofier up the food, and pour out the chicha that was dedicated to them, such as they used when they were alive. These they consumed, because they held for very truth, the doctrine of the immortality of the soul, and they said that wherever the soul might be, it would receive the food and eat as when ahve. Thus ended this month. November. The month of November was called Ccapac Raymi, which means the Feast of the Lord'Ynca. It was one of the three principal feasts of the year. In this month they gave arms to the youths, pierced their ears, and gave them breeches, which in their language are called huara. For the said feast, and for the arming of the knights, during the eight first days of the month, all the parents and relations of those who were to receive knighthood were engaged in the preparation of the usutas, which were their shoes made of very fine reeds, almost of the colour of gold ; and of the huaracas from the sinews of sheep ; and in broidering the trimmings of the shirts in which they were to appear, when they went to the huaca called Huanacauri Chumpicasico. The shirts were made of fine yellow wool, with the borders of fine black wool like silk, a little more than a palmo and a half in width. They also wore mantles called swpayacolla, which were of white wool, long and narrow, not being more than two palmos in width, but reaching to the knees. They were fastened round the neck by a knot, whence hung a woollen cord, at the end of which there was a red tassel. The llauhiSf that were put on them on that day, were black. FABLES AND EITES OP THE YNCAS. 37 On the ninth day they all proceeded to the square in the morning, as well the parents of those who were to receive knighthood, as the relations. The parents and relations were attired in certain dresses called collca-uncu. There was a special dress for each festival. On this occasian the mantles were yellow, and the plumes on their heads were black, being taken from a bird called guito. Hence the plumes were called quito-tica. Those who were to be armed as knights were shorn, and after the shearing they were clothed in the dress already described. Many maidens, who were selected to give their services at this feast, then came to the square, dressed in a costume called Cuzco asu ycocJiilli- quilla. Their ages were from eleven to twelve or fourteen years, and they were of the best families. They were called Nusta-calli-sapa.^ Their duty was to carry small vases of chicha, as we shall relate further on. Being all clothed in these costumes, they proceeded to the house of the Sun and of the Thunder, and brought the images to the square. Then the Ynca came forth, and took his place near the statue of the Sun. The youths, who were to receive knighthood, rose up in their order, and made their mucha,^ which was their manner of worshipping the huacas. They also brought out the figure of a woman, which W9.S the huaca of the moon, and was called Passat-mama. It was in charge of women ; and when it was brought from the house of the Sun, where it had a special place on the site of the mirador of Santo Domingo, they carried it on their shoulders. The reason for giving it in charge to women was that they said ■ it was a woman, and the figure resembled one. After making their reverence, the youths waited until the hour of noon, when they again made reverences to the ' Nusta, princess ; Calli, valorous ; Sapa, alone, luinvalled. * Muchani, the verb to adore, to kiss. » Pacsa is the word for the moon, in the Collao dialects. In the Ynca language it is Quilla. 38 AN ACCOUNT OF THE huacas ; and sought permission from the Ynca to make their sacrifices, which were offered up in the following way. Each of the youths who were about to be armed had a sheep prepared for sacrifice. They all went, with their relations, to the hill called Huanacauri. That night they slept at the foot of the hill, at a place called Matahua, and at sunrise of the tenth day, all fasting, for they had fasted on the previous day, they ascended the hill until they came to the huaca Huanacauri. They left the sheep for sacrifice at the foot of the hill in Matahua, the Tarpuntays pulling out a small handful of wool from each. These Tarpuntays are the priests who make the sacrifices. When they reached the top of the hill, the Tarpuntays took five lambs and sacrificed them before the huaca. They then divided the wool they held in their hands among the youths who were about to be made knights, and the chiefs who came with them. The youths and chiefs then blew the wool into the air, while the sacrifices were being consumed, with these words '' O Huanacauri ! our father, may the Creator, the Sun, and the Thunder ever remain young, and never become old. May thy son the Ynca always retain his youth, and grant that he may prosper in all he undertakes. And to us, thy sons and descendants who now celebrate this festival, grant that we may ever be in the hands- of the Creator, of the Sun, of the Thunder, and in thy hands.^^ After the sacrifices, at the ninth hour of the day, they put huaracas,^ and bags called chuspas into the hands of the youths, and on presenting them with the huaracas, they said : *' Now that our father Huanacauri has given the huaracas as a sign of valour, live henceforth as brave men." The High Priest of the huaca used these words when the huaracas were given to the youths. They were made of aloe fibre and the sinews of sheep, the aloe fibre being like flax. It was said that their ancestors, when they came forth from Paccari-tampu, ^ Slings. FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 39 wore them. They then walked on, until they came to a ravine called Quiras-manta, where they were met by the uncles and parents, and by the chiefs, who whipped them on the arms and legs, saying, " Be brave as I have been, and receive these gifts that you may imitate me." Then they chaunted a song called Huarij the armed knights standing up with the handfuls of straw in their hands, and all the rest of the people being seated. As soon as the taqui was ended, they rose up and went to Cuzco, whence a shepherd came, who was one of those in charge of the flock called Raymi- napa, which was dedicated for this feast. They brought a sheep called napa, which was covered with a red cloth having ear holes of gold. Those who came with it, blew upon sea shells bored through, called haijllayquipac. An Indian also brought the su7ihir-paucar, which is one of the insignia of the Lord. When they arrived at the plaza where the people were assembled, they performed a dance, and then led the sheep and the suntur-paucar in front of them. The people returned to Cuzco, marching according to their families and tribes, those who had received knighthood carrying the huaracas on their heads, and the bundles of straw in their hands. When they reached the square they worshipped the huacas. The fathers, uncles, and relations then whipped them on the arms and legs, and afterwards all the people made the music (taqui) called huari, and the youths gave drinks to the fathers, uncles, and relations who had flogged them. By that time it was nearly night, and they went to their houses and ate the sacrificial sheep. The Priests took the huacas back to their temples. In the subsequent days the people remained in their houses, and the youths, who had received knighthood rested from their labours. Bat on the 14th day of the month they all came forth into the square of Cuzco, called Huacay-pata. Each came with his father and relations; and it must be known that all the youths who received arms 40 AN ACCOUNT OF THE were obliged to be descendants and relations of the Lord Yncas by direct line, for no others were admitted. In the same month the Ynca G overnors of Provinces who had sons of the proper age_, performed the ceremonies in the pro- vinces, boring the ears of the boys, and arming them as knights. On the 14th day they brought into the square the huacas of the Creator, of the Sun, of the Moon, and of the Thunder, which were placed together near the Ynca, the Priests being stationed near their huacas. Dresses were given to the youths who had been armed as knights, called umisca-uncu, which were shirts striped red and white, and a white mantle with a blue cord and red tassel. All the people of the land had to make these dresses, as a tribute ; and the relations provided the usutas, made of a straw which was highly prized among them, called ychu. The Priest of the Sun, whose duty it was to give these dresses in the name of the Sun, caused all the maidens to be brought before him, and to each he gave a dress, which was red and white, and called uncallu ; the llicll a being the same; together with a cloth in the shape of a bag, with both ends open, of the same colour. Then they put staves into the hands of the youths, to the upper part of which a knife was attached, which they called yauri. Then the breeches were given, called huaraca, made of sinews and red cloth, with a little chahuarJ After receiving the clothes they went, in their order, to worship the images of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder, and they bowed reverently to the Ynca. Before this the uncles and relations had flogged them on the arms and legs, exhorting them to be valiant, and ever to pay attention to the worship of the Huacas and the Ynca. At the end of these ceremonies they went out of the square, in the order of their tribes, each one with those of his family ; ' Aloe fibre. FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCA8. 41 and went to sleep in a desert called HauranUj which is about a league from Cuzco. Each of those who had been armed as knights brought a tent in which to sleepj for himself and his relations. There went with them all the maidens who had received the dresses which the Sun had given. They were called Nusta- callisapa. They brought with them small jars of chicha, to give drink to the relations of the knights, and to offer as sacrifice, as well as to give drink to the youths who were armed as knights. On this day they brought with them the sheep called tupa-huanacu or raymi-napa ;^ with a red shirt placed over it, having golden ears, as before described. They also carried the suntur-paucar or insignia of royalty. When the people had all departed from the square, they carried each huaca back to its temple, and the Ynca returned to his palace. Next day they rose up and went to a ravine in a mountain called Quilli-y acolca ; which is not more than half a league from the place where they slept. Here they had breakfast, and after their meal they fastened a little white wool to the ends of their staves, and to the handles of the said topa-yauri they secured some ychu. Then they continued to advance until they came to a hill called Ana- huarqui, which is two leagues from Cuzco, to the huaca of the same name on the top of the hill, which was the huaca of the Indians of the villages of Choco and Cachona. The reason why they went to this huaca to perform a sacrifice was that, on this day, they had to run a race, to try which was the best runner. The tradition had been handed down, from the time of the deluge, that this huaca ran like a lion. On coming before the huaca, the youths offered a little wool which they held in their hands. The priests of the Sun (not the High Priest) and those of the other huacas, called Tar- puntays, then sacrificed five lambs, burning them in the name of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder. 8 Raymi-napa. 42 AN ACCOUNT OF THE Then the relations once more flogged the youths who were now knightedj urging them to set great store by the valour and endurance of their persons. After this the people sat down and performed the taqui called haurita^ with the huayllaquipas and shells; the knights remaining on their feet, holding in their hands the staves called yauri. Some were headed with gold_, others with copper, each according to the means of the owner. At the end of the taqui all the maidens called Nusta calli-sapa rose up, and each ran as fast as she could to the place where they had slept ; and there waited for those who had been armed as knights, with the chicha to give them to drink. The girls cried out, and said : — " Come quickly, youths, for here we are waiting for you." Then the youthful knights stood in a row before the huaca of Anahuarqui, and behind them there was a second row of men, who served as arm bearers. These carried the yauris and sticks in their hands ; and in their rear was yet a third row, whose duty it was to aid those who fell. In front of all these was an Indian, very gaily dressed, who gave the word. On hearing it they all began to run at full speed and with all their force. Those who fell or fainted, were assisted by the men in the rear, but some died of the falls. Those who reached the goal received drink from the maidens, and they drank as they ran. The object of this race was to prove who was the best of those who had re- ceived knighthood. On each occasion they armed eight hundred knights and upwards. When they were all assembled on the hill called IiauTana,i\iej again performed the taqui called huari; after which they took the huaracas and the yauris, and again be- gan to flog the knights upon the arms and legs. By this time it was the hour of vespers, and they all rose up in their order, to return to Cuzco, bearing in front the suntur-pancar and the sheep called raymi-napa. They marched to the " Huari. FABLES AND RITES OP THE TNCAS. 43 square called Huaccty-pata in Cuzco, where were the statues of the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Moon ; and where the Ynca was seated near the statue of the Sun, with his courtiers. As they entered they performed mucha to the huacas and the Ynca. The tribes of Hanan Cuzco and Hurin Cuzco then sat down in the places assigned to them, while the youths remained standing for a short time. They again performed the taqui called huari, and once more flogged the youths. Afterwards the Ynca and his court went to his house, and the youths, with their fathers and relations, went to the hill called Baurana. They passed the night at the foot of the hill, in a place called Huamarv- cancha} At dawn they arose and ascended the hill Raurana, which is half a league from Cuzco. The Lord Ynca came here on this day, to grant favours to those who had been armed as knights, giving them ear-pieces of gold, red mantles, with blue tassels, and other marks of distinction. The huaca of Raurana consisted of two falcons in stone, placed upon an altar on the summit of the hill. It was in- stituted by Pachacutec Ynca Yupanqui, as the place where they should receive the breeches which they call huara. This huaca was at first the idol of the Indians of Maras, and Huascar Ynca caused the falcons to be brought here, to beautify it. The sacrifice that was performed on this occasion was to burn five lambs, and to pour out chicha, beseeching the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder, that the youths who had been armed, might be- come valiant and enterprising warriors, that all they put their hands to might prosper, and that they might never suffer defeat. The sacrifice was performed by the Priest of the huaca Raurana ; who also besought the huaca that the youths might be fortunate. As soon as the sacrifices were consumed, the Huaca-camayoc, who was the Priest, gave to each of the youths a pair of breeches called huarayarus, and ' Huaman, a falcon ; Cancha, place. 44 AN ACCOUNT OP THE a red shirt with a blue bindings which clothes were brought by order of the Ynca, as the tribute paid throughout the land on this occasion. The youths were given ear-pieces of gold, which were then fastened in their ears, and diadems with plumes called pilcocassa, and small pieces of gold and silver to hang round their necks. After those things had been distributed, they had breakfast, and performed the taqui called huari for the space of an hour. Then the fathers and parents again flogged the youths, reminding them of the prayers just ofibred up, urging them to emulate the deeds of their ancestors, and to be valiant warriors, never turning their backs on the foe. With reference to the taqui so often repeated in the cere- mony, they say that, in the time of Manco Ccapac, the first Ynca from whom they are all descended, when he came forth from the Cave of Tampu, it was given to him by the Creator with a command that it should be sung at this festival, and at no other. After the taqui, they drank in their order, and marched back to Cuzco, the suntur-'paucar being borne before them as a banner, and the sheep dressed as on former occasions. Manco Ccapac instituted this feast, and caused these cere- monies to be observed in the case of his son Sinchi Rocca, as we have related in the history of the Yncas.^ On reach- ing the square of Cuzco, they performed the mucha or adoration before the Huacas which the Piiests had brought out, and they also made obeisances to all the embalmed bodies of the dead Lord and Ladies which had been brought into the square by those who had charge of them ; to drink with them as if they had been alive, and that the young knights might beseech them to make their descendants as fortunate and brave as they had been themselves. Then all the people sat down, those of Hanan and Hurin « G. de la Vega says that the lineage of the Ynca Sinchi Rocca was called Ranrana Panaca. FABLES AND KITES OF THE YNCAS. 45 Cuzco in their respective places. The skins of lions, with the heads, had been prepared, with gold ear-pieces in the ears, and golden teeth in place of the real teeth which had been pulled out. In the paws were certain ajorcas of gold, called chipanas. They called these hons hillacunya chuqui' cunya. Those who dressed in the skins, put on the head and neck of the lion so as to cover their own, and the skin of the body of the lion hung from the shoulders. Those who had to take part in the taqui wore red shirts, with red and white fringes, reaching to the feet. They called these shirts puca-caychu-uncu. . The taqui was called coyo. It was first introduced by the Ynca Pachacutec Yupanqui, and was performed with drums, two from Hanan Cuzco, and two from Hurin Cuzco. They performed this taqui twice a day for six days, and during these six days each person offered sacrifices to the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder ; for the Ynca and for those who had been armed as knights. These sacrifices consisted of a quantity of sheep, cloth, gold, silver, and other things. It was offered up that those who were armed as knights might be fortunate in war, and in everything they undertook. On the 21st day of this month all the youths who had been armed as knights, went to bathe in a fountain called CalH-puquio, in a ravine about a quarter of a league to the rear of the fortress of Cuzco. They then took off the clothes in which they had been armed as knights, and dressed them- selves in others called nanaclla, coloured black and yellow, and in the centre a red cross. Thence they returned to the square, where they found all the huacas. They made the usual obeisances. They were placed according to the fami- lies to which they belonged ; and the principal uncle pre- sented each knight with a shield, a sling, and a club with a metal knob at the end, with which to go to the wars. The other relations and chiefs then offered up cloth, sheep, gold, silver, and other things, with a prayer that the youths might 46 AN ACCOUNT OP THE always be rich and fortunate. Each, relation tliat offered sacrifice^ flogged a youth and delivered a discourse to him, exhorting him to be valiant and never to be a traitor to the Sun and the Ynca, but to be diligent in devotion to the huacas, and to imitate the bravery and prowess of his ances- tors. When the principal Lord Ynca was armed as a knight, all the chiefs and great lords, who were present from all parts of the land, made great offerings in addition to those usually supplied. At the end of the sacrifices, the Priests of the Sun and of the Creator brought a great quantity of fuel tied together in handfuls, and dressed in the clothes of a man and a woman. The faggots, thus dressed up, were offered to the Creator, the Sun, and the Ynca, and were burnt in their clothes, together with a sheep. They also burnt certain birds called pilcopichicf and caman- tera-jpicliio ; and this sacrifice was performed for the youths who had been armed as knights ; with a prayer that they might always be fortunate in war. On the 22nd of the month the knights were taken to the houses of their relations, and their ears were pierced, which was the last ceremony in arming the knights. Among these people they thought so much of this boring the ears, that, if the orifice was broken through by any accident, the man to whom it happened was looked upon as unfortu- nate. They stuff pieces of cotton into the orifice of the ear, and each day they put in more in order to enlarge it. On the same day the priests of the Creator and the Sun, of Thunder and the Moon, and the shepherds of the Ynca counted the flocks of the huacas and of the Ynca. Then commenced the feasts that were celebrated for the flocks of the lyaacas, that they might multiply ; for which sacri- fices were made throughout the kingdom. The shepherds whose flocks increased most rapidly were rewarded, and those whose flocks failed to multiply were punished. ^ Pichio for piscu, a bird. FABLES AND KITES OP THE YNCAS. 47 On the 23rd day of the montli they carried the statue of the Sun called Htiayna punchao, to the houses of the Sun called Piiqninque, which are on a high hill, a little more than three arquebus shots from Cuzco. Here they sacrificed to the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Moon, for all nations, that they might prosper and multiply. The statue of the Sun was then brought back, preceded by the suntur-paucar and two sheep, one of gold and the other of silver, called cullque-napa ccuri-napa ; which were the insignia borne before the statue of the Sun, wheresoever it was taken. Thus ended this festival and month called Ccapae-raymi. December. The name they gave to the month of December was Oamay- quilla. On the first day of the month, those who had been armed as knights, as well those of the lineage of Hanan Cuzco as of Hurin Cuzco, came out into the square, with slings in their hands called huaraca, and the youths of Hanan Cuzco hurled against those of Hurin Cuzco ; their missiles were called coco, which are found on certain thistles. At times they came to close quarters, to prove the muscles of their arms ; until the Ynca, who was present, rose up and restored order. They called this chocanaco, and it was a trial of strength, to see who were the strongest and bravest. Afterwards, they all sat down according to their lineages, the new knights being dressed in black shirts, and mantles of a lion colour. They also wore plumes of white feathers on their heads, from a bird called tocto.'^ On this day the new knights began to eat salt and other luxuries, for during the ceremonies they fasted, and were not allowed to touch either salt or aji. The youths ate their first meal after the fast with great relish. For this feast they brought all the huacas into the square, as well as the bodies of the dead Yncas, to drink with them; placing those who had belonged * Toctu is honey. 48 AN ACCOUNT Or THE to the Hanan Cuzco on the side where that lineage was stationed, and the same with those of Hurin Cuzco. Then they brought food and drink to the dead bodies, as if they were alive, saying : " When you were alive you used to eat and drink of this ; may your soul now receive it and feed on it, wheresoever you may he." For they believed and held it for certain that souls did not die, but that those of good men went to rest with the Creator, When they died they declared this belief, and charged their families and relations to perform all that they had left them to do, and that they would see them from heaven. They also believed that there was a place of punishment for bad men, where they were tor- mented by demons called Supay. They said that those who went there, suffered much hunger and thirst, and that their food was charcoal, snakes, toads, and other things of that kind. Those who went to heaven, on the other hand, eat and drank the best that the Creator had, and they also received the food and liquof which their relations offered up. Thus all with great joy passed this day, on which they began to dance and sing. Afterwards, they all went forth to plough their fields, which they called chacra. This lasted for twelve days. On the 15th day of the month, at the full of the moon, all returned from their estates to Cuzco ; and on that night they performed the dance and taqui, called yahuayra, through all the streets and squares of the city, from nightfall until dawn. In the morning the priests brought out the huacas of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, and the Thunder, and the dead bodies, and "placed them in the square. The Ynca also came forth, and took his place near the Sun. The rest of the people had gone to a house called Moro-urco, near the houses of the Sun, to take out a very long cable which was kept there, woven iu four colours, black, white, red, and yellow, at the end of which there was a stout ball of red wool. Every one took hold of it, the men on one side, and the women on the other, performing the taqui called FABLES AND RTTES OP THE YNCAS. 49 yaqauyra. When they came to the square, after makinj^ reverences to the huacas and the Ynca, they kept going round and round until they were the shape of a spiral shell. Then they dropped the huascar on the ground, and left it coiled up like a snake. They called this cable Moro-urco. The people returned to their places, and those who had charge of the cable took it back to its house. When they celebrated this feast, they were dressed in clothes called pucay-urco ; a black shirt with a white band, and white fringes at the edges. They also wore white plumes from a bird called tocto. Presently, they brought a lamb to be sacrificed for the cable, and for rain, and the winter time, saying to the winter : " Why hast thou rained V From noon to sunset was passed in rejoicings, and in drinking with the huacas and dead bodies. As, in my account of the Yntic-Raymi, which is the month of May, I described the manner of their drinking to the Sun, and to the other huacas, pouring the chicha down certain pipes, I will not repeat the description here. In all the festivals the manner of drinking to the huacas was the same. Half-an- hour before sunset they took the huacas back to their temples, and the Ynca returned to his house. The perform- ing of this taqui, with the sacrifices and drinking, lasted for two days. On the 1 8th of the said month, they came out in the square, clothed in very gay dresses called sanca-sonco- guila pionco ; and in small mantles, and with plumes called cupaticas on their heads, being the tails of macaws and piles called gualanpapi, made of feathers. On reaching the square they made their obeisances to the huacas in the usual order, and took their places. A priest then rose up and burnt a lamb as a sacrifice, praying to the winter ever to send its waters so that, through its means, they might eat and drink. They preserved the cinders and ashes, not only of this sacrifice, but of all others that were made throughout the year, in order to throw them into the river. 50 AN ACCOUNT OF THE On this day they performed the taqui chapay quenalo, which, with all the other ceremonies that were performed in the course of the year, was invented by Pachacutec Tnca Yupanqui; excepting those of the huarachico when they armed the knights, and those of quicochico and rutuchico yayascay, which are festivals invented by the first Ynca, as will presently be mentioned. On the following day, which was the 19th of the said month, they went to the square of Cuzco, called Huacay- jpata, both the Ynca and all the people, and they brought out the huacas and the embalmed bodies of the dead. Having made the usual obeisances, they began to offer up the sacrifice called mojocati, in the following order. A small river flows through the centre of Cuzco called Capi-mayu and Huaca-puncu-mayu. It comes down from some ravines in the heights above the town. Tn these ravines they constructed dams to confine the water, although it was winter, in order that it might bear away the sacrifices that were about to be offered in it, with greater force. On this day they collected all kinds and sorts of food, all the different sorts of ajis, great quantities of bags of coca, all kinds of cloths of different colours and shoes, llautus and plumes worn as head dresses, sheep, flowers, gold and silver, and every other sort of thing that they used, as well as all the ashes and cinders of all the sacrifices, that had been preserved throughout the year. All these things were thrown into the river, the first dam was thrown down, and the water rushed out with such fury that it carried the other dams away with it, and all the sacrifices. A lamb had been sacrificed on this day, and its ashes, with the cinders, were thrown into the river with the rest. Many people were assembled on both sides of the river, outside the city of Cuzco, at a place called Pumap-clmpa, where the sacrifices were offered up. They were made at a FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 51 little less than an liour before sunset, and the Indians who were on both sides of the river, were commanded by the Lord Ynca, who was present, to go with the sacrifices to Ollantay-tampu. By the round they had to make the distance was ten leagues from Cuzco, Indians of the villages by which they had to pass, were stationed at intervals, with torches, in order to give light during the night, and no part of the sacrifices was allowed to remain in the river. When they reached the bridge of Ollantay-tampu, which is over a great river flowing to the N^orth Sea, they threw two bags of coca, called pUculuncu paucar uncu, from the bridge, as the sacrifices flowed past, and afterwards they were allowed to pass on by themselves. During that day and the next, those who had passed on the sacrifices were dancing and rejoicing, and performing the taqui chupay kuayllu. The reason for throwing these sacrifices into the river was as follows. They said that, as the Creator of all things had granted them a good year, it seemed well that, out of the things that he had given them, they should ofi'er these sacrifices, that they might not appear ungrateful, beseeching him to receive them, wheresoever he might please to be. At the end of two days, those who had followed the sacrifices as far as the bridge, returned to Cuzco. Those who had gone furthest, carried in their hands lances and falcons made of salt ; while those who lagged behind had toads made of salt, as a sign that they had gonfe slowly, which made the people laugh at them. During the rest of the month every man attended to his farm. The Month of January. They called the month of January Atun-pucuy, and they had no special festival in it, the people merely attending to their work. 62 an account of the February. The name for the month of February was Pacha 'pucuy, and neither in this month did they do anything but attend to their farms. March. The month of March was called Pancar-huara. No fes- tival was celebrated of any kind in this month. April. The month of April was called Ayrihuay. In it they reaped the crops and got in the harvests, and hence they call it Ayrihuay. Those who had received arms as knights. Went to the farm of Sausiru, to fetch the maize that had been reaped there ; which is beneath the citadel. It is here they say that Mama-huaca, the sister of Manco Ccapac, sowed the first maize. They cultivated this farm every year, for the body of this Mama-huaca, making from the crop the chicha that was necessary for the service of the body, and delivering this chicha to those who had charge of the body, which was embalmed. Then, in their order, they brought the maize of the harvests of the Creator, the Sun, the Moon, the Thunder, the Ynca, and Huanacauri, and of all the dead lords. They brought it in small baskets, singing a chaunt called yaravi, and dressed in gay clothes. All the rest of the people of Cuzco went to bring in this maize, except on the first day, when it was brought by the youths who had received knighthood. The priests, called Tarpuntays, offered up a lamb in sacrifice, beseech- ing the Creator ever to grant them good harvests. This lasted for four days, after which they went back to their farms ; and so the year ended, and the month of May re- turned. FABLES AND EITES OF THE YNCAS. 53 Besides the ceremonies peculiar to each of these months, they performed others called ayuscay rntu-chica-quicu-cMcu. The ayuscay was when a women conceived. On the fourth day they put the babies into a cradle called quirau, and they invited the uncles and other relations to see it; but no other ceremony of any kind was performed in consequence of this event. The rutuchico is when the child attains the age of one year. Then, whether it be a boy or a girl, they give it the name that it is to have until it is of age. In the case of a boy, this is when he is armed as a knight, and receives the huaraca. He is then given the name that he is to bear until death. In the case of a girl it is when she attains the age of puberty, when she also receives the name she is to bear until death. The child was then shorn, and to perform the ceremony, the eldest uncle was called, who cut the first hair. Then the other relations did the same, and afterwards the friends of the parents. They all drank, and the principal uncle gave the chiid the name it was to bear until it came of age. The quicuchica is when girls reach the age of puberty : from the first day until the last, which was three days more or less. They fasted during the two first days, without eating anything at all, and on the third day they were given a little raw maize, that they might not die of hunger. They were confined in a place within the house, and on the fourth day they were washed, and dressed in clothes called ancalluasu, with shoes of white wool. Their hair was plaited, and a sort of bag was placed on their heads. On this day the principal relations came, and the girl came forth to set food before them, and to give them to drink. This lasted for two days, and the principal relation gave her the name she was to bear from thenceforth, and taught her how she should behave, and how she should obey her parents. They then o£fered gifts according to their means, without 54 AN ACCOUNT OF THE any idolatrous practice whatever; and this custom was ordained by Ynca Yupanqui. When the Ynca gave women as wives, they were received because it was the command of the Ynca. The man went to the house of the girl's father, not to say that the Ynca had given her, but that he desired to serve for her, and so the relations of the girl were assembled, and their consent was obtained. The youth remained in the house of his father and mother-in-law for a space of four or five days, and carried in fuel and straw for them. Thus the agreement was made, and he took the girl for his wife ; and because the Ynca had given her, it was considered that she was taken until death, and she was received on this understand- ing, and never deserted. The Gcapac-cocha was instituted by Pachacutec Ynca Yu- panqui, and was as follows. The provinces of Colla-suyu, Chincha-suyu, Anti-suyu, and Cunti-suyu brought to this city, from each lineage or tribe, one or two male and female children aged about ten years. They also brought cloth and flocks, gold and silver. Then the Ynca seated himself in the Huacay-pata, or great square of Cuzco. The children and the other sacrifices walked round the statues of the Creator, the Sun, the Thunder, and the Moon, which were placed in the square, taking two turns. The Ynca then called to the Priests of the provinces, and commanded them to divide the sacrifices into four parts, in token of the four provinces, Colla-suyu, Chincha-suyu, Anti-suyu, and Cunti- suyu, which are the four divisions into which the land is divided. He told them, " Take, each one of you, his part of these ofierings and sacrifices, and ofier them to your principal huacas." So the children were strangled and buried with the silver figures of sheep, and the gold and silver figures of men and sheep, and they burnt the cloth, with some bags of coca. The people of Cuzco carried these sacrifices as far as Sacalpifia, about a league from Cuzco, FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 55 where they were received by the Indians of Auta, and in this way they were passed on until they were delivered at the places where they were to be offered up. In the same way, they were passed on to the other provinces. The Lord Ynca offered these sacrifices when he began to reign, that the huacas might give him health, and preserve his dominions in peace. No huaca or place of worship, how small soever, was left out in the distribution of the sacri- fices, for the things that were to be sacrificed at each place were all set apart. The reason why all the huacas, whether they were sacred trees, fountains, or hills, or lakes, received part of the sacrifice, was because it was held to be an evil omen if any were left out, and because it was feared that if any were omitted they would be enraged, and would punish the Ynca. If any of the hills were very steep and could not be ascended, the sacrifices were hurled to the summits from slings. Thus, at all the principal huacas throughout the provinces, these sacrifices were offered up ; and afterwards at all the smaller sacred places. At each place was offered up the portion that was assigned for it at Cuzco ; for in Cuzco there was the Quipucamatju, or accountant, who took an account of each portion of the sacrifice, and of the pro- vince to which each was to be sent. They began to make the sacrifices in Cuzco, in the follow- ing order. The first was off^ered to the Creator, and was received by the priest who had charge of its image, and they prayed for long life and health, and for victory against the enemies of the Yncas, also that while this Ynca was Lord all the provinces might remain at peace, and be pros- perous. After this prayer they strangled the children, first giving them to eat and drink, that they might not enter the presence of the Creator discontented and hungry. From others they took out the hearts while yet alive, and offered them to the huacas while yet palpitating. They anointed the huaca with the blood from ear to ear, and they called 56 ■ AN ACCOUNT OF THE this pirac. To others they gave the body with the blood, and finally they interred the bodies with the other sacrifices, in a place called Chuquicancha, which is a small hill above San Sebastian, about half a league from the town. Then the Priests of the Sun, in the same order, received what was assigned to their Deity, and in the same place they per- formed the sacrifice to the Sun, with the following prayer : — Prayer for the Sun. TJiracochaya punchau cachau Creator ! Thou who saidest, tutacachannas pacnicpacarichun let there be night and day, yllarichun nispac niopunchac dawn and twilight, grant to thy churl yquicta carillacta quis- child the Sun that when he pillacta purichuruna rurascay- rises he may come forth in quictacancharin yampac quilla- peace. Preserve him that he rincanpac TJiracochaya casilla may give light to men whom quispilla punchau Ynca runay- thou hast created. Creator ! anani chisca yquicta quillari Sun ! thou who art in peace canchari araa un cochispa ama- and safety, shine down upon nanachispa caQista quispicta these people, and keep them in huacaychaspa. health and peace. In like manner, the priests of the Thunder, which was called Chuqui-ylla, received the children and other sacrifices which were assigned to it, and buried them in the same place, called Chuqui-cancha ; and the same order was ob- served with the sacrifices to the Moon ; prayers being offered up on each occasion that the Ynca might always be granted health and prosperity ; and that he might always be victorious over his enemies. Afterwards the whole of the priests together offered to Heaven the sacrifices that were set apart for that purpose, and also to the earth ; re- peating the following prayer : — Pachacmama ! cuyrumama mother earth ! preserve the casillacta quispillacta Ccapac Lord Ynca, thy son, who stands Ynca huahuay yquctamacari upon thee, in peace and safety, hatalli. FABLES AND RITES OF THE YNCAS. 57 All tlie above sacrifices were placed in the Chiiqui-cancha. Then the priests who had charge of the huaca Yanacauri offered their sacrifice. This huaca was of Ayar-cachi/ one of the four brothers who were said to have come out of the cave at Tampu ; but, as I have treated of this fable in the beginning of the history which your most illustrious Lord- ship possesses, I will not dwell upon it here. As this was the principal huaca, besides those already mentioned, the priest who had charge of it, with his comrades, received the children and other things that were dedicated to it, and sacrificed them on the hill called Huanacauri, which is two leagues and a half from Cuzco, a little more or less. They offered up a prayer at the time of making the sacrifice, be- seeching the huaca that the Ynca, its descendant, might ever be youthful and victorious, and that ever, during the life of the reigning Ynca, the country might be at peace. Afterwards sacrifices were performed at all the fountains, hills, and other places in Cuzco that were held to be sacred; but no child was killed for these sacrifices. These places were so numerous in Cuzco, that it would be tedious to enumerate them here, and I will not do so because they are given in the account of the huacas which I have presented to your most reverend Lordship. As soon as they had con- cluded the sacrificial ceremonies in Cuzco, the Priests brought out those which had to be sent to other parts, in the way that has already been described. The order of marching with the sacrifices was that all the people who went with the Ccapac-cocha (also called CacJiahuaca) took ways apart from each other. They did not follow the royal road, but traversed the ravines and hills in a straight line, until each reached the places where the sacrifices were to be made. They ran, and as they went they raised cries and shouts which were commenced by an Indian who was deputed . to perform this duty. Having given the word, all the others » See G. de la Vega, i, p. 73. 58 AN ACCOUNT OF THE continued the same cries. The cries were to beseech the Creator that the Ynca might ever be victorious^ and be granted health and peace. They carried on their shoulders the sacrifices and the lumps of gold and silver^ and the other things destined to be offered up. The children that could walk went on foot, and others were carried in their mothers' arms. When they reached their destinations, the Huacacamayoc, who had charge of the huacas, received those that were intended for their huacas, and sacrificed them, bringing the gold and silver and other things ; and the children, having first been strangled, were burnt in sacrifice, with the sheep, lambs, and cloth. It is worthy of remark that children were not sacrificed at all the huacas, but only at the chief huaca of each lineage or province. In this way they travelled over all the dominions of the Ynca, with these sacrifices, until each one reached the extreme point of the empire, in the direction in which he travelled. The journeys were so well ordered and arranged, and they were so well equipped when they started from Cuzco that, although the sacrifices and the places at which they were to be delivered were numerous, they never made a mistake. For this service the Ynca had Indians in Cuzco, who were natives of the four Suyus or provinces. Each one had a knowledge of all the huacas, how small so- ever they might be, that were in the province over which he was Quipucamayoc or Accountant. They were called ViU cacamayoc. Each Indian had charge of nearly five hundred leagues of country, and he had an account of the things that were to be sacrificed at every huaca within his district. Those who had to set out from Cuzco received their destined sacrifices from the Vilca-eamayocs, with instructions as to whom they were to deliver them. In the chief places of each province there were also Indians with the same duties, who kept an account of the sacrifices; nevertheless, as the sacrifices were increased or augmented according to the will FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 59 of the Ynca, tte instructions were sent from Cuzco as re- garded what was to be done at each place. They held this sacrifice, called Ccapacocha or Cachahuaca, in such veneration that, when those who were making journeys over uninhabited tracts with the sacrifices met other travellers, they did not raise their eyes to look at them, and the travellers prostrated themselves on the ground until the sacrifice-bearers had passed. When those bearing sacrifices passed through a village, the inhabitants did not come out of their houses, but remained, with deep humility and reverence, until the said Ccapac-cocha had passed onwards. They also had a custom, when they conquered and sub- jugated any nations, of selecting some of the handsomest of the conquered people and sending them to Cuzco, where they were sacrificed to the Sun who, as they said, had given them the victory. It was also their custom that, whenever anything excelled all the rest of its kind in beauty, they worshipped it, and made it huaca or sacred. They worshipped the summits of all peaks and mountain passes, and ofiered maize and other things ; for they said that, when they ascended any pass and reached the top, they could there rest from the labour of the ascent. This they called chupasitas. About ten years ago there was a joke among the Indians. They had a kind of song called taqui uncu ; and, as one Luis de Olivera, a Priest in the province of Parinacochas, in the bishopric of Cuzco, was the first who . described this idolatrous pleasantry, I will here insert his account of it. In the province of Parinacochas, in the diocese of Cuzco, the said Luis de Olivera learnt, that not only in that province, but in all the other provinces and cities of Chuquisaca, La Paz, Cuzco, Gruamanga, and even Lima and Aroquipa, most of the Indians had fallen into the greatest apostasy, depart- CO AN ACCOUNT OF THE ing from the Catholic Faith, which they had received, and returning to the idolatries which they practised in the time of their infidelity. It was not understood how this had come to pass ; but it was suspected that the wizards, whom the Yncas kept in Uiscacabamba, were at the bottom of it. For in the year 1560, and not before, it was held and be- lieved by the Indians, that an ointment from the bodies of the Indians had been sent for from Spain to cure a disease for which there was no medicine there. Hence it was that the Indians, at that time, were very shy of the Spaniards, and they would not bring fuel or grass or anything else to the house of a Spaniard, lest they should be taken in and killed, in order to extract this ointment. All this had originated from that villainy, with the object of causing enmity between the Indians and Spaniards. The Indians of the land had much respect for the things of the Ynca, until the Lord Viceroy, Don Francisco de Toledo, abolished and put an end to them, in which he greatly served God our Lord. The deception by which the Devil deceived these poor people was the belief that all the huacas which the Christians had burnt and destroyed had been brought to life again ; and that they had been divided into two parts, one of which was united with the huaca Pachacama, and the other with the huaca Titicaca. The story went on that they had formed in the air, in order of battle against God, and that they had conquered Him. But when the Marquis^ entered this land, it was held that God had con- quered the huacas, as the Spaniards had overcome the Indians. Now, however, it was believed that things were changed, that God and the Spaniards were conquered, all the Spaniards killed, and their cities destroyed, and that the sea would rise to drink them up, that they might be remembered no more. In this apostacy they believed that God our Lord had made the Spaniards, and Castille, and • Pizarro. FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. 61 the animals and provisions of Castillo ; but that the huacas had made the Indians, and this land, and all the things they possessed before the Spaniards carae. Thus they stripped our Lord of his omnipotence. Many preachers went forth from among the Indians, who preached as well in the desert places as in the villages, declaring the resurrection of the huacas, and saying that they now wandered in the air, thirsty and dying of hunger, because the Indians no longer sacrificed nor poured out chicha to them. They declared that many fields were sown with worms, to be planted in the hearts of the Spaniards, and of the Spanish sheep, and of the horses, and also in the hearts of those Indians who remained Christians. The huacas, it was announced, were enraged with all those who had been baptized, and it was declared that they would all be killed unless they returned to the old belief and renounced the Christain faith. Those who sought the friendship and grace of the huacas would, it was urged, pass a life of prosperity and health. Those who would return to the love of the huacas and live, were to fast for some days, not eating salt nor aji, nor coloured maize, nor any Spanish thing, nor entering churches, nor obeying the call of the priests, nor using their christian names. Hence- forth the times of the Yncas would be restored, and the huacas would not enter into stones or fountains to speak, but would be incorporated in men whom they would cause to speak : therefore the people were to have their houses prepared and ready, in case any huaca should desire to lodge in one of them. Thus it was that many Indians trembled and fell to the ground, and others tore themselves as if they were possessed, making faces ; and when they presently became quiet, they said, when they were asked what they had felt, that such and such a huaca had entered into their bodies. Then the people took such an one in their arms, and carried him to a chosen spot, and there they made a lodging with straw and cloaks ; and began to worship the huaca, offering 62 AN ACCOUNT OP THX sheep, colla-chicha, llijpta, mollo, and other things. Then thej made a festival for two or three days, dancing and drinking, and invoking the huaca that was represented by the possessed man. Such persons, from time to time, preached to the people, threatening them, and telling them not to serve God, but the huacas ; and to renounce all Chris- tianity, with all christian names, and the shirts, hats, and shoes of Christians. These possessed persons asked the people if they had any relics of the burnt huacas, and when they brought some piece of stone they covered their heads with a mantle before the people, and poured chicha, and the flour of white maize on the fragment. Then the pos- sessed shouted and invoked the huaca ; and rose up with the fragment in his hands, thus addressing the people. " You see here your support. You see here that which can give you health, and children, and food. Put it in its place, where it was in the days of the Yncas;" and this was done with many sacrifices. The wizards who in those times were detected and punished, had freely performed their offices, returning to them, and not leaving the Indians who were possessed by huacas, but receiving the sheep and coys offered as sacrifices. This evil was so widely credited that not only the Indians on the Repartimientos but those who lived in the cities, among Spaniards, believed and performed the prescribed fasts. At last the said priest, Luis de Olivera, began to punish the people of that province and of Acari, and re- ported the matter to the Eoyal Audience of Lima and to the Lord Archbishop, and the Bishop of Charcas, and to Friar Pedro de Toro, the steward of the Bishop of Cuzco. At last the apostacy began to wane, but altogether it lasted for seven years. As they believed that God and the Spaniards were con- quered, the Indians began to rise, as happened in the year 1565, when the Licentiate Castro was Governor of these FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNOAS. 63 kingdoms, who received reports from the Corregidors of Cuzco, Guamanga, and Huanuco. These cities were pre- pared for war during some time. There were several forms of apostacy in the different provinces. Some danced and gave out that they had the huaca in their bodies. Others trembled for the same reason. Others shut themselves up in their houses and shouted. Others flung themselves from rocks and were killed. Others jumped into the rivers, thus offering themselves to the huacas. At last our Lord, in his mercy, was pleased to enlighten these miserable people ; and those who were left were led to see the nonsense that they had believed, that the Ynca was dead or at Vilcapampa, and that nothing of what had been predicted had taken place, but the very opposite. By reason of this devilish teaching, there are still some Indian sorcerers and witches, though their number is small. When any Indian is sick, these witches are called in to cure him, and to say whether he will live or die. Having pro- nounced upon the case, they order the sick man to take white maize called colli sara, red and yellow maize called cuma-sara , yellow maize called jparo-sara, sea shells called raullu mullu, of all the colours they can collect, which they call ymaymana mullu. When these things are collected, the wizard grinds the maize with the shell, and gives it ground to the sick man that, breathing on it, he may offer it to the huacas and vilcas ; with these words : — " all the huacas and vilcas of the four provinces of the land, my grand- fathers and ancestors, receive this sacrifice, wheresoever you may be, and give me health.^^ They also make him breathe on a little coca, and offer it to the Sun, praying for health ; and the same to the Moon and Stars. Then, with a little gold and silver of little value in his hand, the sick man offers sacrifice to the Creator. Then the wizard commands him to give food to the dead, placing it on their tombs^ and 64 FABLES AND RITES OP THE YNCAS. pouring out chicha ; if he is in the part of the country where this can be done, and if not in a corner of his house. For the wizard gives the patient to understand that he is visited with this sickness because the dead are starving. If he is able to go on foot to some junction of two rivers, the wizard makes him go there and wash his body with water and flour of white maize, saying that he will there leave his illness. At the end of this ceremony the wizard tells him that, if he would free himself from his sickness, he must confess all his sins, without concealing any. They call this hichoco. These Indians are so simple that some of them readily, and with little persuasion, fall into this apostacy and error, though some afterwards repent and confess their sins. There are also a very great number of Indian men and women who, understanding the offence against our Lord that they commit in doing this, will not permit any such acts, but rather accuse those who do them before the Cura, that they may be punished. If some exemplary punishment was inflicted on the wizards, I believe that this great evil would soon disappear, although, as I have said, there are now few wizards. In this land there are different nations and provinces, and each one had its own rites and ceremonies, before it was con- quered by the Yncas. The Yncas abolished some of the rites, and introduced others. Thus it is no less desirable to know the rites and ceremonies which existed in each of the provinces, other than those of the Yncas, of which I have here written. The means will be acquired, by this knowledge, of rooting out these idolatries and follies ; and mean while, with the help of our Lord, the visit I have made through the parishes and valley of this city called Cuzco, is now con- cluded. (the manuscript here ends abruptly.) AN ACCOUNT OF THK ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. AN ACCOUNT THE ANTIQUITIES OF PEEU. Jesus Maria, I, Don Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti-yamqui Salcamayhua, a Christian by the grace of God our Lord, ara native of the towns of Santiago^ of Hanalucayhua and Hurinhuayhua- canchi of Urco-suyu,^ between Canas and Canches of Colla- suyn/ legitimate son of Don Diego Felipe Coudorcanqui and of Dona Maria Huayrotari, legitimate grandson of Don Baltasar Cacyaquivi and of Don Francisco Yamquihuanacu (whose wives, my grandmothers, are alive), great grandson of Don Gaspar Apuquiricanqui and of General Don Juau Apu Ynca Mayhua, great great grandson of Don Bernabe Apu-hilas Urcuni the less, and of Don Gonzalo Pizarro Tintaya, and of Don Carlos Anco, all once principal chiefs in the said province, and professed Christians in the things of our holy Catholic faith. They were the first chiefs who came to the tambo of Caxamarca to be made Christians,* renouncing all the errors, rites, and ceremonies of the time of heathenry, which were devised by the ancient enemies of the human race^ namely the demons and devils. In the • 1 do not find this Santiago in Alcedo. 2 Urco-suyu, "the hill country". ' That is to say, in the valley of the Vilcamayu, south and east of Cuzco, on the road to the Collao. The Canas and Canches were tribes on either side of the valley. < That is, the last three, his great great grandfathers. 68 AN ACCOUNT OF THE general language they are called hajpvminw' achacalla.^ When the first Apostolic Priests entered this most noble province of Ttahuantin-suyu,. inspired by the holy zeal of gaining a soul for God our Lord, like good fishers, with their loving words, preaching and catechising on the mystery of our holy Catholic Faith, then my ancestors, after having been well instructed, were baptized. They renounced the Devil and all his followers and his false promises, and all his rites. Thus they became Christians, adopted sons of Jesus Christ our Lord, and enemies of all the ancient customs and idolatries. As such they persecuted the wizards, jdestrojed and pulled down all the huacas and idols, de- nounced idolaters, and punished those who were their own servants and vassals throughout all that province. There- fore our Lord God preserved these my ancestors ; and to their grandchildren and descendants, male and female, He has given his holy benediction. Finally I am, through the mercy of his divine majesty, and by his divine grace, a believer in his holy Catholic faith, as I ought to believe. All my paternal and maternal ancestors were baptized by the mercy of God, and freed from the servitude of the infernal yoke under which they were enthralled in the times of idolatry, with great risk and peril, on whose souls may our Lord have-pity; and pardon all the offences com- mitted in times past by those souls who were made in His image and likeness. I myself, as the grandchild and legiti- mate descendant of these ancestors, have, ever since I have reached manhood, continued firm and established in the mystery of our holy Catholic faith, exhorting my family to be good Christians, keeping the ten commandments of the law of God, believing in our Lord Jesus Christ, in obedience to our holy Mother Church of Rome. Thus the holy Roman Mother Church believes what I, Don Juan de Santa Cruz, * Hapini is the verb " I seize". Nunu is a woman's bosom. ® Achalla is an exclamation of admiration. ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 69 believe, and in her I desire to live and die- in the fear of God three and one, who lives and reigns for ever with- I out end, as I declare. I believe in God three and one, who is the powerful God that created heaven and earth and all things that are therein, the sun, the moon, the stars, the I day star, thunder and lightning, and all the elements. I also believe that he created Adam, the first man, in his image and likeness, progenitor of all mankind, whose de- scendants we, the natives of Ttahuantin-suyu, are, as well as the other nations throughout the whole world, as well white as black. I believe that, for their sakes, the living son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, by the work of the Holy Ghost, became incarnate in the womb of the holy Virgin Mary, coming down from heaven alone to free the human race from the infernal thraldom of the Devil in which they were kept. I believe that our Lord Christ, living among men during thirty-three years, and being true God and Man, afterwards suffered death on the cross at Jerusalem to redeem the human race, and died and was buried, and entered the infernal regions to free the souls of the holy fathers. I believe that he rose from the dead on the third day, and was in the body for forty days, and ascended into Heaven, where he sits in the great power of the Almighty God, and whence he sent the gift of the Holy Spirit to his apostles and disciples, that they might be more powerful in the spiritual things of God. God is the true God above all other Gods, the powerful God our Creator, and he it is who, by his order, rules the heavens throughout all ages, as supreme Lord and Judge and merci- ful Lord. I affirm that I have heard, from a child, the most ancient traditions and histories, the fables and barbarisms of the heathen times, which are as follows ; according to the con- stant testimony of the natives touching the events of past times. 70 AN ACCOUNT OF THE They say that, in the time of Purwv-pacha, all the nations of Ttahuantin-suyu came from beyond Potosi in four or five armies arrayed for war. They settled in the different districts as they advanced. This period was called Ccallac-pacha^ or Tutayac-jjacha.^ As each company se- lected suitable places for their homes and lands, they called this Purunpacharacyaptin.^ This period lasted for a vast number of years. After the country was peopled, there was a great want of space, and, as the land was insufficient, there were wars and quarrels, and all the nations occupied themselves in making fortresses, and every day there were encounters and battles, and there was no rest from these tumults, insomuch that the people never enjoyed any peace. Then, in the middle of the night, they heard the Hapi-nimos disappearing, with mournful complaints, and crying out — *' We are conquered, we are conquered, alas that we should lose our bands \" By this it must be understood that the devils were conquered by Jesus Christ our Lord on the cross on Mount Calvary. For in ancient times, in the days of Purun-pacha, they say that the Hapi-nimus walked visibly over all the land, and it was unsafe to go out at night, for they violently carried off men, women, and children, like infernal tyrants and enemies of the human race as they are. Some years after the devils called Hapi-nunus Achacallas had been driven out of the land, there arrived, in these kingdoms of Ttahuantin-suytc" a bearded man, of middle ' Purum means wild, savage, untamed. Purum aucca, unconquered enemy. Purum soncco, har lened heart. Purum allpa, fallow land. Purum-purum, uninhabited wilds. Purum'-pacha^ heathen times. ^ Ccallani., to break down a wall, to destroy by making holes. Ccal- larichini, to begin. CcaUariyntn-mania, " from the beginning." " Ccallac-pacha,'''' " beginning of time." ^ " Time of night." Dark Ages. ' Purun, "savage." Facha^ "time." Racya^ "before." 2itin^ Plural of multitude. " The people before the savage time." 2 The four provinces in one. The empire. ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 71 height, with long hair, and in a rather long shirt. They say that he was somewhat past his prime, for he already had grey hairs, and he was lean. He travelled with his staff, teaching the natives with much love, and calling them all his sons and daughters. As he went through all the land, he performed many miracles. The sick were healed by his touch. He spoke all languages better than the natives. They called him Tonapa or Tarapaca (Tarapaca means an eagle) JJiracocharapacha yacJdpachan or Pachaccan.^ This means the servant, and TJicchaijcamayoc'^ means a preacher, and vicchay Camay oc cunacuycamayocJ' Although he preached the people did not listen, for they thought little of him. He was called Tonapa Uiracocha nipacachan ; but was he not the glorious apostle St, Thomas ? They say that this man came to the village of a chief called Apo-tampu (this Apo-tampu is Paccari-tampu^) very tired. It was at a time when they were celebrating a mar- riage feast. His doctrines were listened to by the chief with friendly feelings, but his vassals heard them unwillingly. From that day the wanderer was a guest of Apo-tampu, to whom it is said that he gave a stick from his own staff, and through this Apo-tampu, the people listened with attention to the words of the stranger, receiving the stick from his hands. Thus they received what he preached in a stick, marking and scoring on it each chapter of his precepts. The old men of the days of my father, Don Diego Felipe, used to say that Oagi-cagi were the commandments of God, and especially the seven precepts ; so that they only wanted the names of our Lord God and of his son Jesus Christ our Lord; and the puuishments for those who broke the com- ' A steward or head servant. Chamberlain of the Ynca. * Haichay (not Uicchay) ii "up." Huicharini, "I ascend." C^ma- yoc, " one who has charge of anything." ' Cnnacnni, " I advise or preach." ® The fabled cradle of the Yuca race, near Cuzco. 72 AN ACCOUNT OF THE mandments were severe. This worthy^ named Thonapa, is said to have visited all the provinces of the Colla-suyu, preach- ing to the people without cessation, until one day he entered the town of Yamquesupa. There he was treated with great insolence and contempt, and driven away. They say that he often slept in the fields, without other covering than the long shirt he wore, a mantle, and a book. They say that Thonapa cursed that village, so that it was covered with water. The site is now called Yamqnisupaloiga? It is a lake, and nearly all the Indians of that time knew that it was once a village, and was then a lake. They say that, on a very high hill called Cacha-'pucara/ there was an idol in the form of a woman, ^ and that Tonapa was inspired with a great hatred against it, and afterwards burnt it, and de- stroyed it with the hill on which it stood. They say that to this day there are signs of that awful miracle, the most fear- ful that was ever heard of in the world. On another occasion they say that he began to preach with loving words, in a town where they were holding a great festival and banquet to celebrate a wedding, and they would not listen to the preaching of Tonapa. For this they were cursed and turned into stones,, which may be seen to this day. The same thing happened in Pucara and other places.^ They further say that this Tonapa, in his wanderings, came to the mountains of Caravaya, where he erected a very large cross, and he carried it on his shoulders to the mountain of Carapucu, where he preached in a loud voice, and shed tears. And they say that a daughter of a chief of that province was sprinkled on the head with water, and the Indians, seeing this, understood ' I cannot identify it. * Cacha, in the valley of the Vilcamayu. Pucara, a fortress. See the account of the famous temple at Cacha in G. de la Veya, i, p. 159 ; ii, p. 69. " To this idol they offered human sacrifices. ' See ante, Molina, p. 6. ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 73 that he was washing his head. So, afterwards, Tonapa was taken prisoner and shorn, near the great lake of Garapucic. The meaning of Carapucu is when a bird called pucu-pucu sings four times, at early dawn.^ They say that, when day broke, when Tunapa was a prisoner, a very beautiful youth came to him, and said : — " Do not fear ; for I come to call you in the name of the matron, who alone watches over you, and who is about to go to the place of rest." So saying, he touched the cords, by which Tonapa was tied hand and foot, with his fingers. There were many guards, for Tonapa had been condemned to a cruel death. But at dawn, being five in the morning, he entered the lake with the youth, his mantle bearing him up on the water and serving in the place of a boat. On his arrival in the town and province of Carapuco, the chiefs and principal men were disturbed at having seen their idol thrown down and destroyed. They say that this idol flew like the wind to a desert place, which was never visited by men. Here the idol or huaca was mourning and lamenting with its head down ; and in this plight it was found by an Indian, whose report caused the chiefs to be excited at the arrival of Tonapa, who had been imprisoned. They say that Tonapa, after he had been freed from the hands of those savages, remained for a long time on a rock called Titicaca, and afterwards he passed by Tiquina to Chacamarca, where he came to a town called Tiyahuanacu. They say that the people of that town were engaged in drinking and dancing when Tonapa came to preach to them, and they did not listen to him. Then, out of pure anger, he denounced them in the language of the land ; and, when he departed from that place, all the people who were dancing were turned into stones, and they may be seen to this day.^ Tonapa then followed the course of the river Chacamarca until he came to the sea. This is reporte'1 by those most ancient Yncas. * See Mossi^ p. 207. ' See ante^ Molina, p. 6, 74 AN ACCOUNT OF THE They say that the staff which Tonafa delivered into the hands of Apu-tampu was turned into fine gold on the birth of his son named Manco Ccapac Ynca, who had seven brothers and sisters. Their names were Ayar-cachi, Ayar- uchu, Aya-raeca, etc. The said Apu Manco Ccapac, after the death of his father and mother, named Apu Tampu Pacha and Mama AcM, being now an orphan, but grown to man's estate, assembled his people to see what power he had to prosecute the new conquests which he meditated. Finding some difficulties, he agreed with his brothers to seek new lands, taking his rich clothes and arms, and the staff which had been left by Tonapa. This staff was called Tupac-ya.iori.^ He also had two golden cups from which Tonapa had drunk, called Tupac-usi. Thus he set out, with his brothers, towards the hill over which the sun rose. They say that, marching in this direction, he arrived at the hill which was the highest point in that land. Then, over Apu Manco Ocapac arose a very beautiful rainbow, and over the rainbow appeared another, so that Apu Manco Ocapac seemed to be in the midst of the rainbows. He exclaimed : "We have a good sign. We shall have great prosperity and gain many victories, and we shall obtain all that we desire.'' After saying this, he joyfully advanced, singing the song of Chamay^ huarisca from mere delight. Then he descended to Collcapampa with his brothers, and from the town of Sailuc he saw, afar off, the form of a man. One of his brothers ran towards it, thinking that it was some Indian. They say that when he came up to it_, he saw one like an Indian, looking most fierce and cruel with bloodshot eyes. He whc went to look at him was the youngest brother, and when he approached the form raised its head, and said : "^It is well that you have come in search of me ; for you will find * Tupac, royal or splendid. Yauri, a sceptre. * Chamani, " I am satisfied." Chamai/, " satisfaction, joy." ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 75 that I am looking for you, and now you are in my povver.'^ When Manco Ccapac saw that his brother was so long in returniug, he sent one of his sisters to call him. But she also remained away, and both were kept at the hnaca of Sanuc. Seeing that both one and the other did not return, Manco Ccapac went himself in great wrath, and found them both nearly dead. He asked them why they stayed away so long, and they answered by complaining of a stone which was be- tween the two. Then Apu Manco Ccapac struck the stone or huaca with much fury, giving it blows with his tupac-yauri on the head. Then words came from the midst of the stone, as if it was alive, saying, that if he had not got that staff, it would also do to him as it pleased. " Go on,'^ it added ; " for you have attained to great honour. But these, your brother and sister, have sinned, and it is therefore right that they should be where I am,^^ meaning the infernal regions. This is called pifMsiray sanasiray, which means one person fastened on the top of another. When Manco Ccapac saw his brother and sister in such fearful danger, he shed tears of natural grief and sorrow, and he went thence to the place where he had first seen the rainbow, the names of which are cuchi, and turmnanya and yayacarui. He be- moaned the loss of his brother and sister, and exclaimed that he was the most unfortunate of orphans. But the rain- bow strengthened him, and removed all his sorrows and afflictions.^ " Haaynacapfiy " or " Huaynacajptiyllapun chica chiqui unachayamoran Huanacauri." From that time the place was called Huaynacaptiy . Thence he went to Collca- pampa''' with the tupac-yauri in his hand, and with a sister named Y2)a mama huaco, and with another sister and a b;'other. They arrived at Collcapampa, where they were for « Afterwards later Yncas placed a very well-carved stone in the form of a vulture, which means the good omen, and which is called Yncap huaynacanim. and the Indians began to treat it with idolatrous worship. ' Or Collcampata^ above Cuzco. 76 AN ACCOUNT OF THE some da^'s. Thence they went to lluamantiana,^ where they remained some time^ and thence they marched to Gori- canclia,^ where they found a place suitable for a settlement. There was good water from Hurinchacan and Hananchacan (whence the names of Hurin-Cuzco and Hanan-Cuzco), which are two springs. A rock was called by the natives (who are the AUcayriesas, the Cidlincliinas, and the Cayau- cachis) by the name of Cuzco-cara-urumi, whence the place came to be called Cuzco-pampa and Cuzco-Uacta ; and the Yncas were afterwards called Cuzco-Ccapac and Cuzco- Ynca. This Ynca Apu Manco Ccapac married one of his own sisters named Mama Oclloj and this marriage was cele- brated that they might have no equal, and that they might not lose the caste. Then they began to enact good laws for the government of their people, conquering many provinces and nations of those that were disobedient. The Ttahuantin- suyus^ came with a good grace and with rich presents. The tidings of a new Ynca had spread widely. Some were joy- ful, others were afflicted ; when they heard that the Ynca was the most powerful chief, the most valiant, and the most fortunate in arms, that his captains and men of valour were better armed than other men ; and that all his affairs were prosperous. This Ynca ordered fixed in a great house the smiths to make a / \ called Ccuricancha pa- flat plate of fine gold ; / \ chaya-chachipac hua- which signified that sin.^ This Ynca Manco there was a Creator of Ccapac was an enemy heaven and earth; and \ /to the huacas,^ and, as it was of this shape. V / such, he destroyed the He caused it to be ^ — Curaca Pinao Ccapac ^ Or Sacsahuaman^ the site of the fortress of Cuzco. Huaman^ " a falcon." 7^irt?ia, " a throne." * The site of the temple of the Sun. Ccuri, "gold;" Cancha, "a place." ^ People of the four provinces. - '' The golden place, the house of the teacher of the world." 3 Idols. ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 77 with all liis idols. He also conquered Tocay CcapaCj a great idolater. Afterwards lie ordered works to be executed at the place of his birth ; consisting of a masonry wall with three win- dows, which were emblems of the house of his fathers whence he descended. The first window was called Tanvpu- toco* the second Maras^-toco, and the third Sutic^-toco : re- ferring to his uncles and paternal and maternal grand- parents. J ^ ^ ^P' J.7' ■^ i M These two trees typified his father and mother Ajpu-tampu and Apachamama-achi, and he ordered that they should be adorned with roots of gold and silver, and with golden fruit. Hence they were called Octirichachac collqiiechnchac tampu- yracan, which means that the two trees typified the parents, and that the Yncas proceeded from them, like fruit from the trees, and that the two trees were as the roots and stems of the Yncas. All these things were executed to record their greatness. He ordered that the dresses of each village should be different, that the people might be known, for down to this time there were no means of knowing to what village or tribe an Indian belonged. He also ordered, with a view to each tribe being clearly distinguished, that they should choose whence they were descended and from whence they came, and, as the Indians generally were very dull and stupid. * Toco, " a window." " Sutini, " I name." Sutic, " nanae." ' Maras, "mill-stone." 78 AN ACCOUNT OF THE some chosOj for their 2)acarisca^ or paearimuscu, a lake^ others a spring, others a rock, others the hills or ravines; but every lineage selected some object for its jjacarisca. The devils, or Jiain-miTius , deceived those stupid people with little diffi- culty, entering into the false pacariscas, and thence uttering deceitful promises. Every day these pacariscas continued to increase, the origin or pacarinim being the Pacari-tampu- All the province^ and tribes said Pacariscanchic huccsiscan- chic umachun chicpa-pacariscan. The leading cause of the invention of the ^acarmim, was, that the Ynca Manco Ccapac was often at a loss to know to what village an Indian belonged. This Ynca also ordered the heads of infants to be pressed^ that they might grow up foolish and without energy ; for he thought that Indians with large round heads, being audacious in any enterprise, might also be disobedient. His legitimate son was Sinchi Ruca Ynca, and he inherited all the dominions of his father. The other younger sons, whether legitimate or illegitimate, were called Chima- panaca-ayllu. Sinchi Ruca Ynca began to rule over all the territory of his father, and was a great patron of agriculture, of weaving cloth, and of mining. He was not much addicted to war- like affairs, for, being a very proud man, and of haughty disposition, he seldom went abroad. All the provinces from Chacamarca aud Angaraes sent him presents. When he desired to make conquests he sent his captains and their men. In each ravine they had to take stones to make usmts, which are certain stones arranged in heaps. They say that an Indian wizard appeared to one of the officers of war, and told him that the heaps must be called apachitas. A rite was established, which was that every passer by should bring a great stone ; and the wizard also told the officer of the ' Paccari, " morning, dawn." Paccarisca., " birth, origin." Pacca- rimuni, " 1 am born." Paccarimusca, "being born." ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 79 Ynca that all the soldiers must throw their coca pallets on the heap as they passed, saying : — Saycoyniycaijiyitac qui- fasiyon coyniypasliinatac. From that time they began to bring stones and to throw coca, because the wizard had so ordered it.^ They say that when the Ynca Manco Ccapac was very old, he went down on his knees, and prayed for the pros- perity of his son in these words : — A Uiracochantic gicapac caycaricacMin cay raiviicachun neca apa hinamtima chiccha camac maypin canqui manachurycayquiman hanampichun hurimpichun quinraynimjnchun capac usnoyqui hay- nillalay, hanan cochaman tarayac hurincocha, tiyancay, camacpa- cha runarallpac, apoy^may^ quicuna camman allcanancyran riaiy- tam munayqui ricaptiy yachaptiy unanchaptiy hamuttaptiy ricunan- quim yacJiaranquira, yntic quillaca punchaoca, tutaca, pocoyca, chiraoca, manamyancacko, camachiscan ptirin unanchascaman tupus canianmi chayan, maycanmi, ttopayaricta apachinarcanqui hay- nillaray uyarillaray manaracpas, saycaptiy ranuptiy. After this he always remembered Tonapa, saying : — Runa rallcapacpalhacan yananssi cahuac, ari, chayariyuya llanay coscocapac churatamuquiy apo, Tarapaca Tonapa pacta varoytiypas capacparatamus cayquicta concaraca rahoytayri yuyayronayta caUjmnchan quistacmi payllanquitacmi recsichillaran quimampichun carcan achus, camchomcanquiman papi-nunu llasac atic manchachic ricsi ayvian yacha llayman, allpamantaca maquiylluttaquey riculla raypancanquena allparnumachun cani. Having said this he watched to see if he might have a sign from the Creator. He offered a very white lamb upon an altar, which sacrifice is called arpay. When no answer was given, he ordered the most beautiful of his sons, aged about eight years, to be offered up, cutting off his head, and sprinkling the blood over the fire, that the smoke might reach the Maker of heaven and earth. To all these offerings no answer was ever given in Coricancha. ' The practice is continued to this day. 80 AN ACCOUNT OF THE Afterwards, in the visit of Itaripanaca to the people, he admitted a great number of youths aged from seventeen to J I eighteen, among the number of men and soldiers, giving f them white breeches. He marked out a line to a high and very distant hill, called Huanacauri, and he ordered to be placed on the hill a falcon, a humming bird, a vulture, an ostrich (suri), a vicuna, an anatuya (fox), a serpent, a toad. It was announced that these birds and animals had been placed there that these boys and youths might run to them and show the qualities of their swiftness or sluggishness. The swift received as rewards the huorachicuy and ccaman- tiras [ccamantira are the small bright feathers that birds have under the beak), and the sluggish were given black breeches. After the breeches and other clothes had been distributed, the youths were made to sit down with the men, and from that time they were called men, and their parents came to them with many presents as a reward for their good deeds. Manco Ccapac, seeing that the fathers and mothers of the youths were so well satisfied, ordered them to be given to eat and drink plentifully, that they might remain his vassals, and the vassals of his son, Sinchi Ruca. \ Besides this he ordered that the girls of sixteen years should J comb and plait their hair. This is called quicuchicuy (when I they plait the hair to come forth from among young girls). Then he ordered them to be shod with llanquisi, which are a kind of shoes. All this was done in order that henceforth "^ I they'might be known as women or tasqui huarmi. After- wards all the young men of thirty years were ordered to take wives, arms being given to the men, cooking and spinning gear to the women. This was called huarmi hajpiypacha carichasqviy pacha. Then certain men of holy lives were selected, as priests, to call upon the name of the Creator of heaven and earth, and to these chosen men the Ynca spoke as follows : — ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 81 Cusisimirac ciisi callurac cayhuacyanquital sasicuspa suyanqui, ychastalpas cusinchicpi quillpuncJiicpi maymantapas runahualpac apu, ticcicapac uyari sunquichay nisunqui camtaca, maynic mantapas hhiatac vihay2MS caycama yodlamunqui. These chosen men always held the office of priests during the life of Manco Ccapac. On the death of the old Ynca, the sovereignty descended to his son Sinchi Rocca Ynca, who was a very proud man. In his time it fell out that there were youths and maidens who loved each other excessively, and, in answer to questions put to them by the Ynca, they publicly confessed that they conld not live apart. It was found that these lovers had cer- tain small stones, perfectly round, and they said that these stones were called soncoapa chinacoc Jiuacca chinacoc. They say that a poor boy in rags, a shepherd fUama-michecJ , en- tered the house of the Ynca Sinchi Rocca, and that a virgin who was very dear to the Ynca went away with that boy. A search was made until they were found, and orders were given that they should be tortured. The girl confessed that the llama-michec had stolen away her love, after having made a Jiuaca7iqui^ to appear, given to him by a demon.: The boy had made a pact with the devil in a certain cave ; but the Ynca did not understand that this was the work of the old enemy, and that he had succeeded with the boy and girl because they had become his subjects, and held the huacanquis in their hands. They say that from that time many huacas appeared on the hills and in the streams without shame, and it was ordered that there should be sacrifices in each village. In those days they began to sacrifice with human blood, white lambs, guinea pigs, coca, shells, grease and sancu} This unfortunate Sinchi Rocca passed all his time in sensuality, and he ordered search to be made for chutarpu ' Mossi (113). Herbs given by sorcerers, as love philtres. * Maize pudding. 82 AN ACCOUNT OF THE and huanarpu/ to make fornication a custom, and thus there were so many huaeanquis that the Indians gave them as presents. They say that this ill-fated Ynca had a son named Ynca Lloque Yupanqui, whom he left as his successor when he died. This heir was a great proficient at fasting, and had never chosen to know a woman till he was very old. He prohibited fornication and drunkenness, and was a great patron of agriculture. He did not undertake conquests like his grandfather, though occasionally he assembled an army, in order to strike terror among his enemies. They also say that he ordered all his men to pull out their beards and appear without hair.^ He also ordered that all the people in his dominions should flatten the heads of their children, so that they might be long and sloping from the front ; and this was done to make them obedient. He also commanded houses to be made for the virgins, and these houses were divided into four classes : — yurac-aclla, hvayru-aclla, pacu- aclla, and yana-aclla.^ The first for the Creator, called Uiracocha-pacha-yachachi ; the huayru-aclla for the virgins of the Ynca, the jpacu-aclla for the women of the Apu-cura- cas,^ and the yana-aclla for the common people. Many youths were also reared who were not to know women, who afterwards became soldiers. They say that when the Ynca Lloque Yupanqui was very old, he had a son by a woman named Mama Tancarayacchi Chimpu Cuca, daughter of a liuaca in the village of Tancar. She bore the Ynca Majta Ccapac^ at the end of a year, and ' The chutarpu is the male form of committing fornication, and the huanarpu the opposite. " The beardless chin is called pachacaqui, and the tweezers with which they pull out the hairs canipachi. * See Historia de Copacabana, by Kamos. AcUa^ "chosen, set apart." Turac, " white." Tana, " black." » Great Lords. • Mayta Ccapac was so called because, as a child, Jie used to s?y May- ANTIQUITIES OF PERU. 83 they say that he cried out many times while he was yet in the womb of his mother. A few months after his birth he began to talk, and at ten years of age he fought valiantly and defeated his enemies. He governed very well, making moral laws, and forbidding evil customs. They say that this Ynca Mayta Ccapac foretold the coming of the holy gospel. While he was a boy he ordered all the huacas and idols to be brought to the city of Cuzco, promising to hold a great festival ; but he caused trouble to the worshippers of these huacas by setting them on fire. They say that many escaped in the form of fire and wind, and as birds. There were Aysso-uilca, Chinchay-cocha, and the Imaca of the Canaris, and JJilcanota, Putina, Coropuna, Antapuca, CJio- quiracra, and ChuquipilluJ They say that this Ynca was a great enemy of the idols, and as such he ordered his people to pay no honours to the sun and moon, declaring that the sun and moon and all the elements were made for the service of men. He was also a severe judge of those who practised forbidden things, such as enchanters, canchuSfUmus,^ layccas,^ huaca-muchas,^ and those who worked on the chief day of the festival of Ccapac-raymi. He gave thanks on that day to the Creator Tica-ccajpac (called also Caprichay) , and chastised those who were undutiful to himself or to their parents, liars, adulterers, fornicators, evil livers, thieves, murderers, drunkards. He commanded that there should be no unjust wars, and that all men should be employed in tilling the ground and building. He caused landmarks to be set up in every village, and those who moved them were punished. In his reign there was uni- versal peace. tac Ccapac, " O Lord, where art Thou?" and he repeated this thought by reason of his longing to know his Creator, ' Names of the places where these Huacas were worshipped. ^ Priests. ® Sorcerers, ^ Idol worshippers. Huaca, " an idol," and Muchani, " I worship." 84 AN ACCOUNT OF THE They say that, in appearance, this Ynca was more noble than the others. He caused the plate to be renewed, which his great-grandfather had put up, fixing it afresh in the place where it had been before. He rebuilt the house of Ccuricancha; and they say that he caused things to be placed round the plate, which I have shown, that it may be seen what these heathens thought. The Ynca also instituted new songs, and caused very large drums to be made for the feast of Ccapac Raymi. But he only held this feast in honour of the Lord and Creator, despising all the created things, even the highest, such as men, and the sun and moon. Here I will show how they were depicted until the arrival of the holy gospel, except that then the plate was missing, be- cause Huascar Ynca had removed it, and had substituted another round plate, like the sun with rays. Nevertheless, some say that they were placed on each side of the plate of Mayta Ccapac. Although Huascar Ynca had placed an image of the sun in the place where that of the Creator had been, yet it shall not be omitted here ; for there was an image of the sun and moon on either side of it. Sun. ^'^S5t.__^s»>^ Moon.

Plate of fine pold ; image of the Creator and of the
true Sun of the aun, called Uiiacocha-pachaya-

They say that a Spaniard gambled for this plate of gold
in Cuzco,^ as I shall presently mention in its place, for now
I want to proceed with the lives of other Yncas.
» See a. de la Vega, i, p. 272.


They say that Mayta Ccapac Ynca was very wise, that he
knew all the medicines, and could foresee future events. On
occasion of the Ccapac Ray mi, in honour of Uiracocha
Pachayachachi, they held a solemn festival, which lasted for
a whole month. The Ynca said many times, in the evenings
after the days of festivity, that the feast will soon be over,
and then comes death, as the night follows the day, and as
sleep is the image of death. The festival, he would say, is
the type of the true festival, and fortunate are those reason-
ing creatures who shall attain to the true feast of eternity,
and know the name of the Creator ; for men do not die like
beasts. In consequence of these reflections he kept a fast
in Toco-cachi,^ with great mourning, only eating one row of
grains from a mazorca of maize, each day, and so he passed
a whole month.

This Mayta Ccapac had a son named Ccapac Yupanqui*
by Mama Tancapay-yacchi. He had another son Apu Urco
Suaman Ynti Cunti Mayta, and another Jlrco Huaranca.
Their descendants multiplied so as to form the TJsca Mayta
Ayllu and Huanaynin Ayllu;^ though Ccapac Yupanqui was
the heir, who was most successful in arms.

After the death of Mayta Ccapac, many great Curacas
and chiefs of this kingdom submitted to his son Ccapac
Yupanqui. They say that, in his time, they invented the
sacrifices of capaucha-cocuy , burying virgin boys with silver
and gold; and of the arpac with human blood, or with white
lambs called iiracarpaiia, cuyes,^ and grease. It happened
one day that the same Ynca Ccapac Yupanqui wished to
witness how the huacas conversed with their friends, so he
entered the place selected, which was in a village of the


A suburb of Cuzco. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 249.

* This son of Mayta Ccapac was called Ccapac Yupanqui because,
when lie was a child, his father said, ” Ccapacta tacmi ytipanguV’^
” Thou also shalt count as one rich in all virtues.”

* See O. de la Vega^ ii. p. 531. Hxianayuin is, I think, a clerical error
for Huahuanina. * Guinea pigs.


Andes called Capacuyo. When the young Ynca entered
among these idolaters, he asked why they closed the doors
and windows so as to leave them in the dark, and they all
replied that in this way they could make the huaca come,
who was the enemy to the name of God Almighty, and that
there must be silence. When they had made an end of
calling the Devil, he entered with a rush of wind that made
them all in a cold sweat of horror. Then the young Ynca
ordered the doors and windows to be opened, that he might
know the shape of that thing for which they had waited with
such veneration. But as soon as it was light the Devil hid
its face, and knew not how to answer. The dauntless Ynca
Ccapac Yupanqui said — “Tell me what you are called^’; and,
with much shame, it replied that its nameVas Cana-chuap
yauirca. The Ynca then said — “Why are you so frightened
and ashamed ? If you can grant children, long life, good
fortune, coycollas and huacanquis, why do you stand there
like a criminal without raising your eyes ? I tell you that
you are some false deceiver ; for if you were powerful you
would not be afraid nor hang down your head. I now feel
that there is another Creator of all things, as my father
Mayta Ccapac Ynca has told me.” The figure of this devil
was ugly, with a foul smell, and coarse matted hair. It fled
out of the house, raising shouts like thunder; and they say
that from that time all the huacas feared the Yncas ; and
the Yncas also used the yacarcay, in the name of the Crea-
tor, as follows : —

Hurinapachap hicrinpachap, cochamantarayocpa camaquimpa
tocuya pacopa sinchinauiyocpa manchaysimiyocpa caycasicachun cay-
huarmicachun nispacamacpa sutinrammica machiyqui pincanqui may-
canmicanqui y mactamninqui rimayTii.

With these words the Yncas made all the huacas tremble ;
although they had not left off performing capacochacocuy.
If these Yncas had heard the gospel, with what love and joy
would they have believed in God ! They say that this Ynca


Ccapac Yupanqui had a son, by his wife Mama Gorillpay-
cahua, named Ynca Ruca, at whose birth there was much
festivity. But the Ynca did not entirely separate himself
from idolaters, as he allowed the huacas of each village to
be worshipped. It is said that the Ynca sent men to search
for the place called Titicaca, where the great Tonapa had
arrived, and that they brought water thence to pour over
the infant Ynca Ruca, while they celebrated the praises of
Tonapa. In the spring on the top of the rocks, the water
was in a basin called ccapacchama quispisutuc unuJ Future
Yncas caused this water to be brought in a bowl called
curi-ccacca,^ and placed before them in the middle of the
square of Cuzco, called Huacay-pata : Cusi-pata : where
they did honour to the water that had been touched by

In those days the Curacas of Asillu and Hucuru told the
Ynca how, in ancient times, a poor thin old man, with a
beard and long hair, had come to them in a long shirt, and
that he was a wise councillor in affairs of state, and that his
name was Tonapa Vihinquira. They said that he had
banished all the idols and hapi-nunu demons to the snowy
mountains. All the Curacas and chroniclers also said that
this Tonapa had banished all the huacas and idols to the
mountains of Asancata, Quiyancatay, Sallcatay, and Api-
tosiray. When all the Curacas of the provinces of Ttahuantin-
suyu were assembled in the Huacay-pata, each in his place,
those of the Huancas said that this Tonapa Varivillca had
also been in their land, and that he had made a house to
live in, and had banished all the huacas and hapi-nunus in
the province of Hatun Sausa Huanca to the snowy moun-
tains in Pariacaca and Vallollo. Before their banishment
these idols had done much harm to the people, menacing
the Curacas to make them offer human sacrifices. The

‘ Ccapac, ” rich.” Chama, ” joy.” Qidspisutu^ ” crystal drops”.
Unu, “water.” * ” Golden Rock.”


Tnca ordered that the house of Tonapa should be preserved.
It was at the foot of a small hill near the river as you enter
Xauxa from the Cuzco road, and before coming to it there
are two stones where Tonapa had turned a female huaca
into stone for having fornicated with a man of the Huancas.
It was called Atapymapuranutapya, and afterwards, in the
time of Huayna Ccapac Ynca, the two stones declared to the
people that they were huacanqui coycoylla. In those days
there were also huacanquis in the wilderness of Xauxa, and
before coming to Pachacamac, and in a nest of the suyuntuy
(turkey buzzard) and stones in Chincha-yunca.

The Ynca Ccapac Yupanqui commenced the building of
the fortress of Sacsahuaman. He extended his territory to
Vilcanota, where he found a huaca called Rurucachi, and in
returning he found another huaca in the village of Huaruc
called Uiracocha^nparaca besides- the huacas of Yanacocha,
Yacachacota, Yayanacota de Lanquisupa, Achuy Tupiya,
and Atantacopap. Ccapac Yupanqui exclaimed: — ‘^’^ How
many false gods are there in the land, to my sorrow and
the misfortune of my vassals ! When shall these evils be
remedied ?” But he returned to Cuzco without doing more
harm to the huacas ; for in those days there were very few
Apu Curacas who had not their huacas, and they were all
deceived by false gods.

When the Ynca died, he was succeeded by his son the
Ynca Ruca, who received the tupac-yauri, tupac-cusi, and
tupac-pichuc-llautu. This Ynca Ruca understood the
making of cloth of cumpis,^ and he was a great patron of
dancing, so that in his time nothing was done but dancing,
eating, drinking, and other enjoyment. Idolatrous rites
increased, and people devoted themselves to the worship of
huacas; for the chiefs and people always follow the example
that is set them by their sovereign.

They say that the eldest son of this Ynca Ruca was named
9 Fine cloth. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 324.


Yahuar-huaccac^ Ynca Yupanqui. His motlier was Mamicay-
cliimpu ; and at his birth there was a grand feast. The
square and all the streets were filled with arches of feathers,
and the house of Curicancha was entirely covered with rich
plumes, both within and without. They played on eight
drums, and sang the ayma, torca, cayo, and hualima cha-
mayuricssa, and haylli, and cacltra, giving thanks to the
Creator, and saying . —

Hananhamuyrac chiccha hurincMccha apu hinantima lluttactic-
cicapac runahuallpac llaychunca muchay cuscayqui allcaFianiy huan
chipicnispa hullpaycuscayqui riacllahuay mayucuna pachacunaripis
cucunari callapallatichinay hancmtarac cahariusinay llapan concay-
qui raurac manayllay quihuanpas ynya y cuspalla rochocallasun
cusicullasun ancha hinalla taclica nispardcusun.

While they were all singing in the Huacay-pata, they say
that the infant wept bloodj an unheard of miracle, which
caused much alarm, and hence the name Yahuar-huaccac
Ynca. His father the Ynca diligently searched for some
one who could interpret the meaning of this incident. In
those days the hualla-huisas, cunti-hulsas, cana-huisas were
great sorcerers ; and there assembled such a vast number
of canchus, carcaft, umus, uscatus, huisas, that there was not
room for them all in Cuzco. The Ynca did not like to con-
fide his secrets to so many, lest the people should lose their
veneration for him, so he reprehended them publicly, say-
ing that there were many wise men but little wisdom, and
he dismissed them ; but these enchanters, necromancers,
wizards, and witches returned with more liberty than they
had had before, and their idolatrous practices increased.

The Ynca Euca died, and left the sovereignty to his eldest
son Yahuar-huaccac Ynca Yupanqui, who began by being
very free and liberal, but was finally so impoverished that
he was obliged to draw tribute from the provinces, for the
expenses of his house. At last the people rose in rebellion,
1 See G. de la Vega, i, pp. 327, 347 ; ii, 62.


and, seeing this, the Ynca dissimulated, so that the people
became quiet and brought him all kinds of presents. They
say that this Ynca ordered the prisons to be made outside
the town, that he might not see the punishment of criminals.
As he grew old he began to undertake conquests, and
ordered dresses to be made with plumes, and purapuras of
gold and silver, and of copper for the soldiers, to put on the
breast and shoulders as a protection against arrows and
spears ; and he distributed these among his captains and

This Ynca^s eldest son was named Uira-ccocha Ynca
Yupanqui, whose mother was Mama Chuqui – cJiecya, a
native of Ayamarca, and great-great-grand-daughter of To-
cay Ccapac. In the festival of his birth they represented
plays called anay saoca^ hayachuco, llama-llama haiiamsi.
The Ynca marched round Cuzco with his army, without
making war upon any enemy. On his death he left the
Ynca Uira-ccocha to succeed him.

The Ynca Uira-ccocha was married to Mama Runtucay, a
native of Anta, and at the marriage and coronation all the
people assembled, and among them Chuchi-ccapac of the
Hatun-Collas, who came in a litter with his guards and
servants, and with his idol or huaca richly adorned ; and he
often disputed with the Ynca, saying : —

Cam Cu2C0-Ccapac mica Colla-Ccapac hupyasumicusu rimasu
amapirima Tmca coUque tiya cam chuqui tiya. Cam Uiracochanpa-
chayachi viucha. Nuca Ynti-muclia?

At last the Ynca, being affable and friendly, assented ;
for he is said to have been too gentle. His chief employ-
ment was the building of houses, and of the fortress on the
Sacsahuaman, and to cultivate and plant quiscuar and molli
trees ; but he neglected all warlike pursuits. He had a na-

2 Thou art Lord of Cuzco. I am Lord of the Collas. I have a silver
throne. Thy throne is of gold. Thou art a worshipper of Uira-ccocha-
Pachayachachi. I worship the Sun.


tural son named Ynca Urcu, to whom he renounced the king-
dom during his life time. This Ynca Urcu undertook the con-
quest of Colla-suyu with a great army. Before setting out
he sent a haughty demand for tribute, but all the tribes,
which had not acknowledged him as their lord, refused
compliance. Ynca Urcu then set out with a powerful army,
and undertook the conquest without securing the loyalty of
the intervening tribes. He passed through the country of
the Caviiias, taking with him the statue of Manco-Ccapac,
to secure good fortune for himself. But he was defeated
and killed at Huana-calla, by the hand of Yamqui Pachacuti,
the chief of Huayra-Cancha. Then the Hanco-allos and
Chancas besieged the city of Cuzco, which roused the Ynca
Uira-ccocha Yupanqui from his careless ease. He knew
not what course to pursue, and applied to the Hanco-alloa
and Chancas. Eventually he came out to arrange a peace,
to Yuncay-pampa. Then his legitimate son, named Ynca
Yupanqui, whom his father detested, was afflicted at the
sight of his capital encompassed by an enemy. His heart
was emboldened and he took the road to Cuzco, but before
he arrived at Callachaca, as he travelled along the road
alone, he saw a very fair and beautiful youth on the top of a
rock, who said : ” son, I promise, in the name of the
Creator, on whom you have called in your troubles, that he
has heard you, and will give you the victory over your ene-
mies. Fight then without fear.” He then disappeared,
and the prince felt at once emboldened and capable of com-
mand. On reaching his palace, he cried out, saying : —
”Cuzco Ccajoac pac churacllay yana paJmay may pimcanqui.”
Then he entered the house of arms, and took out all the
offensive and defensive weapons. At that juncture twenty
Orejones arrived, his relations, sent by his father. He armed
all the men and women and, entering the temple, he took
the tupac-yauri^ and ccapac unancha/^ and unfurled the
3 Sceptre. * Standard.


standard of the Yncas. The city became a fortress, and the
enemy commenced the attack, but the prince had forgotten
the tupac-yauri. At the first encounter, the prince Ynca
Yupanqui was knocked down by a stone from a sling, and
remained half insensible. Then he heard a voice from
heaven saying that he had not got the sceptre of tupac-yauri.
So he went back to the temple and took the sceptre, and
returned to the battle, encouraging the captains and soldiers
to fisrht. Meanwhile an old Ynca, a near relation of the
prince’s father, named Tupac Ranchiri, who was a priest of
the Ccuricancha, set some stones in a row, and fastened shields
and clubs to them, so that they might look at a distance,
like rows of soldiers sitting down. The prince, looking out
for succour from his father Uira-ccocha Yupanqui Ynca, saw
these rows from a distance, and cried out to the supposed
soldiers to rise, as his men were on the point of yielding.
The Chancas continued the attack with increased fury, and
then the prince saw that the stones had become men,
and they rose up and fought with desperate courage and
skill, assaulting the Anco-allos and Chancas ; so the prince
gained a victory, and followed the enemy to Quizachllla,
where he beheaded the chiefs of the hostile army, named
Tomay-huaraca, Asto-liuaraca, and Huascci-Tornay Rimac.
He thus gained a great victory ;^ and they say that a widow
named Glianan Coricoca fought valiantly in the battle like a
soldier. The prince sent presents of the heads of the Chancas
and Anco-Allos to his father. But the Ynca Uira-ccocha
Ynca Yupanqui was ashamed to return to Cuzco, and lived
at Puna-marca until his death. The young prince Ynca
Yupanqui assembled more troops, and followed the Anco-
Allos and Chancas, overtaking them at the river Apurimac,
where the flying enemy killed one of the bravest of the Ynca
captains, named Vilcaquiri, by hurling a stone upon him.

* This is the same battle described by Garcilasso de la Vega^ ii, p,


He exclaimed to the prince, ” Is it possible that I must die
without having fought or gained any glory ?’^ They hollowed
out the trunk of a tree, and buried the body in the tree,
and the fruit of that tree yields a medicine called villca,
which is good for all heated and feverish humours.^

The Ynca Yupanqui followed the enemy as far as Anda-
huayllas ; and, on his return to Cuzco, he undertook the
conquest of Colla-suyu ; and other provinces submitted
peaceably. Among them was that of the famous chief Yam-
qui-Pachacuti, whom the prince thanked for the death of
Ynca TJrcu, his brother. And the prince took “his name and
added it to his own, which became Pachacuti Ynca Yupan-
qui, He conquered all the land of the Colla-suyu, and invaded
the provinces of the Chayas and Caravayas, where he de-
stroyed a famous idol. He subdued the Chayas and 011a-
cheas, and, leaving a garrison in Ayapata,”’ he returned to
Cuzco. He next marched to the country of the Chancas
with fifty thousand men ; and at Vilcas-huaman he found
seven huacas in the form of very great Cui-acas, black, and
very ugly. They were called Ayssa-vilca, Pariacaca, Chin-
chacocha, Huallallu Chuqniracra ; and two others of the
Canaris. The prince took them .and sent them to Cuzco, to
work at the Sacsahuaman fortress, and also afterwards to
labour at the look-out towers on the sea-shore, at Chincha
and Pachacamac. Then Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui con-
quered the provinces of the Angaraes, Chilqui-urpus, Pu-
canas, and Soras. He received news that the Huancas were
preparing for war at Taya-cassa ; so he encamped at Pau-
caray and Rumi-huasi, where he formed three armies, which
were to invade the valley of Hatun-Huanca-Sausa simulta-
neously. They advanced from Paucaray, but the enemy

« Huillca^ a tree, the fruit of which, like the hipin, is a purgative. —
Mossi, p. 127.

‘ Ollachea and Ayapata are villages to the eastward of the Andes, in


submitted, and brought in provisions, and presents of
maidens. The Ynca was pleased at the peaceful submission
of these people, and he promised to confirm their three
Curacas in their lordships, conferring upon them the addi-
tional title o^ Api( ; and he ordered one of them to be given
shoes of gold. He then entered the valley of Sausa in pur-
suit of his enemy Anco-allo, passing by Tarma, Colla-pampa,
Huanucu, and Huamalies, and Cassamarca, until he reached
a province where the people feasted on their dead. He con-
tinued to advance until he came to the province of the
Canaris, which was full of sorcerers and huacas. Thence he
marched to Huanoavillca ; but the Anco-allos entered the
forests, leaving their idol behind them.^

The Ynca Pachacuti obtained great sums of gold, silver,
and umina (emeralds) ; and he came to an island of the
Yuncas, where there were many pearls called churitp-mamam,
and many more uminas. Thence he marched to the country
of Chimu, where was Chimu Ccapac, the chief of the Yuncas,
who submitted and did all that was required of him. The
Curaca of Cassamarca, named Pisar-Ccapac, did the same.
The Ynca then marched along the coast to Rimac-yuncas,
where he found many small villages, each with its huaca.
Here he found Chuspi-huaca, and Picma-huaca, and a great
devil called Aissa-villca. He then advanced, by Pachaca-
mac, to Chincha, where he found another huaca and devil.
Returning to Pachacamac, he rested there for some days.
At that time thei^e was hail and thunder, which terrified the
Yuncas. The Ynca did not demand tribute here, as he had
done in the other provinces.

He then pursued his way without stopping, by Mama
and Chaclla to Xauxa, and went thence to Huancavilca,
where he found two natural springs flowing with chicha, at

a time when all his soldiers were sufferinsr from thirst. The


* See the account of the flight of Hanco-hualla (Anco-allo) in G. de la
Vegn, ii, pp. 82 and 329.


natives presented him with ychma (colour), and the Yauyua
brought him gold and silver. He next came to Huamanin,
near Villcas, where he had first seen the seven evil liuacas.
In Puma-cancha/ a very hot place before coming to Villcas,
his eldest legitimate son was born, named Amaru Yupanqui,
and he rested there for some days. Here the news arrived
of a miracle at Cuzco. A yauirca or araaru, a ferocious
creature, half a league long and two brazas and a half wide,
with ears, eye-teeth, and a beard, had come forth from the
mountain of Pachatusan, and entered the lake of Quichui-
pay. Then two sacacas (comets) of fire came out of Ausan-
cata, and went towards Arequipa; and another went to-
wards some snowy mountains near Huamanca. They were
described as animals with wings, ears, a tail, and four legs,
with many spikes on their backs ; and from a distance they
appeared to be made of fire. So Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui
set out for Cuzco, where he found that his father, Uira-
ccocha Ynca Yupanqui, was now very old and infirm.

Then were celebrated the festivals of his return, and of
the Ccapac Eaymi of Pachayachachi, with great rejoicing.
The Curacas and Mitmays of Caravaya brought a chvqui-
cJiinchay, which is an animal of many colours, said to have
been chief of the uturuncus} This Ynca caused all the
deformed and idiotic persons to be employed in making
clothes. He was very fortunate in arms. When his father
died, the mourning was vicuna wool of a white colour ; and
the soldiers were ordered to carry the body of the old man,
with his arms and insignia, through the city, singing a war-
song and bearing their shields and clubs, their llaca-chuquis/
chasca-chuquis, suruc-chuquis. The women came forth in
another procession, with their hair shorn, and dressed in
black, and their faces blackened, flogging themselves with

^ The deep hot valley of the river Pampas.

• Jaguars.

* Llaca, a plumed lance (^Mossi).


quichuas and coyas, secsec, sihuicas.^ They say that these
women mourned for a whole week, and sought for the body
of the dead Ynca.

Afterwards Pachacuti undertook the conquest of the
Cunti-suyus, and in the Collao he fell in with the Collas and
Camanchacas, who are great sorcerers. Thence he marched
to Arequipa, Chancha, and to the Chumpivillcas, and thence
to Parina-cocha, retuniing to the city by the country of the
Aymaraes, ChoUques, and Papris. At that time they say
that the Capacuyos sent a poor man with hiiltis (clay pots
in which they keep llipta), who gave Pachacuti Ynca a blow
on the head with the intention of killing him. The man
was tortured, and confessed that he was a Cavina of the
QuiquijanaSj and that he had come to kill the Ynca at the
request of the Capacuyos. So the Ynca ordered the pro-
vince of the Cavinas to be laid waste; but they said that the
fault was not theirs, but the Capacuyos, whose Curaca was
Apu Calama Yanqui, and who numbered near 20,000 men,
besides women and children. They were all put to death.
They say that they tried to murder the Ynca, by advice of
their huaca, Canacuay.* Then the Yuca’s second son was
born, named Tupac Ynca Yupanqui ; and the Ynca under-
took the conquest of the Antisuyus with 100,000 men. But
the huaca of Canacuay sent forth fire, and stopped the
passage with a fierce serpent which destroyed many people.
The Ynca raised his eyes to heaven and prayed for help with
great sorrow, and a furious eagle descended, and, seizing
the head of the serpent, raised it on high and then hurled
it to the -ground. In memory of this miracle the Ynca
ordered a snake to be carved in stone on the wall of a terrace
in this province, which was called Anca-pirca.

» Xhichca of 3fossi (148) ; secsec of Mossi (278) ; sihui of Mossi
(235). Different kinds of thorn bushes.

* Name of the mountain between Paucartampu and the eastern
forests.— See G. de la Vega^ i, p. 330.


The Ynca returned to Cuzco, and he was very old. News
came that a ship had been seen on the sea; and after another
year a youth entered the city with a great book which he
gave to the old Ynca and then disappeared. The Ynca
fasted for six months in Tococachi without ceasing. After-
wards the Ynca Pachacuti resigned the kingdom to his son
Amaru Tupac Ynca^ who would not accept it, but devoted
his time to farming and building. Seeing this, Pachacuti
transferred the succession to his second son, Tupac Ynca
Yupanqui, whom all the tribes joyfully acknowledged. So
he was crowned, and the sceptre called Tupac-yauri was de-
livered to him. He ordered that the soldiers of all the
tribes should assemble in Cuzco, for he had heard that there
was a rebellion in Quito. He marched to conquer the rebels
with twenty thousand men ; and another twelve thousand
with their wives as garrisons and mitimaes.^ He ordered
the troops to join him from all part^, he punished the
rebels, removed them from their native land to other parts,
and divided the spoils among his soldiers. He distributed
rich dresses of cumpis and puracalmas of plumes, shields,
pura-puras of gold and silver ; and to the officers shirts of
gold and silver, and diadems called huacra-chucu.^ Thus
he arrived at Quito, always gaining the victory, and after-
wards he returned to Tumipampa, after leaving mitimaes in
Cayambis ; but he did not punish the’ natives because they
made very humble excuses and were pardoned.

In those days there was a great famine which lasted for
seven years, and during that time the seed produced no
fruit. Many died of hunger, and it is even said that some
ate their own children. The Ynca was then living at
Tumipampa. They say that Amaru Tupac Ynca, during
those seven years of famine, obtained large harvests from

* Colonists.

‘ Huacra^ a horn; and chucu, a head-dress. This was the name of a
large tribe near Cassamarca. — See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 322.


his farms at Calla-chaca and Lucrioc-chulloy that the dews
always descended upon them at night, and that frost never
visited them, insomuch that the people would have wor-
shipped him by reason of the miracle ; but Amaru Tupac
would not consent to this insult to the Creator. He rather
humbled himself, feeding the poor during the seven years
of famine. For his disposition was to be humble and meek
to all. He had filled- the collcas or granaries with food
many months before. His descendants were the Ccapac-
Ayllu. At that time Huayna Ccapac Ynca was born in
Tumipampa, a town of the Canaris, his father being Tupac
Ynca Yupanqui, and his mother Coya Mama Anahuarqui.
The Ynca built the great palace of Tumipampa-Pachacanaac ;
and all the sorcerers were pardoned in honour of the prince’s
birth, at the intercession of his mother, they having been
condemned to death. For the Ynca Tupac Yupanqui had
always been a gre’at executor of justice upon llaycas and
umus, and a destroyer of huacas, but not for this did they
cease to increase in number.

Eventually the Ynca returned to Cuzco, sending a cap-
tain in advance, named Arequi Ruca, with twelve thousand
men, by the coast road, that he might visit the provinces
and punish all rebels. The Ynca went direct to Cuzco,
taking with him Cayambis, Canaris, and Chachapuyas as
labourers. He also took many girls of the Quitus, Quilacus,
Quillasencas, Chachapuyas, Yuncas, Huayllas, and Huancas,
as chosen maidens for Tied Ccapac Uiracochan Pachacya-
chachi, called Yurac-aclla, Huayra-aclla, Paco-aclla, and
Yana-aclla j^ and much wealth of gold and silver and pre-
cious stones, and plumes of feathers. He then ordered
that all the provinces from Quitu to Cuzco should make
farms and collcas or granaries, roads and bridges and tam-
jpus ;^ that there should be acllas,^ in all the provinces,

‘ See p. 82. « Inns.

^ Chosen virgins.


officers of ciimpis,^ smiths, Paucar-camayoc, Pillcu-camayoc,^
and garrisons of soldiers for the security of the land, and
hampi-camayoc? The Ynca also gave orders that every
village should supply food for the poor.

When the Ynca approached Cuzco, where Pachacuti
Ynca Yupanqui had remained with thirty thousand men of
war, the old man came out to meet him as far as Yillca-
cunca, with his chiefs or Apu Curacas, in litters ; and the
two armies made a most brilliant appearance with their
gold and silver and rich plumes. The two forces imitated
skirmishes, and the good old man, from joy at seeing his
son and grandson, made his son a general, and his grandson
master of the camp. He then sent half his army with
Uturuncu achachi^and cagir ccapac (this cagir ccapac means
a vice-general or viceroy), and with all the Apu Curacas,
that they might all be in order of battle on the Sacsahuaman
fortress, to defend the city ; that his grandson, Huayna
Ccapac, might have a battle with fifty thousand men all
armed with gold and silver. This was done by way of a
representation or comedy, and those in the fortress were
conquered, who were Cayambis and Pastus, and their heads
were cut off (which was done by anointing them with the
blood of llamas) and put upon lances. Then there was a
triumphal march, with the haylli/ to the Ccuricancha, where
they offered up their prayers to the simple image of the
Creator. Then the captains came forth by the other door
to the square of Huacay-pata-Cusi-pata, with the song of the
quichu, and the Curacas sat on their tiyanas^ in their order.
Here also sat Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui, with his sons
Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, and Amaru Tupac Ynca, all on

1 Fine cloth. * Keepers of plumes and garlands.

3 Doctors. Hampi, medicine.

* Name of a general. The words mean ” Grandfather of a jaguar”.
But Achachi is a grandfather in the Colla language, Inr- •Quichua a
grandfather is Machu. He was probably a Colla general.

» Song of triumph. ‘ Thrones.


equal tiyanas made of gold, all richly dressed with their
ccapac-llautus,’^ and the old man held the golden sceptre of
tujpac yauri, while his sons only had cJiamjns^ of gold.

But the administration of the empire was left to Tupac
Ynca Yupanquij and his child Huayna Ccapac remained in
the Gcuri-cancha without coming forth during that year.
The festival of Ccapac Raymi was kept with great solem-.
nity by the three ministers of the temple of Ccuricancha,
Apu-Rimac, and Auqui-Challcu-Yupanqui, and Apu-cama ;
who called the Ynca their son, and his house was on the
site of the present convent of San Agustin.

At this time the old Pachacuti Yupanqui died, seeming
to fall asleep, without feeling any pain, at whose death
there was much mourning, and food, wool, and clothing
were distributed among the poor, throughout the kingdom,
and many old captains were buried with him, together with
all his pages, whom, it was said, he would require for his
service in the other life. They made them drunk befoi’e
they were put to death. They say that this Pachacuti
Ynca Yupanqui had great store of gold and silver, which
was kept in a vault, divided into three chambers, in the
valley of Pisac. The body of Pachacuti was placed in the
house of the dead bodies of the other Yncas and their
wiveSj where they are embalmed and arranged in their
order, each in its recess.

On his death the provinces of the Puquinas and Collas
rebelled, from A^illcanota to Chacamarca, with all the JJrco-
suijus of Achacache, Huancane, Asillu, and Asancaru, and
they made their fortress in Llallahua Pucara with two
hundred thousand men ; but as this fortress could not con-
tain them all, those who had least courage went into two
other strongholds in the province. So Tupac Ynca Yupan-
qui assembled an army to attack them ; and the Hanan-
Quichuas and Hurin-Quichuas, confident in their prowess,
‘ Royal fringe. s Battle-axes.


petitioned to be allowed to marcli against the enemj. At
last the Ynca yielded to their importunity, and a very
powerful army of twelve thousand Quichuas marched from
Cuzco, full of confidence, well armed, taking with them a
huaca, or idol.

They began to fight in Huarmi-Pucara^ with the women
of the Quillacas, and the Quichuas were defeated. They
retired to the principal fortress of Llahua-pucara, where
they were besieged by the Collas and entirely cut to pieces.
One man escaped, and brought the news to Tupac Ynca
Yupanqui, who mourned for the flower of his army. Then
he set out himself from Cuzco with one hundred and twenty
thousand men, and marched against the Collas, laying siege
to the said fortress of Llallahua-pucara. This siege lasted
for three years. Then the Collas offered ‘up sacrifices to the
sun, of children and cuis,^ and from the air there was an
encouraging answer to their Tayta^ (Tayta means a minister
of the huacas). Then they waged war upon the Ynca with-
out any fear ; but it fell out very differently from what they
expected, for the Ynca attacked these Collas with renewed
fury, and there was much bloodshed. Next day the Collas,
to strike terror among the troops of the Ynca, began to
sing and beat drums, after which there was another battle
without any decisive result. On the third day the Ynca
and his captains renewed the assault at sunrise and drove
back the Collas. Then Chuchi-Ccapac and his chiefs escaped
to the province of the Lupacas dressed as women. They
were brought before the Ynca in the town of Cac-yaviri,
with the huaca of Ynti and other huacas. Tupac Ynca
Yupanqui ordered the chiefs and the huacas to be placed in
the centre of their army of one hundred thousand men,
where they were insulted, and, to increase the affront, he
sentforthe huyachucos, suyuntus,^ llama-llamas, and chunires

‘ Huarmi, a -woman. Pticara, a fortress. ^ Guinea pigs.

* Tai/ta means father, master. ‘ Turkey buzzards.


to trample upon them, and eventually they were thrown into
the lake of Urcos, while the Collas were brought in triumph
to Cuzco. In memory of these cruel wars of the Collas, the
Ynca ordered two darts of gold and siver to be placed in
Villcaiiota, and he left Tnitimaes and garrisons of loyal men
for the security of the conquered provinces.

The Ynca then assembled 200,000 men to undertake a
new conquest in the Andes, naming Uturuncu Achachi as
general of the army, and Ocapac Huari, Poqui-llacta, and
others of the Chillquis, Papris, and Canas, as officers. These
did good service in the conquest of the provinces of Mana-
resu and Upatari, as far as the confines of Huancavillca on
one side, and to Caravaya on the other, where they met with
a province inhabited entirely by women, called flttarmi-awca.*
They then crossed a river of great volume ; but at first, as
no man could pass over, some audacious monkeys, belonging
to a chief of the Manares, went across, and secured ropes and
cables after overcoming great difficulties. This province is
called the Golden, and in it they found a great and rich
land called Escay-oya,^ with a very warlike race of people
who were said to be cannibals ; and they make such deadly
poison, that it would seem they have a pact with the devil.
They fought two desperate battles, and in the third they
were defeated by the soldiers of the Ynca, not because they
were less brave, but by superiority of arms and discipline.
They say that while these new provinces were being num-
bered, and while arrangements were being made for leaving
garrisons, news came that Tupac Ynca Yupanqui had
banished a captain to a province of the Chirihuanas.^
The captain, Apu Quillacta, proclaimed this news to his
people, and they returned to their own land, leaving the
Ynca army with the general, Uturuncu Achachi. This was
the reason that the Escay-oyas, and Upataxis, and Manares

* Huarmi, a woman. Auca^ a soldier. * Illegible in MS.

* This passage is obscure.


again took up arms, for tlie forces of Uturuncu Achaclii
were reduced ; and he returned to Cuzco, abandoning the
conquests made by the labours of three armies and at great
cost of Hves. If this had not happened these provinces
would now be subject to the crown of Spain, and their
inhabitants would have been Christians ; but our Lord
knows it, and has reserved this good work for another time.

In those days the Ynca sent Cacir Ccapac as visitor-
general to the land, giving his commission in lines on a
painted stick ; and before his departure Colla-chahuay,
the Curaca of Tarma, in Chinchaysuyu, was sent to travel
through the country, and eat and drink with all the Curacas,
for this Collcachahuay was the greatest eater and drinker
that God had created in those parts.

The Ynca was in the fortress of Sacsahuaman with all his
officers when Apu-Quillacta and his twelve thousand men
of CoUa-suyu returned, and complained of the ill-treatment
of the exiles. The Ynca excused himself, saying that he
knew nothing of it. Then news came that the Chillis were
assembling warriors to attack the Ynca, and he sent a cap-
tain against them with twenty thousand men, and twenty
thousand of the Huarmi-aucas. The two commanders
marched as far as the Coquimpus, Chillis, and Tucumans,
who were easily subdued, and a great quantity of very fine
gold was brought back to Cuzco. When the Ynca received
this large quantity of gold, he ordered plates of it to be
made to cover the walls of the Ccuricancha. In the feast of
Ccapac-Raymi it was the usual custom of the Ynca to
invite all the people of Ttahuantin-suyu to drink in their
order. The Caracas and common people murmured that
there was stint in the liquor ; and when this came to the
ear of the Ynca, he ordered enormous querns’^ for the ensuing
year, when portentously large q uerus were given three times
in the day.

* Bowls.


At this time there came from the Andes of Upatari three
hundred Antis laden with gold in dust and tubes, and at the
moment of their arrival it began to freeze, and all the crops
were frozen to the roots. So, by advice of the old council-
lors, the Yncar ordered the three hundred men to carry
their loads of gold to Pachatusun, a very high hill, and there
to have them buried. So the unforbunates were killed and
buried as a welcome.

The Ynca died, being very old, as well as his brother
Amaru Tupac Ynca, who had attained a great age. Both
the brothers died in the same year, leaving Huayna Ccapac
Ynca as their heir, and Apu Hualpaya as governor, for the
heir was of tender age. They mourned for the Ynca as they
had done for Pachacuti, forming two armies, one of men
and the other of women, and they buried many yanas,^
jpachacas,^ women, and servants, who were beloved by the
Ynca. The barbarous captains thought that their Ynca
would require to be served in t^e next world by these
people. They say that this governor and coadjutor intended
to raise himself to be ruler of Ttahuantin-suyu, and
that he ordered troops to be secretly assembled from all
parts for a given day. They say that this governor began
to worship the sun and moon and thunder; and Huayna
Ccapac, being a young child, also adored them, and all
things that were put into the Ccuricancha by his ancestors,
supposing that they were put there to be worshipped. And
they say that the governor assigned estates for these false
gods, and that some evil disposed Curacas executed his
orders with alacrity.

This Hualpaya was now ready to rebel without the know-
ledge of the provinces ; and one night a bastard uncle of
Huayna Ccapac was lying half awake and half asleep, very
early in the morning, when he saw troops headed by Hual-
paya surrounding the city, and pointing their arrows at the

* Servants. ” Officers in command of a hundred men.



child Huayna Ccapac. This was a dream ; but the uncle
jumped up as if it had been true, went to the house of Cuys
Manco, and assembled all the councillors. The governor
entered the chamber where twelve grave councillors were
assembled, and asked the cause. The uncle had told them
his dream, and they made him repeat it three times. Then
one ordered the friends of the governor to be seized,
another that fifty men should watch the roads and see if
anything unusual was on foot ; and finally, the most trusted
favourite of Apu Hualpaya confessed that many Indians
laden with coca were on the roads, with their arms concealed,
ready to rebel. Then the governor, with his numerous
followers, could not be seized by the councillors ; so they
assembled five hundred of the most loyal and faithful
of the councillors of Ttahuantin-suyu, who were sworn to
defend the royal house, and he took the ccapac-uancha, or
standard of the Yncas, out of the temple, and went to
the governor, taking 4the infant Huayna Ccapac with
them. Hualpaya was well armed, and on the point of
coming forth with many captains, but he was seized with
his followers and his head was cut off, and those who came
from the provinces to help him were flogged. Then the
councillors continued to rule the whole realm without a

After three years they began to prepare for the feast of /
the coronation ; and they assigned as the wife of Huayna
Ccapac his own sister Ccoya Mama Cusirimay, according
to the custom of his ancestors. They were married on the
day of the coronation, when all the walls and roofs in the
city were covered with rich plumes of feathers, and the
streets were paved with golden pebbles. The people were
gorgeously dressed in cumpis and plumes. The Ynca came
forth from the house of his grandfather Pachacuti Ynca
Yupanqui, followed by all the Apu Curacas of Colla-suyu
and councillors ; while Mama Cusirimay came out of the


palace of Tupac Ynca Yupanquij attended upon by the
Apu Curacas of Chincliay-suyu^ Cunti-suyu, and Anti-suyu,
with all their Auqui-cuna^ according to their rank. They
were in litters, and Huayna Ccapac did not hold the hq^ac-
yauri, but only the champi. Many attendants of less note
surrounded him, all dressed in shining churns’^ and mother-
of-pearl, and well armed with their purupuras^ and chipanas*
of silver. They say that fifty thousand men guarded the
city and the fortress of Sacsahuaman, and that the festival
was a wonderful sight.

The Ynca and his spouse then entered the temple, each
by a separate door, the temple being that of the Creator
Tachayachachi} This is the name given by these heathens,
and the High Priest was called Apu Challcu Yupanqui.
The sovereign and his wife were shod in llanques of gold ;
and afterwards they gave him the chipana of gold and raised
him to the platform whence he performed these ceremonies,
where he said a prayer in a loud voice, which concluded
the proceedings of that day, and they were considered to be
married. Afterwards they delivered to him the tupac-yauri^
and the suntUr-paucar,^ after three days, and the ccapac-
llautu^ and the unincha^ in the same place where they were
married, and in continuation of the same ceremony. They
also delivered to him the ccapac-unancha^ or royal standard
to be carried before him, and the huaman-champi’^ of two
edges, with the shields or huallcmicas,^ uracahuas, and
uma-chucus.* The Ynca took an oath and touched the
ground, promising to emulate the deeds of his forefathers,
and to attend to the things of Pachayachachi and his Ccuri-

1 Auqui, an unmarried prince. Cuna, the plural particle.
« A shell.

» I am uncertain of the exact meaning. Puru is a calabash ; also
false. Furu-ccayan, mourning. * A bracelet. * See p. 11.

^ Royal sceptre. ‘ Royal head-dress. * Fringe.

9 Fillet. > Royal standard. ‘ Club.

^Shield. * 6”wia, ” head.” C/jmc?*, ” head-dresd.


cancha, and to do no evil to the kingrdotn of Ttahuantin-
suyu, keeping the laws of former Yncas^ and favouring all
loyal servants. Then the A^u Challca Yupanqui said a
prayer to the Creator, beseeching him to guard and protect
the Ynca with his powerful hand, and to defend him from
his enemies. Those present then shouted out their acclama-
tions. Then they all praised the Creator called Pachaya-
chachi Uiracochan. Then the Ynca went to the Huacay-
pata, where was his ccapae-iisnu,^ as in Yillcas, and there
each chief and captain, in his order, promised obedience to
the new sovereign.

They say that the disposition of Huayna Ccapac was very
affable and knightly, and that Ccoya Mama Cusirimay was
beautiful. But before he married, Huayna Ccapac had a
son named Ynti Tupac Cusi Hualpa, whose mother was
Eahua Ocllo ; and he was also the father, by a princess
named Tocto Ocllo Cuca, of another son named Tupac
Atahualpa. Then the Ynca had a son by his wife named
Ninancuyochi, whose mother, the Ccoya, died soon after-
wards. Then Huayna Ccapac Ynca wished to marry his
second sister, named Mama Cuca, who refused her consent,
and he then ill-treated her and began to use force, but her
prayers and menaces made him desist. Then he went with
presents and offerings to the body of his father, praying
him to give her for his wife, but the dead body gave no
answer, while fearful signs appeared in the heavens, portend-
ino- blood. This was called Ccalla-sana.^ This made Huayna
Ccapac give up his intention in regard to his sister, so he
gave her to a very old and ugly Curaca who was a great
chewer of coca ; and he did this, not for her good, but in
order to bring shame upon her. She wept ; and leaving
the old man, whose name was Hacaroca, she entered the

* Ccapac, royal. Csnu, a station, land-mark, heap of stones: tribunal
or judgment seat.

* Ccallani, I break. Sanampa, a sign.


house of the Acllas as a princess, and became abbess, never
having submitted to the old man. The Ynca Huayna Ccapac
was then married a second time, but not with such cere-
monies as on his union with his first wife, to Ccoya Chimpu

Then he set out for the provinces of Colla-suyu, to order
the assembly of an army to march to Quito. On the road
his second wife bore a son, named Manco Ynca Yupanqui,
and they went through all the land, and the chiefs and
army assembled at Puma-cancha to march against Quito
and the Cayambis, for every day news came that these
provinces had rebelled. Then the Ynca distributed clothes
and arms and provisions to the soldiers, and the chiefs took
oaths, and the army prepared for the war. The Ynca
named Mihicnaca Mayta as general of the army, and as
generals of the four provinces he nominated four of the
oldest and most experienced chiefs.

The festival of Ccapac Raymi was celebrated in Villcas,
where there was another plate of gold. Here the chiefs
remembered that they had forgotten the statute of Huayna
Ccapac, and the Ynca, consenting to their wishes, sent for
it. In those days messengers came from Rimac, bringing
word that, within the Ccuricancha of Pachacamac (the Ccuri-
cancha was a temple, and there were many in different
parts, the largest being in Cuzco), the huaca had said that
it desired to see the Ynca. So he went to visit Pachamac,
and the huaca spoke to him alone, saying that he must take
riches to Chimu, and honour him more than Uiracochan
Pachayachachi. The Ynca consented, and the wizards re-
joiced. The army reached the town of Tumipampa, where
the Ynca ordered water to be brought from a river by
boring through a mountain, and making the channel enter
the city by curves in this way.’

Half the army was employed in building the edifices for a

‘ See opposite page.


Ccuvicanchaj a wonderful work. Then the Ynca departed
with his army, numbering a million and a half of men, and
came to Picchuya Sicchupuruhuay. All the inhabitants,
with the Cayambis, Quillisencas, and Quillacus, fled to for-
tresses to defend themselves against the Ynca. The two

armies then began to fight, and much blood was shed. The
Colla-suyu troops had been ordered to take the enemy in
the rear, but meanwhile the Cayambis did great injury to
the royal camp, and discovered that the Colla-suyus were
marching very leisurely. So they fell upon them furiously,
and caused great slaughter, so that few escaped in the fine
and powerful army of Colla-suyu. The Ynca felt this mis-
fortune deeply, for the general of Colla-suyu was one of his
wisest councillors. But the Ynca was to blame for having
confided in the promises of the huaca at Pachacamac and
other idols. His men were now left starved and in rags,
while the war became more fierce than ever. At last the
Ynca sent to Cuzco for reinforcements ; but news came that
the Chirihuanus had invaded his territory, which caused
him fresh anxiety. He despatched his most experienced
captains for the conquest of the Chirihuanus, with 20,000
men of the Chinchay-suyus. Thus his army was reduced to
100,000 men, and Vv’ith this he continued the war. He sent
the Colla-suyu troops over the mountains to attack the
fortress of the Cayambis, while the Chinchay-suyus marched
by the plains. The Ynca himself advanced by the direct


road. They fought more furiously than ever^ and the
Colla-suyus climbed to the fortresses of the Cayambis and
attacked them fiercely, sparing neither age nor sex. The
Ynca also fought in person, attended by the Mayus,
Sancus, and Quillis-cachis. The enemies were worn out
with fatigue ; but next day the battle was renewed, and the
Colla-suyus and Chinchay-suyus again attacked the for-
tresses, which were steep rocks. The enemy began to fly
to another place, and the Ynca ordered his army to rest for
that day. The enemy took refuge in a stronger fortress,
and reinforcements joined the Ynca^s army from Cuzco.
The Cayambis fled to the montanas of Otabala,^ and as-
sembled on the shores of a lake, where they were sur-
rounded, and there was great slaughter. The warriors
washed their arms in the lake, and there was a mass of
blood in the centre, so the lake was called Yahuar-ccocha.^

Then the Ynca went to Quito to rest, and to establish his
government and laws. He then advanced beyond Paste,
but returned to Quito, where he solemnized the Ccapac-
Raymi. At the hour for eating a messenger arrived in a
black mantle, who reverently kissed the Ynca, and gave
him a jp’puti} covered up. The Ynca told the messenger to
open it, but he excused himself, saying, that the command
of the Creator was that the Ynca alone should do so. So
the Ynca opened it, and there came flying out a quantity of
things like butterflies or bits of paper, which spread abroad
until they disappeared. This was the pestilence of Saram-
jpion (?), and in a few days the general Mihcnaca Mayta died,
with many other captains, their faces being covered with
scabs. When the Ynca saw this, he ordered a house to be
built of stone, in which he hid himself, and there died.
After eight days they took out the body quite dried up, and

^ Otavalla. See O. de la Vega., ii, p. 350 ; and Cieza de Leon, p. 138.
* See Cieza de Leon^ p. 133 ; and O. de la Vega, ii, p. 449.
^ PxUi, a trunk, parcel.


embalmed it, and took it to Cuzco on a litter, richly dressed
and armed as if it had been alive.

A son, named Tupac Atahualpa, was left in Quito, and
many chiefs and captains, called Quis-quis, Challcuchima,
Unacchuyllu, Rumi-naui, Ucumari, and many more.

The body of Huayna Ccapac was conveyed to Cuzco
with much ceremony, and the people made obeisances to
it. After it was deposited with the other bodies of the
Yncas, there was general mourning for his death. Then
Yuti Tupac Cusi Huallpa Huascar Ynca made his mother,
Rava Ocllo, marry the dead body, in order that he might
become legitimate, and the ministers of the temple per-
formed the ceremony out of fear. Thus Tupac Cusi Huallpa
took the title of legitimate son of Huayna Ccapac, and called
upon all the chiefs of Ttahuantin-sayu to swear obedience to
him, which was done. He then prepared for his coronation,
and induced the great Curacas to ask the ministers of Ccuri-
cancha to deliver to him the ccapac llautu, suntur-paucar,
ttqyac-yavri, and ccapac-uncu. Great preparations were
made for the coronation, and there was a distribution of
rich dresses, plumes, and arms, which was merely done to
gain over the chiefs. At the end of a year he received the
ccapaz-llautu, with the name of Yuti Cusi Huallpa Huascar
Ynca.^ He married his sisters, named Chuqm-huy-pachu-
quipa, and Ccoya Mama Chuqui huypa chuqnipa.

Afterwards Tupac Cusi Huallpa took 1200 Chachapuyas
and Cailaris for the servants of the palace, and dismissed

* This Ynca Cusi Huallpa caused a garden to be made at Sappi, near
Cuzco, with many animals of gold and silver, amongst the trees. Then
he caused a very long chain to be made, of gold, and each link was in
the form of a serpent twined with the tail in the mouth, and adorned
with colours like a serpent’s skin. This Ynca was not called Huascar,
as some say, on account of this chain ; but because he was born at
Huascar-pata, near Molina. It is a tradition that the chain was thrown
into this lake of Molina (Muyna) when the Spaniards came, and not
into that of Urcos-ccocha.


those of his father. He also began to punish his father*s
captains with death because they had left Tupac Atahuallpa
and the other captains in Quito. Then he marched into the
provinces of Colla-suyu, and came to Titicaca, where he
ordered a golden image of the sun to be set up. He wor-
shipped it as Uiracocha Ynti, thus adding the name of
Ynti. On his return to Cuzco he came to Pocana-cancha,
where he found all the Apu Curacas coming in their litters
according to the privilege granted by former Yncas, and
Huascar Ynca laughed at this, although he did not take
away the privilege. In this place he ordered the Acllas,
of all four classes,_to be brought into the open square, in
the middle of all the Apu Curacas and the whole army.
Then he told a hundred Indians of the Llamallamas and
Hayacuchos, while they were performing their dances, to
seize the damsels and ravish them in public. The damsels,
when they were thus treated, cried out and raised their
eyes to heaven ; and all the great men of the kingdom
resented such conduct, and looked upon this Huascar Ynca
as half a fool, and only treated him with reverence from

At that time Tupac Atahuallpa sent to Huascar Ynca,
beseeching him to give him the title and nomination of
Governor of the Provinces of Quito, and the Ynca Huascar
granted the request, and gave him the name of Ynca-ranti.^
Then the chief of the Canaris, named Urco-calla, brought
false news to Huascar Ynca, asking him why he consented
that Tupac Atahuallpa should have the title of Ynca. This
enraged the Ynca, and when Tupac Atahuallpa sent him
rich presents he caused them to be burnt, and drums to be
made of the skins of the messengers who brought them,
except a few, whom he sent back to Quito dressed as women,
and with very shameful messages to Auqui Atahuallpa.
They were followed by a chief named Huaminca-atoc, whom
‘ Ranti, a deputy. Ynca-ranti, viceroy.


the Ynca sent against Atahuallpa with 1200 men, and
orders to take him and the other captains prisoners. This
captain rested at Tumiparapa. Meanwhile the surviving
messengers arrived at Quito, and reported what had hap-
pened to Auqui Tupac Atahuallpa, who received the news
in great sorrow, but in silence. Then he sent to the captain
Huaminca-atoc, asking him to declare for what purpose he
had come with an army; and the captain replied that he
would answer by his deeds. Then Auqui Atahuallpa, with
the consent of all his captains, determined to take up arms,
and the people of Quito swore to obey him. He assumed
the title of Ynca, and began to use a litter, and assembled
13,000 warriors. After a few days the captain Atoc reached
Mullu Hampatu/ near Quito, and Atahuallpa came out
against him. There was a battle, in which Atahuallpa was
defeated, and all the Mitimaes^ were terrified. But he re-
solved to attempt further resistance. So he appointed
Challcuchima to be general, and Quis-quis to be master of
the camp, who defeated and captured the captain Atoc and
put out his eyes. When Huascar Ynca heard the news of
the disaster he was transported with greater rage, and sent
his brother Huanca Auqui, with 12,000^ men, to attack
Atahuallpa. He was ordered to increase his army on the
road ; and he advanced to Tumipampa, and thence to Quito.
Atahuallpa came out with 16,000 men. In the first battle
Huanca Auqui ordered a retreat to Yana-yacu, where both
sides fought valiantly, and again at Tumipampa ; but
Huanca Auqui was defeated between the country of the
Canaris and Chachapuyas. Atahuallpa returned to Quito,
punishing the Canaris with great cruelty. Thus the army
of Huanca Auqui was defeated in four battles. Challcuchima
remained at Tumipampa, Atahuallpa returned to Quito, and
Huanca Auqui conquered the province of the Paellas of
Chachapuya, in the name of Huascar Ynca. He fought the
* See Cieza de Leon^ p. 153. * Colonists.


enemy between Chachapuya and Caxaraarcaj and was again
defeated, retreating to Huanuco. After many cliallenges,
the two armies met once more at Bombon, each with
100,000 men. After having been arrayed for the encounter,
the soldiers on both sides ate and drank. The battle lasted
for three days, and on the last day Quis-quis and Challcu-
chima, the captains of Atahuallpa, were victorious, 20,000
having fallen. Huanca Auqui, now almost despairing,
retreated to Xanxa, where he met another fine army which
had been sent from Cuzco to reinforce him ; and the cap-
tain who commanded angrily reprehended Huanca Auqui.
The defeated general had drinking bouts with his uncles in
the valley of Xauxa, and sent thence to the hiiaca at Pacha-
camac for help, and received a hopeful reply.

So Huanca Auqui ordered all the Huancas, Yauyus, and
Aymaras to come to the defence of Huascar Ynca, and
thus he assembled 200,000 men. The array of Quis-quis
entered the valley of Xauxa, where he rested for some days
and sent to Quito for reinforcements. He also sent to the
huaca at Pachacamac, which replied that he would gain the
victory. At the same time Huascar sent for a true answer,
and the huaca promised him the victory. He must take
heart’ and assemble all his power, and that then he would
conquer. Then Huascar Ynca sent to all the huacas and
idols in the land, and they all promised that he should gain
a victory in Villcas. He likewise ordered all the layccus,
umus, canchus, vallavicas, contivicas, canavicas, auzcovicas,
to come and offer up sacrifices and to divine ; and they
foretold that the enemy would not advance beyond Ancoyacu,
and that Huascar would gain the victory.

At that time a captain from Cuzco, with 12,000 men,
offered battle to the enemy on the river of Ancoyacu, and
Huanca Auqui refused to send him any help ; yet he
detained them for a month ; but at last he was defeated,
aud all his men were destroyed. This news reached Huascar


wten he was engaged in the mucha^ of the kuacas. There
were forty huacas assembled, and the Ynca began to abuse
them with many insulting words, saying : —

Llulla vatica hauchha auca supay, chiquiy manta pallcaymantain
chirmaynaymantam camcam Cuzco capacpa aucan-cunacta muchar-
cayque callpaays ayran callpari cuyhuan aspacay niyhuan runa
arpay liiy huan ‘camcam hillusu huaccunacatacay chapas camcam
acoycunacataca runa huallpaquiypa hahocha aucana catamuscam-
pas canquichic, chicallatac hinallatdc mitaysanay villcaycunapas
camcuna huaca rimachun cainca cunactam, ari tonapa tarapaca
Uiracochan Pachayachip yanan Tiiscaca chienisus canqui.

Saying this he took an oath, shaking his mantle and
kissing, a little earth ; and from that time he became an
enemy of the huacas, idols, and sorcerers. Then he sent
messengers throughout the realm of Ttahuantin-suyu to
summon his vassals, as far as Chile, Coquimbo, Chirihuana,
the Andes of Caravaya, the country of the Hatun-runas,
who were giants ; and in a few days a countless multitude
assembled. The news soon arrived that Quis-quis and
Challcuchima were encamped in Villcas-huaman, and the
Ynca sent orders to Huanca Auqui to attack them ; but he
sustained another defeat, and the enemy advanced to
Andahuaylas. Then Huascar Ynca Ynti Cusi Huallpa sent
his three millions of men of war to try what Quis-quis and
Challcuchima were made of. The enemy had at least a
million and a half of men, and the captains alone numbered
fifteen hundred ; but the army of Huascar contained double
the number.

Huanca Auqui, on coming to Curampa, left a million of
men at Huancarama and Cocha-cassa to keep the enemy in
check, while he went to Cuzco to report to the Ynca the
reasons of his reverses ; and the two princes made a
brotherly reconciliation. Then the Ynca set out from
Cuzco, taking all the Apu-Curacas and Auquis, and the

” Worship.


chiefs called Mancop-churin-cuzcOj who are knights, and
the Ayllun-cuzcos as body-guards ; and as a vanguard he
had the Quehuars and those of Colla-suyu, the Tambos,
Mascas, Chillquis, Papris, Quichuas, Mayus, Sancus, Quillis-
cachis ; and as supports came the Chachapuyas and Canaris.
All were in good order, and so the Ynca Huascar reached
Utcu-pampa surrounded by an imperial pomp and majesty
never before seen. Each tribe, with its general, was in
battle array from Ollanta-tambo to beyond Huaca-chaca.
The enemy extended from Chuntay-cassa to the river of
Pollcaro ; and thus the plains were covered with the men
of both armies.

On that day the two armies were formed ready for battle,
and the Ynca Huascar ascended a high hill near the Apuri-
mac, and beheld, with feelings of pleasure, the people cover-
ing the land like flour; and all the hills, Jniay ecu s,”^ and
plains glistening with the gold and silver and bright-coloured
plumes of the warriors, so that there was no spot unoccupied
for twelve leagues by six or seven. Each nation and pro-
vince had its war songs and musical instruments. On the
next day Huascar Ynca sent messengers to order each com-
pany to make the assault with all possible fury, and the
battle then began. They continued to fight from dawn
until dark, and they say that twenty thousand men were
killed. Next day they began again after breakfast, and a
most fierce battle raged until sunset. On the third day it
was again renewed, and at the hour for eating both armies
were nearly worn out, and they rested, and all the plains
were covered with dead bodies, and well irrigated with
blood. On the fourth day they began again with still greater
fury ; and Quisquis and Chalcuchima, the captains of Ata-
huallpa Ynca, retreated to three high hills with only half a
million of men. Here they entrenched themselves, and at
dawn next day the men of Colla-suyu attacked them fiercely,

^ Ravines.


while the Ynca ordered the hills to be surrounded and
assaulted on all sides. Then Quisquis and Chalcuchima,
having lost many men^ collected the survivors and retreated
to the highest of the three hills^ which was covered with
grass, with groves of trees at the base. An Indian of the
Canas suggested that the trees and grass should be set on
fire, and the Ynca gave the necessary orders. A high wind
arose and burnt the men of Chincha-suyu, while the troops
of the Ynca killed them like flies in honey. Chalcuchiraa
and Quisquis escaped with only two thousand three hundred
men. They say that rivers of blood flowed from the battle
field, which was covered with dead bodies.

The two captains, with their surviving followers, fled
under cover of the night, and Huascar Ynca ordered his
troops not to continue the pursuit until the following day ;
but, by that time, Quisquis and Challcuchima had reached
the hill of Cochacassa, ten leagues from the battle field, with
only seven hundred men.

At midnight Challcuchima and Quisquis lighted a fire on
their left hands with a piece of grease ; putting one lump of
grease to represent the camp of Huascar Ynca, and the
other for the camp of Atahuallpa. And the one in the
place of Huascar Ynca burnt much move than that in
the place of Atahuallpa, so that the grease of Huascar,
burning up so high, went out very quickly, while that
of Atahuallpa went on burning. Then Challcuchima and
Quisquis sang the JiaijlU, and told their men that all
would go well. They set out for Utcu-pampa in search of
Huascar Ynca, and got there at sunset with six hundred and
forty men, when the Ynca was asleep, and took him prisoner,
routing the Rucanas® who were his bearers, and so they
carried him to Sallcantay. When the army found that
Huascar Ynca was taken they were terrified, and each tribe
went off* to its own laud. As soon as Quisquis and Challcu-
8 See O. de la Vega, i, p. 267 ; ii, p. 147, 358.


chima had got possession of the body of Ynca Huascar^ they
desired nothing more. They did not enter the city, but
posted their men at Quepay-parapa, whence they sent orders
to all the Apu-curacas and Auquis to come to them, with
the mother of Huascar, the general Huanca Auqui, and his

They insulted the Ynca by tying a rope round his neck,
and Quisquis called him Cocahacho and Sulluya, which
means bastard, eater of coca, and offered him many other
affronts. Then Quisquis and Challcuchima abused the mother
of the Ynca, saying : ” Come here. Mama Ocllo, you who
were the concubine of Huayna Ccapac.^’ When Huascar
heard this, he asked them who they were that they should
pass judgment on his descent; upon which Quisquis struck
him, and gave him cJdllca leaves instead of coca. When he
was thus outraged, Huascar raised his eyes, and cried out:
” Lord and Creator, how is it possible ? Why hast thou
sent me these burdens and troubles,” In those days Quis-
quis ordered all the children of Huascar Ynca to be slain,
and all his servants, up to fifteen hundred persons, who
were within the palace of Puca-marca.^

Huascar Ynca, his wife and mother, and two children,
with Huanca Auqui and the chief officers and councillors
of the Ynca, were sent with a guard of a hundred men to
Atahuallpa. But in a few days the news arrived that the
Spaniards had landed, and there was great dismay. By
the advice of Quisquis great riches were buried in the earth;
and it is also said that Huascar had previously ordered a
chain of gold and three thousand loads of gold, with as many
of silver, to be concealed in Cunti-suyu. They also hid all
the cumpis and rich dresses of gold. One named Barco
and Candia arrived at Cuzco without meeting Huascar
Ynca, and Challcuchima was seized on the way to Cax-
amarca. Francisco Pizarro captured Atahuallpa in the
9 See G. de la Verja, ii, p. 246.


midst of a vast concourse of Indians, after he had spoken
with the friar Vicente de Valverde, when twelve thousand
men were killed. For the people thought that they were
the messengers of Pachayachachic Uiracocha ; and when
they fired off their guns, it was supposed to be Uiracocha.

When Atahuallpa was in prison the cock crowed, and he
said that even the birds knew his name. From that time
they called the Spaniards UiracocJia, because they declared
to Atahuallpa that they brought the law of God. Hence
they called the Spaniards ZJiracocAa, and the cock Atahuall^Ja.
This Atahuallpa sent messages to Antamarca with orders
that Huascar should be killed ; and after he had sent them
he began to pretend to be sad, trying to deceive the cap-
tain, Francisco Pizarro. So, by orders of Atahuallpa, they
killed Huascar Ynca in Antamarca, with his son, wife, and
mother, with great cruelty, and the Marquis knew all this
through the complainta of the Curacas. Atahuallpa was
baptized and called Don Francisco, and afterwards he was
put to death as a traitor. Then the captain, Francisco
Pizarro, accompanied by the friar Vicente, set out for
Cuzco, taking with him a bastai”d son of Huayna Ccapac as
Ynca, who died in the valley of Xauxa. The captain Fran-
cisco Pizarro reached the bridge of the Apurimac with sixty
or seventy men, where he was met by Manco Ynca Yupau-
qui, with all the Curacas, who had come to offer obedience
and become Christians. On reaching Villca-cunca, these
Curacas, out of pure joy and satisfaction, began to make
skirmishes. At Sacsahuana, on the following day, the
friar Vicente, with the captain Francisco Pizarro, said to
Manco Ynca Yupanqui that they wished to see the dresses
of Huayna Ccapac Ynca, his father. He showed them, and
they said they must see richer dresses, and the same
Pizarro put them on him in the name of the Emperor. Then
they all set out for Cuzco, with Manco Ynca Yupanqui
borne in a litter.


In passing the village of Anta they came upon Quisquis,
the tyrant captain of Atahuallpa. Then they all entered
Cuzco with great pomp and majesty, and the marquis, with
his grey hairs and long beard, represented the Emperor
Charles V, while the friar Vicente, in his robes, personified
his holiness the Pope. The Ynca, in his litter lined with
rich plumes of feathers, his sumptuous clothes, the suntur-
jpauQar in his hand, and the royal insignia of the ccapac
unancha, was greeted with great joy by the people. The
friar Vicente went straight to the Ccuricancha, the house
erected by the ancient Yncas in honour of the Creator ; and
at length the holy evangel entered upon possession of a new
vineyard, which had been so long usurped by the ancient
enemies of the faith. There the friar preached like another
Apostle St. Thomas, the patron of these kingdoms, without
ceasing, filled with zeal for the conversion of souls, baptizing
Curacas ; and if he had known the language his labours would
have borne still more fruit ; but he spoke through an in-
terpreter. May God be praised for ever and ever.




By the Doctor Francisco de Avila, Presbyter (Cura of the parish of

San Damian in the said province of Huarachiri, and vicar of the three

above mentioned), from trustworthy persons who, with special diligence,

ascertained the whole truth, and that, before God enlightened them,

they lived in the said errors, and performed these ceremonies. It is an

agreeable subject and well worthy to be understood, that the great

blindness in which those souls walk, who have not the light of faith,

nor desire to admit it to their understandings, may be known.

At present nothing more is given than the narrative, but our

Lord will thus be well served if the said illustrious

Doctor, God sparing his life, would adorn it with

reflections and interesting notes.


lu the year 1G08.

Chauca-chiipita was the name of the Indian we found with the new
shirt; and the cloaks show whether they are of Masnu-yauri or Carhua-

Conopa is the general name for all the small stone idols that we

Uncuraya is the name of the jar with the figure of the Devil. They
used it in the feast of Massiima.

Chdlcascayn is the idol that we went to search for.





Of the first aud most ancient God of these people, and how the men of
these provinces say that, in ancient times, it was a very hot country,
and how afterwards some other idols were adopted, after the first.

It is a most ancient tradition that, before any other event
of which there is any memory, there were certain huacas or
idols, which, together with the others of which I shall treat,
must be supposed to have walked in the form of men.
These huacas were called Yananamca Intanamca ; and in
a certain encounter they had with another huaca called
Huallallo Garuincho, they were conquered and destroyed by
the said Huallallo, who remained as Lord and God of the
land. He ordered that no woman should bi-ing forth more
than two children, of which one was to be sacrificed for him
to eat, and the other, — whichever of the two the parents
chose, — might be brought up. It was also a tradition that,
in those days, all who died were brought to life again on
the fifth day, and that what was sown in that land also
sprouted, grew, and ripened on the fifth day ; and that all
these three provinces were then a very hot country, which
the Indians call Yunca or Ancle ; and they say that these
ci-ops were made visible in the deserts and uninhabited
places, such as that of Pariacaca and others ; and that in
these Andes there was a great variety of most beautiful and
brilliant birds, such as macaws, parrots, and others. All
this, with the people who then inhabited the land (and who,
according to their account, led very evil lives), and the said
idol, came to be driven away to other Andes by the idol
Pariacaca, of whom I shall speak presently, and of tho
battle he had with this Huallallo Carrincho.


It is also said that there was another idol called Coniraya,
of which it is not known certainly whether it existed before
or after the rise o^ Pariacaca. It is, however, certain that
it was invoked and reverenced almost down to the time
when the Spaniards arrived in this land. For when the
Indians worshipped it they said, ” Coniraija Uiracocha
(this name is that which they gave, aud still give, to the
Spaniards), thou art Lord of all : thine are the crops, and thine
are all the people.” In commencing any arduous or difficult
undertaking, they threw a piece of coca (a well-known leaf)
on the ground, as an oblation, and said, ” Tell me, Lord
Coniraya Uiracocha, how I am to do this ?” The same cus-
tom prevailed among the weavers of cloths, when their
work was toilsome and difficult. This invocation arid cus-
tom of calling the idol by the name of Uiracocha certaiuly
prevailed long before there were any tidings of Spaniards
in the country. It is not certain whether Coniraya or
Pariacaca were first ; but as it is more probable that
Coniraya^ was the more ancient, we will first relate his
origin and history, and afterwards that of Pariacaca.


In which the account of Coniraya is continued, and how he became
enamoured of the goddess Cavillaca, and of other tilings which are
worthy to be known.

They say that in most ancient times the Coniraya Uiraco-
cha appeared in the form and dress of a very poor Indian
clothed in rags, insomuch that those who knew not who he
was reviled him and called him a lousy wretch. They say
that this was the Creator of all things ; and that, by his
word of command, he caused the terraces and fields to be
formed on the steep sides of ravines, and the sustaining
walls to rise up and support them. He also made the


irrigatiug channels to flow, b}^ merely hurling a hollow cane,
such as we call a cane of Spain; and. he went in various
directions, arranging many things. His great knowledge
enabled him to invent tricks and deceits touching the
htiacas and idols in the villages which he visited. At that
time they also say that there was a woman who “was a
huaca. Her name was Cavillaca^ and she was a most
beautiful virgin, who was much sought after by the huacas,
or principal idols/ but she would never show favour to any
of them. Once she sat down to weave a mantle at the foot
of a lucma tree, when the wise Coniraya succeeded in
approaching her in the following manner : He turned
himself into a very beautiful bird^ and went up into
the lucraa tree, where he took some of his generative
seed and made it into the likeness of a ripe and luxurious
lucma, which he allowed to fall near the beautiful Cavillaca.
She took it and ate it with much delight, and by it she was
made pregnant without other contact with man. When the
nine months were completed she conceived and bore a son,
herself remaining a virgin ; and she suckled the child at
her own breast for a whole year without knowing whose it
was nor how it had been engendered. At the end of the
year, when the child began to crawl, Cavillaca demanded
that the huncas and principal idols of the land should
assemble, and that it should be declared whose son was
the child. This news gave them all much satisfaction, and
each one adorned himself in the best manner possible,
combing, washing, and dressing in the richest clothes, each
desiring to appear brighter and better than the rest in the
eyes of the beautiful Cavillaca, that so she might select him
for her spouse and husband. Thus there was an assembly
of false gods at Anchicocha, a very cold inhospitable spot
between the villages of Chorrillo and Huarochiri, about half
way. When they we^e all seated in their order, Cavillaca
addressed them as follows : ” I have invited vou to assemble


here, worthies and principal persons, that you may know
my great sorrow and trouble at having brought forth this
child that I hold in my arms. It is now aged one year : but I
know not, nor can I learn, who was its father. It is notorious
that I have never known man nor lost my virginity. Now
that you are all assembled, it must be revealed who made me
pregnant, that I may know who did this harm to me, and
whose son is this child.” They were all silent, looking at
each other, and waiting to see who would claim the child,
but no one came forward. They say that, in this assembly,
in the lowest place of all, sat the god Coniraya Uiracocha
in his beggar’s rags ; and the beautiful Cavillaca scarcely
looked at him, when she addressed the gods ; for it never
entered into her head that he was the father. When she
found that all were silent, she said : — ” As none of you will
speak, I shall let the child go, and doubtless his father will
be the one to whom he crawls, and at whose feet he rests. ^’
So saying, she loosed the child, who crawled away, and,
passing by all the others, he went to where was his father
Coniraya in his rags and dirt, and when the child reached
him, it rejoiced and laughed, and rested at his feet.

This conduct caused Cavillaca great shame and annoyance,
and she snatched up the child, exclaiming : — ” What dis-
grace is this that has come upon me, that a lady such as I
am should be made pregnant by a poor and filthy creature.”
Then she turned her back and fled away towards the sea-
shore. But Coniraya Uiracocha desired the friendship and
favour of the goddess, so, when he saw her take her flight,
he put on magnificent golden robes, and, leaving the as-
tonished assembly of gods, he ran after her, crying out : —
” O my lady Cavillaca, turn your eyes and see how hand-
some and gallant am I,” with other loving and courteous
words ; and they say that his splendour illuminated the
whole country. Yet the disdainful Qavillaca would not turn
ter head, but rather increased her speed, saying : — ” I have


no wish to see any one^ seeing that I have been made preg-
nant by a creature so vile and filthy.”^ She disappeared,
and came to the sea coast of Pachacamac, where she entered
the sea with her child, and was turned into a rock. They say
that the two rocks may still be seen, which are mother and
child. Coniraya continued the pursuit, crying out, and
saying, ” Stop ! stop ! lady. Turn round and look ! where
are you, that I cannot see you?” As he ran, he met a con-
dor, to whom he said : — ” Brother, tell me whether you en-
countered a woman with such and such marks ?” The
condor answered : — ” I saw her very near this place, and
if you go a little faster, you will certainly overtake her.”
To whom Coniraya, rejoicing at the good news, thus made
reply, blessing the condor, and -saying : — ” You shall live
for ever, and I give you power to go whithersoever you please,
to traverse the wildernesses and valleys, to search the
ravines, to build where you shall never be disturbed ; and I
grant you the faculty of eating all things that you find dead,
such as huanacu, llamas, lambs, and even when they are
not dead but merely neglected by their owners, you shall
have power to kill and eat them. I further declare that he
who kills you shall himself be killed.”

Coniraya then continued his journey, and met a small fox
of the kind that emits a strong odour, and asked him the
same question touching Cavillaca. The fox answered that
it was in vain for him to run fast, to seek, or to follow, be-
cause the goddess was now far off, and he could not over-
take her. Then Coniraya cursed the fox, saying : — ” As a
punishment for the bad news you have given me, I com-
mand that you shall never go abroad but at night, that a
bad smell shall always come from you, and that men shall
persecute and hate you.”

The god went on and met a lion which, in reply to his

‘ They say that the word she used was cachca-sa^pa, which means
” itchy”.


question, told him that he was very near the goddess Cavil-
laca, and that if he made a little more haste he would over-
take her. This good news pleased the sage, and he blessed
the lion, saying : — ” You shall be respected and feared by
all, and I assign to you the office of punisher and executioner
of evil doers, you may eat the llamas of sinners, and after
your death you shall still be honoured ; for when they kill
you and take your skin they shall do so without cutting off
the head, which they shall preserve, with the teeth, and
eyes shall be put in the sockets so as to appear to be still
alive. Your feet shall remain hanging from the skin with
the tail, and, above all, those who kill you shall wear your
head over their own, and your skin shall cover them. This
shall they do at their principal festivals, so that you shall
receive honour from them. I further decree that he who
would adorn himself with your skin, must kill a llama on
the occasion, and then dance and sing with you on his

After having given the lion this blessing, he continued
his journey and met a fox, which said that his running was
useless, for that the lady was far off, and it was impossible
to overtake her. In payment for such news, the wise Coni-
raya pronounced the following curse : — ” I command that
you shall be hunted from afar, and then when the people
see you, even at a great distance, they shall come out and
hunt you ; and when you die you shall be of no account,
and no one shall take the trouble to use your skin, or to
raise you from the ground.”

He then met a falcon, which said that the lady Cavillaca
was very near ; so Coniraya declared that the falcon should
be highly esteemed, that in the morning it should breakfast
on the alquenti,^ which is a very delicate and beautiful little
bird living on the honey within the flowers (I do not know
its name in Spanish),^ and during the day that it should
^ Ccenti, the humming bird. * Tominejo,


eat any other bird it choose ; and that he who killed it
should also kill a llama in its honour ; and that when he
came out to sing and dance at the festivals^ he should have
the falcon^s skin on his head.

Next he met some parrots that gave him bad news; so
he declared that they should always give out cries and
shrieks^ and thatj as they said the lady was far off, they
should be heard from afar; that when they wished to feed
they should not be safe, for their own cries should betray
them, and that they should be hated by all people.

Thus he rewarded and granted privileges to all the
animals that gave him news that accorded with his wishes,
and cursed all those whose tidings were not agreeable to

When he reached the sea-shore he found that Cavillaca
and her child were turned into stone; and as he walked along
the beach he met two beautiful young daughters of Pacha-
camac, who guarded a great serpent, because their mother
was absent, visiting the recently arrived Cavillaca in the
sea. The name of this wife of Pachacamac was Urxaykua-
chac^ When Coniraya found these girls alone without their
mother, he did not care for the serpent, which he could keep
quiet by his wisdom ; so he had intercourse with the elder
sister, and desired to do the same with the younger, but
she flew away in the shape of a wild pigeon (called by the
Indians urpi) ; hence the mother of these girls was called
Urpi-huachac, or mother of the doves.

In those days it is said that there were no fishes in the
sea, but that this TJrpi-huachac reared a few in a small pond.
Coniraya was enraged that Urpi-huachac should be absent
in the sea, visiting Cavillaca ; so he emptied the fishes out
of her pond into the sea, and thence all the fishes now in
the sea have been propagated. Having done this, Coniraya
continued his flight along the coast. When the mother of

* Urpi-huachac,


the girls returned they told her what had happened, and
she pursued Coniraya in a great fury, calling out, until at
last he determined to stop and wait for her. Then she ad-
dressed him with loving and tender words, saying, — ” Coni-
raya, do you wish that I should comb your head and pick
out the lice V So he consented, and reclined his head on
her lap ; but while she was pretending to do this, she was
forming a rock over which she might hurl him when he was
off his guard. He- knew this through his great wisdom, and
told her he must retire for a few minutes. She agreed to
this ; and he went back to the land of Huarochiri, where he
wandered about for a long time, playing tricks both to whole
villages and to single men or women. The end of this
htiaca will be related presently.

The above traditions are so rooted in the hearts of the
people of this province at the present time that they pre-
serve them most inviolably ; and thus they hold the condors
to be sacred, and never kill one, believing that he who kills
one will die himself. I know that there was a condor in
the ravine of San Damian, near the bridge, which was
unable to fly from extreme old age ; but there was not an
Indian who would touch it, and it lived there for thirteen
or fourteen years. When I had killed some of these con-
dors, the people asked me how it was that I dared to do so,
but I did not understand why they should ask the question
until I had heard this fable. They also have a great horror
of the small fox ; and they do to the lion all that was
ordained in the blessing of Coniraya, bringing out the skin
on great occasions, while he who owns it kills a llama. I
have often seen this done in my own parish in Huarochiri,
on occasion of the drinking bouts called Huantachinaca.^

Also as regards the fox, I have seen, in the village of San
Juan, near that of Santa Ana, because one man cried out

* Or Ayrihua. A harvest dance. The huantay-sara was the fp.rtile
etalk of maize round which the dance was performed.


that he saw a fox, the whole village turned out, and ran in
chase of it without knowing where it was, but all following
the first, and I after them to see what was the matter. I
have seen this happen twice in that village, and the same
custom prevails in the others.

As to the falcon, there is scarcely a festival in which one
does not appear on the heads of the dancers and singers ;
and we all know that they detest the parrots, which is not
wonderful considering the mischief they do, though their
chief reason is to comply with the tradition.

Who will not grieve at the blindness of these poor people,
and at the small fruit which the preaching of the Cathohc
truth has borne during so many years. Yet they can neither
plead ignorance, nor can they complain that they have not
been taught. It is true that in some parishes the priests
have been negligent in teaching, but in others it is not so ;
and we have seen that the people are as much and more
attached to their errors in those parishes where the preach-
ing has been attended to, as in those where it has been


Of an eclipse of the Sun which is said to have taken place in ancient


In all the stories and fables of these people I have never
been able to make out which came first, or in what order they
should be placed, for they are all very ancient traditions.
They relate that, a long time ago, the sun disappeared and
the world was dark for a space of five days ; that the stones
knocked one against the other; and that the mortars, which
they call mutca, and the pestles called marop, rose against
their masters, who were also attacked by their sheep, both
those fastened in the houses and those in the fields. This


may have been the eclipse which occurred when our Re-
deemer died ; but I cannot clearly make this out, for when
it was day in that hemisphere it was night here, so that
here the eclipse would have taken place at night. The rest
of the story consists of lies, for, as these people had no
watches, how could they tell that the sun was absent for
five days, seeing that we count days by the absence and
presence of the sun ?


Of a deluge which is said to have taken place ; with a refutation of all

the preceding fables.

It is necessary to go back a step in this chapter, for this
should be the third, and the preceding chapter the fourth.
For what I have to mention here is a saying of the Indians
which is more ancient than the eclipse. They relate that
there was nearly an end to the world, which happened in
the following way : An Indian was tethering his llama in a
place where there was good pasture, and the animal resisted,
showing sorrow and moaning after its manner, which it does
by crying yu’ yu’. The master, who happened to be eating
a choclo, observing this, threw the core (which they call
coronta) at the llama, saying, ” Fool, why do you moan and
refrain from eating ? Have I not put you where there is
good pasture V The llama thus replied : ” Madman ! what
do you know, and what can you suppose ? Learn that I am
not sad without good cause ; for within five days the sea
will rise and cover the whole earth, destroying all there is
upon it.” The man, wondering that his llama should speak,
answered it by asking whether there was any way by which
they could save themselves. The llama then said that the
man must follow it quickly to the summit of a high moun-


tain called Villca-coto, which is between this parish^ and
San Geronimo de Surco, taking with him food for five days,
and that he miofht thus be saved. The man did as he
was told, carrying his load on his back and leading the
llama, and he arrived on the summit of the mountain, where
he found many different kinds of birds and animals assem-
bled. Just as he and his llama reached the top the sea
began to rise, and the water filled the valleys and covered the
tops of the hills, except that of Villca-coto ; but the animals
were crowded together, for the water rose so high that
some of them could hardly find foothold. Among these was
a fox, whose tail was washed by the waves, which they say
is the reason that the tips of foxes^ tails are black. At the
end of five days the waters began to abate, and the sea re-
turned to its former bounds ; but the whole earth was with-
out inhabitants except that solitary man, from whom, they
say, descend all the people who now exist. This is a nota-
ble absurdity, for they do not say that any woman was
saved ; and they make out that the man had intercourse
with some devil ; and, as the commentator of the books of
the city of God (Lib. xv. cap. 23) says, they glory and re-
joice, like some others of those times, at being the sons of
a demon. The Egyptians denied that a man could have
connection with a demon, though they affirmed that it was
possible with a female demon ; but the Greeks related stories
of many men having been, with this object, beloved by the
Devil, such as Hyacynto, Phsebus, Hypolito, all of whom
the Devil loved.

According to the most certain and true opinion there
could not have been inhabitants in this land before the
universal deluge ; for as it is certain that all men sprang
from our father Adam, and that in the period between
Adam and Noah so wide a dispersion could not have taken
place, how is it possible that these Indians can have had

• San Damian.


any knowledge of the deluge ? They declare that, in the
days of Coniraya Uiracocha, their country was yunca, and
that the crops ripened in five days. This is also impossible,
for the situation of this province is the same as that of all
the country which slopes from the snowy chain of mountains
to the sea, from Paste to Chile, a distance of more than twelve
hundred leagues. If this small portion was ever yunca,
the whole of the rest of that region which slopes towards
the sea must also have been yunca, which the people deny ;
therefore this district cannot have been so. For there can-
not have been a change of climate affecting this small dis-
trict without breaking the chain of mountains, and then
continuing it again, which is absurd. How, too, could they
know this if, as they say, it was before the deluge, when
there can then have been no inhabitants ; and if the deluge,
as is certain, destroyed all, including even the llama on
Villca-coto ? ‘^

It is certain that there were no inhabitants in this land
until many days and years after the deluge; for it was
necessary that the descendants of those who were saved in
the ark should spread themselves to the new world, and it
is certain that they cannot have handed down these fables
to their sons. It follows that the Devil, who has been so
great a lord over these people, made them believe in lies,
and in the matter of the deluge told them about the llama
that spoke, the fox that wetted its tail, and the other stories.
If any Indian would object that, if there was no yunca in
Parracaca, how is it that there are remains and ruins of
farms and cultivation ? I reply that, God permitting, the
Devil could easily make those terraces to deceive those who,
leaving the natural light of God, served him.

^ The origin of the tradition is clear enough. The people of Huaro-
chiri originally came from the coast, and hence they said that the land
of their ancestors was hot.



Relates who was Huathiacuri, and how a certain man made himself a God,
and perished; also of the origin of Pariacaca and his brothers.

We have related the most ancient traditions of these
people^ and how they assert that, after the deluge, they were
all descended from that one man. It must now be understood
that in the time after the deluge, in every district, the
Indians chose the richest and most valiant man among them
for their leader, and this period they call Purunpacha,^
“which means the time when there was no king. They say
that in those days there appeared five large eggs on a moun-
tain between Huarochiri and Chorrillo, towards the south,
(and this is the origin of Pariacaca) called Condorcoto. At
that time there lived a poor and ill-clad Indian named
Huathiacuri, who, they say, was a son of Pariacaca, and
who learnt many arts from his father. They say that he
was called Huathiacuri because his food was all huatyasca,
which means parboiled, not properly cooked, or, as we say
here, roasted ” e^ harhacoa.” Being poor, he could afford
nothing better. At the same time they say that a very rich
and great lord had his house on Anchicocha, about a league
and a half from the place where the five eggs appeared.
His house was very richly and curiously adorned, for the
roof was made of the yellow and red feathers of certain
birds, and the walls were covered with similar and even
more curious materials. This lord had a great number of
llamas — some red, others blue and yellow and of other
bright colours, so that, to make mantles, it was unnecessary
to dye the wool, and he had many other kinds of riches.
For these reasons people came to him from all directions to
pay their respects ; and he made himself to be very wise,
even saying that he was the God and Creator. But at last

^ See page 70.


a great misfortune befell him, which was thai he fell sick of
a tedious and disgusting disease, and everybody wondered
that a man who was so wise and rich, and was a God and
Creator, should be so ill and be unable to cure himself. So
they began to murmur against him. During all this time
the pretended God did not fail to seek for remedies, trying
various cures, procuring extraordinary medicines, and send-
ing for all who had any knowledge of the healing art. But
all was of no avail, and there was no man who understood
either the disease or- the cure. At this time they say that
Huathiacuri journeyed towards the sea, and slept on that
height, called Latallaco, where the ascent commences in
going from Lima to Cienequilla. While he was there he
saw a fox going towards the sea, and another coming from
the coast towards Anchicocha. The one coming from the
sea asked the other whether there was any news, and the
other answered that ” all was well except that the rich man
was very sick^ and was taking extraordinary pains to get
cured, and to assemble learned men who could tell him the
cause of his illness, and that no one understood it. But,”
added the fox, ” the real cause is that, when his wife was
toasting a little maize, one grain fell on her skirt, as hap-
pens every day. She gave it to a man who ate it, and
afterwards she committed adultery with him. This is the
reason that the rich man is sick, and a serpent is now
hovering over his beautiful house to eat it, while a toad
with two heads is waiting under his grinding-stone with
the same object. But no one knows this,” concluded the
fox ; and it then asked the other fox whether it had any
news. The other fox repHed that a very beautiful daughter
of a great chief was dying for having had connection with a
man. But this is a long story, which I shall tell presently;
and now we will return to the proceedings of Huathiacuri.

Having heard what the foxes said, he went to the place
where the rich man was lying sick, and, with much dissimu-


lation, he asked a young and beautiful girl (who, with
another elder sister already married, was daughter to the
sick God) if any one was ill. She said, ” Yes, my father is
sick.” He replied : ” If you will consent to show me favour
and to love me, I will cure your father.’^ The name of this
girl is not known, although some say that she is the same
who was called Chaupinaca. But she did not wish to con-
sent, so she went to her father and told him that a dirty
ragged man said he could cure him. Then all the wise men
who were assembled laughed heartily, saying that none of
them could effect a cure, and how much less could this poor
wretch succeed. But the sick man, by reason of his earnest
desire to be cured, did not refuse to place himself in the
hands of the stranger, and ordered that he should be called
in, whoever he might be. He entered, and said that he
could certainly effect a cure if the sick man would give his
young daughter to him for a wife. The sick man replied
that he would willingly do so ; which the husband of his
elder daughter took very ill, holding it to be a shame that
his sister-in-law should be the wife of so poor a man, who
would thus appear to be the equal of himself, being rich and
powerful. The contention between these two will be related

The wise Huathiacuri commenced the cure by saying —
” Do you know that your wife has committed adultery, and
that this is the reason of your sickness ? Do you know that
there are two great serpents above your house waiting to
eat you ? and that there is a toad with two heads underneath
that grind-stone ? Before everything else we must kill those
animals, and then you will begin to recover your health.
But, whenyou.are well, you must worship and reverence my
father, who will appear before many days, for it is quite
clear that you are neither God nor Creator. If you were God
you would not be ill, nor would you be in need of a cure.”
The sick man and those who stood round were astonished.


The wife said that the accusation against her was a wicked
lie, and she began to shout with rage and fury. But the
sick man was so desirous to be cured that he ordered search
to be made, and they found the two serpents on the top of
the house and killed them. Then the sage reminded the
wife that when she was toasting maize one grain had fallen
on her skirt ; that she had given it to a man ; and that
afterwards she had committed adultery with him. So she
confessed. The sage then caused the grindstone to be
raised, and there hopped from underneath a toad with two
heads, which went to a spring that now flows by Anchicocha,
where they say that it still lives, making those who go to
it lose their way, and become mad, and die. Having done
all this, the sick man became well, and the wise Huathiacuri
enjoyed the girl. They say that he generally went once a
day to that mountian of Condor-coto where were the five
eggs, round which a wind blew, and they say that before
this there was no wind. When the sage wanted to go to
Condorcoto, the sick man, now recovered, gave him his
daughter to take with him, and there the pair enjoyed
themselves much to their own satisfaction.

To return to the brother-in-law of the girl, that rich man
who, as we have said, was displeased that she should be
given to Huathiacuri, — he was very angry when he was told
that Huathiacuri had enjoyed her, and declared that he was
a poor wretch and not a sage. He resolved to make others
think this. So one day he said to Huathiacuri, ‘^ Brother, I
am concerned that you, as my brother-in-law, should be
ragged and poor, when I am so rich and powerful and so
honoured by the people. Let us choose something -at which
we may compete, that one may overcome the other.” Hua-
thicuri accepted the challenge. Then he took the road to
Condorcoto, and went to the place where his father Parra-
caca was in one of the eggs, and told him what had taken
place. Pariacaca said that it was well to accept any chal-


lenge, and that he should come back and tell him what it
was. So with this advice Huathiacuri returned to the

One day his brother-in-law said — ” Now let us see which
can vanquish the other in drinking and dancing on such a
day.” So Huathiacuri accepted the challenge^ and posted off
to his father Pariacaca, who told him to go to a neighbour-
ing mountain, where he would turn into a dead huanacu.
Next morning a fox with its vixen would come to the place,
bringing a jar of chicha on her back, while the fox would
have a flute of many pipes called astara. These would have
to approach Pariacaca, because the object of their coming
was to give him drink, and to play and dance a little j but
when they should see the dead huanacu on the road, they
would not wish to lose the opportunity of filling their
stomachs ; and that they would put down the chicha, the
drum, and the flute, and would begin to eat ; that then he
would come to himself and return to his own shape, and
begin to cry aloud, at which the foxes would take to flight,
and that he would then take the things they had left behind,
and might be sure of victory in the challenge with his

All this happened as Pariacaca had said ; and Huathiacuri
went to the place where his brother-in-law was drinking to
those who stood round with great quantities of chicha, and
was dancing with many of his friends. His drums were
beaten by more than two hundred women. While this was
going on Huathiacuri entered with his wife, dancing with her,
and she charging his cup and playing on a drum. At the first
sound of her drum the whole earth began to shake, as if it
was keeping time to the music, so that they had the ad-
vantage of the rich man, for not only thte people but the
earth itself danced. Presently they went to the place where
they kept the drinking bouts, and the brother-in-law and all
his fiiends came to beat Huathiacuri in drinking, thinking


that it was impossible for him to drink alone as much as the
rich man and all his friends. But they were deceived, for
he drank all they gave him without showing a sign of hav-
ing had enough. Then he rose and began to drink to those
who were seated, his wife filling the cups with chicha from
the fox’s jug. They laughed, because they thought that
before he had given cups to two of them the jug would be
empty ; but the chicha never failed, and each man that
drank fell down in a state of intoxication. So in this also
he came out as a conqueror.

When the brother-in-law saw how badly he came out of
this encounter he determined to try another, which was that
each should come dressed in festive attire, with splendid
plumes of various colours. Huathiacuri accepted this chal-
lenge also, and went for help to his father Pariacaca, who
dressed him in a shirt of snow, and so he vanquished his
brother-in-law once more.

Then the brother-in-law challenged him once more, say-
ing that people should now see who could enter the public
square, with the best lion-skin on his shoulders, for dancing.
Huathiacuri went again to his father Pariacaca, who sent
him to a fountain, where he said he would find a red lion-
skin with which to meet the challenge ; and when he en-
tered the square, men saw that there was a rainbow round
the lion’s head ; so Huathiacuri again obtained a victory.

Still the conquered brother-in-law was determined to
have a final trial. This was a challenge for each to build a
house iu the shortest time and in the best manner. Hua-
thiacuri accepted it ; and the rich man at once began to
collect his numerous vassals, and in one day he had nearly
finished the walls, while Huathiacuri, with only his wife to
help him, had scarcely begun the foundations. During the
night the work of the rich man was stopped, but not that
of Huathiacuri. For, in perfect silence, an infinite number
of birds, snakes, and lizards completed the work, so that in


tlie morning the house was finished, and the rich man was
vanquished, to the great wonder of all beholders. Then a
great multitude of huanacus and vicuiias came next day-
laden with straw for the roof; while llamas came with
similar loads for the rich man’s roof. But Huathiacuri
ordered an animal that shrieks loudly, called oscollo/ to
station itself at a certain point ; and it suddenly began to
scream in such a way as to terrify the llamas, which shook
ofi” their loads, and all the straw was lost.

At the end of this competition Huathiacuri, by advice of
his father Pariacaca, determined to put an end to the
affair ; so he said to the rich man, ” Brother, now you have
seen that I have agreed to everything that you have pro-
posed. It is reasonable, therefore, that you should now do
the same; and I propose that we should both see who
dances best, in a blue shirt with a white cotton huara round
the loins. The rich man accepted the challenge, and, as
usual, was the first to appear in the public square, in the
proposed dress. Presently Huathiacuri also appeared, and,
Y^ith a sudden shout, he ran into the place where the other
was dancing ; and he, alarmed at the cry and the sudden,
rush, began to run, insomuch as, to give him more speed,
he turned, or was turned by Huathiacuri, into a deer. In
this form he came to Anchicocha, where, when his wife saw
it, she also rose up saying, “Why do I remain here? I
must go after my husband and die with him.” So she
began to run after him, and Huathiacuri after both. At
last Huathiacuri overtook the wife in Anchicocha, and said
to her, ” Traitress ! it is by your advice that your husband
has challenged me to so many proofs, and has tried my
patience in so many ways. Now I will pay you for this by
turning you into a stone, with your head on the ground and
your feet in the air.” This happened as he said, and the
stone is there to this day ; and the Indians go there to

‘ A wild cat.


worship and to offer coca, and practise other diabolical
superstitions. Thus the woman was stopped ; but the deer
ran on and disappeared, and it maintained itself by eating
people ; but after some time the deer began to be eaten hy-
men, and not men by deer.

They say that those five eggs in Condorcoto, one of which
contained Pariacaca, opened, and five falcons issued from
them, who were presently turned into five men, who went
about performing wonderful miracles ; and one was that
the rich Indian, whom we have mentioned in this chapter
as having pretended to be God, perished, because Pariacaca
and the others raised a great storm and a flood which carried
him and his house and wife and family away into the sea.
The site of this man’s house is between two very lofty moun-
tains, the one called Vicocha, near the parish of Chorrillo,
and the other Llantapa, in the parish of San Damian, and
between them flows the river of Pachacamac. There was a
sort of bridge, consisting of a great tree called pullao, form-
ing a most beautiful arch from one hill to the other, where
a great variety of parrots and other birds passed to and fro.
All this was swept away by the flood.


Having come forth from the five eggs with his four
brothers, and having caused the above tempest, Pariacaca
aspired to perform great and mighty deeds throughout the
world, though the region he traversed did not exceed twenty
leagues in circuit. Especially he conceived the idea of en-
countering the valiant Caruyuchu Huayallo, to whom they
sacrificed children, as we have related in the first chapter.
So Pariacaca went in search of Caruyuchu, of whose end
and defeat I shall speak presently ; but first I must relate
what happened to Pariacaca on the road.


On his way from Condorcoto to the residence of Caruyu-
chu, he came to the place where now stands the village of
Santa Maria de Jesus de Huarochiri, at the bottom of the
ravine in which the river flows, and by which one goes to
the parish of Quinti.^ Here there was a village called
Huagaihusa, where they were celebrating a great festival.
It is to be noted that all this country was then yunca, with
a hot climate, according to the false opinion of the Indians.
Pariacaca entered the place, where all the people were drink-
ing, in the dress of a poor man, and he sat down with the
others, but at the end of all, as is the custom with those
who are not invited. But no man drank to him nor gave
him to drink during the whole day. Seeing this, a girl was
moved with pity and compassion, and she said, ” How is it
that no one gives a drink to this poor man or takes any
notice of him V and she put a good draught of chicha into
one of those large white calabashes called by the Indians
putUj and took it to Pariacaca, who received it with thanks,
and told her she had done a very good deed, and had gained
his friendship. “This,” he added, “is worth to you the same
as your life, for at the end of five days wonderful things
will happen in this place, and none of the inhabitants shall
remain alive, for their neglect has enraged me. You must
put yourself in safety on that day, with your children, that
you may not share their fate ; but if you reveal this secret
to any other inhabitant of the village, your death is also

The woman was thankful at receiving this warning, and
on the fifth day she took good care to go far away from the
village with her children, brothers, and relations ; leaving
the rest of the inhabitants ofi” their guard, and still engaged
in drinking and feasting. But the enraged Pariacaca had
ascended a high mountain called Matro-coto, which over-
hangs the village of Huarochiri, and below which there is

« San Lorenzo de Quinti.


another mountain peak called Puipu-Huana, which is on the
road from San Damian to Huarochiri. Then an enormous
quantity of rain began to fall, with hail and yellow and
white stones, which carried the village away into the sea, so
that no man escaped. This flood is still a tradition among
the people of Huarochiri, and some high banks were- left,
which may be seen before arriving at the village. Having
completed this work, Pariacaca, without speaking to anv-
one in the other villages, or communicating with them,
crossed over to the other side of the river, where he did
what I shall describe in the following chapter.


How Pariacaca gave water in abundance to the Indians of the Ayllu
Copara, for their fields ; how he became enamoured of Choque
Suso, an idol which is still very famous.

Having crossed the river, Pariacaca travelled over the
fields which now belong to the Ayllu Copara, and which
then were in great want of water for irrigation. They did
not then procure it from the river, but from a spring on the
mountain called Sienacaca, which overhangs the villao-e
now called San Lorenzo.^ A large dam was built across
this spring, and other smaller dams were thrown across it
lower down, by which means the fields were irrigated. In
those days there was a very beautiful girl belonging to the
Ayllu Copara, who, seeing one day that the maize crop was
drying up for want of water, began to weep at the small
supply that came from one of the smaller dams she had
opened. Pariacaca happened to be passing by, and, seeing
her, he was captivated by her charms. He went to the
dam, and taking ofi” his yacolla or cloak, he used it to stop

* San Lorenzo de Quinti.


up the drain that the girl had made. He then went down
to where she was trying to irrigate the fields^ and she, if
she was aflflicted before, was much more so now, when she
found that there was no water flowing at all. Pariacaca
asked her, in very loviug and tender words, why she was
weeping, and she, without knowing who he was, thus
answered : — “My father, I weep because this crop of maize
will be lost and is drying up for lack of water.” He replied
that she might console herself and take no further thought,
for that she had gained what he had lost, namely, his love ;
and that he would make the dam yield more than enough
water to irrigate her crop. Choque-suso told him first to
produce the water in abundance, and that afterwards she
promised willingly to yield to his wishes. Then he went up
to the dam, and, on opening the channel, such a quantity of
water flowed out, that it sufficed to irrigate the thirsty
fields, and to satisfy the damsel. But when Pariacaca asked
her to comply with her promise, she said that there was
plenty of time to think about that. He was eager and
ardent in his love, and he promised her many things, among
others to conduct a channel from the river which should
suffice to irrigate all the farms. She accepted this promise,
saying that she must first see the water flowing, and that
afterwards she would let him do what he liked.

He then examined the country, to see whence he could
draw the water; and he observed that above the site of the
present village of San Lorenzo (in which that Ayllu Copara
now resides) a very small rill came from the ravine of Coca-
challa, the waters of which did not flow beyond a dam which
had been thrown across it. By opening this dam and lead-
ing the water onwards, it appeared to Pariacaca that it
would reach the farms of the Ayllu Copara, where were the
fields of his lady-love. So he ordered all the birds in those
hills and trees to assemble, together with all the snakes,
lizards, bears, lions, and other animals ; and to remove the


obstruction. This they did ; and he then caused them to
widen the channel and to make new channels until the water
reached the farms. There was a discussion as to who should
make the line for the channel, and there were many pre-
tenders to this duty, who wished to show their skill as well
as to gain the favour of their employer. But the fox
managed, by his cunning, to get the post of engineer ; and
he carried the line of the canal to the spot just above the
present site of the church of San Lorenzo. Then a par-
tridge came flying and making a noise like Pich-pich, and
the unconscious fox let the water flow oflf down the hill.
So the other labourers were enraged, and ordered the snake
to take the fox’s place, and to proceed with what he had
begun. But he did not perform the work so well as the
fox j and the people to this day deplore that the fox should
have been superseded, saying that the channel would have
been higher up and better, if this had not taken place :
and because the course of the channel is broken, just above
the church, they say that is the place where the fox let the
water flow ofi”, and which has never since been repaired.

Having brought the water to irrigate the farms in the
way that is still working, Pariacaca besought the damsel to
keep her promise, and she consented with a good grace,
but proposed that they should go to the summit of some
rocks called Yanacaca.^ This they did, and there Pariacaca
obtained his desires, and she was well repaid for her love
when she knew who he was. She would never let him go
anywhere alone, but always desired to accompany him ; and
he took her to the head-works of the irrigating channel,
which he had constructed for her love. There she felt a
strong wish to remain, and he again consented, so she was
converted into a stone, while Pariacaca went up the moun-
tains. Thus Choque Suso was turned into a stone at the
head of the channel, which is called Cocochalla.
^ Vana^ black. Caca, a rock.


Above this channel there is another called Vim-lompa,*
where there is another stone^ into which they say Conlraya
was turned.


How the Indians of the Ayllu of Copara still worship Choque Suso and
this channel, a fact which I know not only from their stories, but
also from judicial depositions which I have taken on the subject.

(Here was to be added that which I saw, and the story of
the hair of Choque Suso, and the rest of the depositions that
were taken, concerning this irrigating channel.)






Written in a memorandum book, annarently as a rough Draft, amone
the papers of the Licenciate Polo de Ondegardo.

(Manuscript in the National Library at Madrid. 4to, on parchment, B. 135.)




Of the Lineage of the Yncas, and how they Extended

THEIR Conquests.

It must be understood, in the first place, that the lineage of
these Yncas was divided into two branches, the one called
Hanan Cuzco, and the other Hurin Cuzco. From this it
may be concluded (and there is no memory of anything to
the contrary) that they were natives of the valley of Cuzco,
although some pretend that they came from other parts to
settle there. But no credit should be given to them, for
they also say that this happened before the flood. From
what can be gathered and conjectured in considering the
traditions of the present time, it is not more than three
hundred and fifty to four hundred years since the Yncas
only possessed and ruled over the valley of Cuzco as far as
Urcos, a distance of six leagues, and to the valley of Yucay,
which is not more than five leagues.

Touching the Lords that the people can remember, their
recollection does not carry them back beyond the time
already stated. They preserve the memory of these Lords
by their quipus, but if we judge by the time that each is
said to have lived, the historical period cannot be placed
further back than four hundred years at the earliest.

It must have been at about that period that they began
to dominate and conquer in the districts round Cuzco,


and, as would appear from their records, they were some-
times defeated. For^ although Andahuaylas, in the province
of the Chancas, is only thirty leagues from Cuzco, they did
not bring it under their sway until the time of Pachacutec
Yupanqui Ynca, who defeated those Chancas. The history
of this event is given in the record of the Pururunas, or
huacas, which originated and resulted from this battle with
the Chancas, the commencement of all the Ynca victories.^
On the other side of Cuzco is the road of Colla-suyu ; and
they also retain a recollection of the time when the Canas
and Canches, whose country is even nearer, wei-e paid to
go with the Yncas to the wars, and not as vassals following
their lords ; and this was in the same battle in which Pa-
chacutec Ynca fought against TJsco-vilca,~ Lord of the Chan-
cas. They also recollect the time when they extended their
dominion along this road to the lake of Villca-fiota, the
point where the Collao begins. Two powerful rivers flow
out of this lake, one going to the north sea, and the other
to the south. The lake was worshipped by the natives, and
looked upon as a noted huaca. A long interval of time
elapsed before the Yncas advanced beyond this point. It
was the successor of that loi*d who conquered the Chancas
who began to advance beyond this point, and those pro-
vinces had no peace until the time of Tupac Ynca, father of
Huayna Ccapac. We found these wars recorded in the
registers of the Yncas, but each province also had its regis-
ters of wars, so that, if it were necessary, we might very
easily fix the time when each province was subjugated by
the Yncas.

But it is enough to understand that these Yncas at first
extended their conquests by violence and war. There was
no general opposition to their advance, for each province

^ See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 57 ; and the present volume, p. 92.
* Should be Ancohualla, or Hauco-hualla. See G. de la Vega, ii, 68,
82, 829.


merely defended its land without aid from any other ; so
that the only difficulty encountered by the Yncas was in the
annexation of the districts round Cuzco. Afterwards all the
conquered people joined them, so that they always had a
vastly superior force as well as more cunning in the art of
war. Thus it was seldom that they were completely defeated,
although sometimes they were obliged to retreat, and desist
from a war during a year.

No province ever attempted to disturb them in their own
land, only seeking to be left in quiet possession of their
territories, and this seems to me to have been a great ad-
vantage to the Yncas. There is no memory of such an
attempt in their registers ; but, after the districts were re-
duced to obedience, the great natural strength of this region
conduced to its security. The four roads which diverge \’\\{S^
from Cuzco are all crossed by rivers that cannot be forfled
at any time in the year, while the land is very rugged ^nd
strong. There cannot, therefore, be a doubt that in this,
and in possessing better discipline and more knowledge,
lay the advantage they had over all the other nations of this
region. This superiority is shown in their edifices, bridges,
farms, systems of irrigation, and in their higher moral lives.
If other nations have anything good, it has all been taught
them by the Yncas. The Yncas also had a different system
of warfare, and were better led, so that they could not fail
to become lords over the rest. Thus they continued to extend
their dominions and to subjugate their neighbours.

The second thing that may be taken for granted is that
having resolved to conquer and subjugate other nations, the
Yncas sought some colour and pretext for prosecuting their
objects. The first story that these Yncas put forward,
though it was not the title which they finally asserted, was
an idea that, after the deluge, seven men and women had
come out of a cave which they call Paccari-tampu, five leagues
from Cuzco, where a window was carved in masonry in most



ancient times ; that these persons multiplied and spread
over the world. Hence every province had a like place of
worship where people came forth after the universal destruc-
tion ; and these places were pointed out by their old men and
wizards, who taught them why and how the Yncas venerated
the cave of Paccari-tam’pu. Thus in every province these
places of worship are to be found, each one with a different
tale attached to it.

With this title the Yncas were for a long time unable to
conquer more than the provinces bordering on Cuzco until
the time of Pachacuti Ynca Yupanqui. His father had been
defeated by the Chancas, and retreated to Cuzco, leaving
his troops in a Pucara or fortress. Then the son formed an
army out of the fugitives, and out of the garrison of Cuzco,
and out of the men of Canes and Canches, and turned back
to attack the Chancas. Before he set out his mother had a
dream that the reason of the victory of the Chancas was
that more veneration was shown for the Sun than Pachay-
achachie, who was the universal Creator. Henceforward a
promise was made that more sacrifices and prayers should
be offered to that statue. Then the son was promised a
victory over the Chancas, and that men should be sent from
Heaven to reinforce him. With this title he went forth
and conquered, and thence arose that idea of the Pururaucas,
which was one which was most important for the Yncas as a

title in extending their conquests sacrifices of many

kinds were continually invented, and all who were subjugated
were taught that Cuzco was the abode and home of the
gods. Throughout that city there was not a fountain, nor
a well, nor a wall, which they did not say contained some
mystery, as appears in the report on the places of worship
in that city, where more than four hundred such places are
enumerated. All this continued until the arrival of the
Spaniards ; and even now all the people venerate the
huacas given them by the Yncas.


The third thing to be undei^stood is that as soon as the
Yncas had made themselves lords of a province^ they caused
the natives, who had previously been widely scattered, to live
in communities, with an officer over every ten, another
over every hundred, another over every thousand, another
over evury ten thousand, and an Ynca governor over
all, who reported upon the administration every year, re-
cording the births and the deaths that had occurred among
men and flocks, the yield of the crops, and all other details,
with great minuteness. They left Cuzco every year, and
returned in February to make their report, before the festival
of Ray mi began, bringing with them the tribute of the whole
empire. This system was advantageous and good, and it
was most important in maintaining the authority of the
Yncas. Every governor, how great lord soever he might
be, entered Cuzco with a burden on his back. This was a
ceremony that was never dispensed with, and it gave great
authority to the Yncas.

The fourth thing is that in every place where a settle-
ment or village community was formed, the land was divided
in the following manner : one portion was set apart for the
support of religion, being divided between the Sun and the
Fachayachachic, and the thunder, which they called Ghuquilla,
and the Pacha-mama and their ministers, and other liuacas
and places of worship, both general and such as were pecu-
liar to each village. It would take long to enumerate them,
for they were so numerous that, if they had had nothing else
to do, the sacrifices alone would have given them occupation.
For each town was divided in the same way as Cuzco, and
every notable thing was made an object of worship, such as
springs, fountains, streams, stones, valleys, and hill summits,
which they called apachetas. Each of these things had its
people whose duty it was to perform the sacrifices, and
who were taught when to sacrifice and what kind of things
to ofi’er up. Although in no part were there so many objects


of worsliip as in Cuzco, yet the order and manner of wor-
shipping was the same.

A knowledge of the huacas and places of worship is very
important for the work of conversion. I have a knowledge
of them in more than a hundred villages ; and when the
Lord Bishop of Charcas doubted whether the custom was
so universal, at a time when we were in a joint com-
mission by order of his Majesty, I showed him the truth of
it in Cuzco. And although the discovery of these things
has taken time, yet it has been necessary as regards the
question of tribute and contributions. For a very large
portion of the harvests was set apart for this service, and
stored in places prepared for the purpose. Part was ex-
pended on the sacrifices of the villages, and a larger share
was taken to Cuzco from all parts. The portions thus set
apart were from a third to a fourth, varying in different dis-
tricts. In many villages all belonged to the Sun, such as
in Arapa and others. In these the greater part was de-
voted to sacrifices, in others (belonging to the Ynca) not
so much.

Another share of the produce was reserved for the Ynca.
This was stored in the granaries or sent to Cuzco, accord-
ing to the necessities of the Government. For it was not
always disposed of in the same way. The Ynca supplied
with food all his garrisons, his servants, his relations, and
the chiefs who attended upon him, out of this share of the
tribute, which was brought to Cuzco from all parts of the
country. In time of war the provisions from some parts
were sent to others, in addition to the ordinary consump-
tion, and there was such order in these arrangements that
no mistake ever occurred. Sometimes the stores were sent
from the magazines in the mountains to the coast, at others
from the coast to the interior, according to the exigencies
of each case, and this was done with never-failing speed and
exactness. When there was no demand the stores remained


in the magazines^ and occasionally there was an accumulation
sufficient for ten years.

There can be no doubt that this share of the Ynca was
well managed. I visited many of the store-houses in differ-
ent parts, and they were, without comparison, larger and
better than those set apart for the service of religion.

The lands set apart for the tribute of the Ynca and of
religion were sown and reaped in the same order ; but it
must be understood that when the people worked upon
them, they ate and drank at the cost of the Ynca and of the
Sun. This work was not performed by gangs, nor were
the men told off for it, but all the inhabitants went forth
except the aged and infirm, dressed in their best clothes,
and singing songs appropriate for the occasion. In these
two kinds of tribute there were two things that seem worthy
of note. One is that the aged, infirm, and widows did not
join in it. The other is, that although the crops and other
produce of these lands were devoted to the tribute, the land
itself belonged to the people themselves. Hence a thing
will be apparent which has not hitherto been properly
understood. When any one^ wants land, it is considered
sufficient if it can be shown that it belonged to the Ynca or
to the Sun. But in this the Indians are treated with great
injustice. For in those days they paid the tribute, and the
land was theirs ; but now, if it is found convenient to tax
them in some other way, it is clear that they will pay double
tribute — in one way by being deprived of their land, and in
another by having to pay the tax in the form that may be
now fixed. If any one, as is often done, sets up a claim by
saying the Ynca had power to appropriate the land, the
injustice and wrong is all the greater ; because if such was
the right, his Majesty succeeds to it ; and, as regards
encoiniendas for a life or lives, it is clear that it is not the
intention to grant them, nor is it just as regards the estate
‘ That is, any Spanish settler.


of the Tnca. Such tribute or tax was levied by the Ynca
as King and Lord, and not as a private person. Hence
arose a notable mistake. It was declared that all the farms
of coca belonged to the Ynca, which was true, and there-
fore they appertain to his Majesty. He could grant them
in encomienda, and resume them at the end of the term, if
he so pleased, as is the case with the alcahalas of Valladolid.
The Fiscal exerted himself to prove that the farms belonged
to the Ynca, and that the encomienda only extended to the
Indians, and this was through not comprehending the nature
of the tribute that was given to the Ynca. In effect the
Ynca took the produce of all the coca farms throughout the
Andes for his own use, except a few small patches granted
to chiefs and camayus.^ All the rest was taken to Cuzco,
but there was not then so much as there is now, nor one
fiftieth part ; for in this too the reports were deceptive, as I
have more particularly shown in my report on the coca.

The Ynca did the same with all the males in the flocks,
which were appropriated for the service of himself and of
religion, being left, however, in the same district whore they
were bred, and merely counted. No female was included in
the tribute. The pastures and hunting-grounds were demar-
cated, that the flocks might not be passed from one province
to another; but that each might have its assigned limits.
This rule has also given rise to pretensions on the part of
some, to the flocks, on the ground that they belonged to
the Sun or the Ynca ; and, before order was established, a
great quantity was seized on this pretext. It is very cer-
tain that if his Majesty took the tribute of the flocks, he
would not wish that it should be given out of what the In-
dians held as their own, and enjoyed as such ; but only from
that which belonged to him, from having been given by
them to the Ynca and to religion.

After I had become thoroughly acquainted with the sub-

« Officials.


ject, I severely censured some who took a quantity of flocks
from the Aymaraes and other parts, on this pretext. But,
on an appeal to the Audiencia, it was permitted on the
ground that his Majesty succeeded to the right.

It was not all the flocks that were treated in this way ;
for a portion, though a small one, was left to the district,
and another to the chief, who afterwards granted some to
his servants. Those belonging to religion and to the Ynca
were called Ccapac-llama, and the others Huachay -llama ;
which means rich and poor beasts. A division was pro-
hibited, and to this day they are all enjoyed in common.

In the matter of the flocks they made many rules, some of
which were so conducive to their preservation that it would be
well if they were still observed. It may be said that, in a great
part of the kingdom, the people are maintained by the flocks.
They flourish in the coldest regions, and there also the
Indians are settled, as in all parts of the CoUao, and on the
sides towards Arequipa and the coast, as well as throughout
Carancas, Aullagas, Quilluas, and Collahuas. All those
districts, if it were not for the flocks, might be looked upon
as uninhabitable; for though they yield papas, quinuas, and
ocas, it is an usual thing for three out of five years to be
without harvests, and there is no other kind of produce.
But, by reason of the flocks, they are richer and can dress
better than those who live in fertile districts. They are
very healthy, and their villages are more populous than
those in the warm lands, and the latter are even more fre-
quently without their own products, than those who possess
flocks. For the flocks are sent down with wool, and return
laden with maize, aji, and pulses. This is the reason that,
in the rules, a hundred Indians of the barren land, though
they be far from the mines, give more than two hundred
from the fertile land. Then Indians who take their flocks to
Potosi gain more in a month than any other ten in a year,
and they return with their flocks improved.


There was a rule that females should never be killed, and
thus the flocks multiplied exceedingly, for neither were
those of the Ynca or of religion killed except for sacrifices.
If any beast was attacked with earache,^ which is the disease
by which so many have been lost in our times, the rule was
that they should not be fed or cured, but buried at once,
deep in the ground, as the disease was infectious.

The flock of the community was shorn at the proper
season, and the wool was divided amongst the people, each
getting the quantity he required for himself, his wife, and
children ; so that all were clothed. A portion of the flocks
of the Ynca and of religion were also shorn, and cloth was
made out of the wool and taken to Cuzco, for the use of the
Ynca, and for the sacrifices. It was also used for clothing
the attendants of the Ynca, or was stored in the magazines.
Thus in each village they had workmen, called cumpicos, to
weave the rich cloth which they made in great quantities.
The store-houses were quite full of cloth when the Spaniards
came, as well as with all other things necessary to sustain
life and for war.

One thing should here be noted, which is that when they
distributed the cloth to each man according to the quantity
required for clothing his family, no account was taken of
what such a person might have of his own, because he was
supposed to enjoy this without prejudice to his enjoying his
share with the rest, even if a family possessed a large quan-
tity. It is important to decide how this tribute may now
be taken, with due regard to justice, from the estates of
religion, of the Ynca, and of the community. For in the
event of there being sufficient for the payment of this class
of contribution, and of that which results from it and is
made from the wool, but a deficiency under some other
class, it would not be reasonable to make up such deficiency
by an exaction from etery head, which is the way that it is
» See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 378.


now made up. For if cue Indian only has a single head of
flock it will be taken for the tribute, while if another pos-
sesses a hundred head no more than one will be taken.
This consideration gave rise to their own custom that no
man should pay tribute from his own personal property, but
only from the work of his hands, all working as a community.
It is clear that the tribute of religion and the Tnca was
levied from the whole community for the public service,
while the private property of each man was held by favour
from the Ynca, and, according to their laws, they had no
other title to it. From this private property no tribute of
any kind was exacted, even when it was considerable in
amount. But all were obliged to do their part in producing
the tribute demanded from the community. It is not
right, therefore, that they should now be taxed by the head,
but rather according to their estates. If there are a thousand
Indians in a Repartimiento, among whom there are five
hundred mitimaes^ who never possess any sheep, and if the
tribute amounts to five hundred head, it is impossible to
raise it. Consequently when, by reason of the flocks, the
tribute is to be paid in sheep, it is necessary to ascertain to
whom the sheep belong, and to assess the ‘initimaes and the
natives separately. Thus the diflSculty will be overcome,
and the injustice will be avoided. The community is com-
posed of rich and poor, and the tribute of sheep should
be distributed among those who breed them, without in-
cluding any poor man who happens to have acquired a single
sheep. For this immunity should be granted, and the matter
is of suflBcient importance to justify this digression.

The same remark applies to the tax which is exacted
throughout the Collao and the province of Charcas where
they have flocks. This consists in having to convey to
Potosi a quantity of provisions in proportion to the number
of sheep in the flock. This class of tribute was well known

« Colonists.


in tlie time of the Tncas, because they carried tribute to
Cuzco on the sheep of the Sun and of the Ynca in great
quantities. But in assessing this burden the mitimaes were
treated with great injustice ; for, as they were all taxed
together, the natives received their share, and the mitimaes
theirs, so that the natives conveyed their provisions on their
beasts, while the mitimaes had to carry them on their own
backs, for a distance of forty leagues and more. It is a serious
matter for an Indian to have to carry three arrohas on his
back, which is the weight of a fanega of flour, besides his
own food, and the loss of time.

The ancient tribute was to sow the crops for the Ynca and
for religion, and to reap them and carry the harvests to the
store-houses, where there was always a superfluity.

Another mistake that has been made in levying taxes,
especially in the Collao, through which the Indians have
been much oppressed, is through their being ordered to pay
a quantity of provisions according to the extent of the land
they possess for sowing with papas, from which they make
chunus. For out of five years, there is but a small yield in
three, so that fhe Indians have to pay all they possess.
Thus the men and their families suffer throughout the year
by reason of the tribute.

On the death of an owner of land, the heirs and descen-
dants possessed it in common, without the power of dividing
it; but the person who represented the Ayllu had the
charge, and all the rest enjoyed the fruits in common, which
were divided among them in the following manner : If a son
of the first possessor had six sons, and another son had two,
each one had equal shares, and there were as many shares
as persons. At the time of sowing they all had to be pre-
sent to divide the crop ; and at the harvest if any one, even
though a descendant, had not been at the sowing, he could
neither take his share nor give it to another. Yet even if
he was absent ten years, he did not lose his right, if he


chose to be at the sowing ; and even when there were so
many descendants as that there was scarcely a mazorca of
maize for each, the rule was still observed ; and it is still
kept up in the district of Cuzco, where the lands are held
in this manner.

This custom of each descendant having a right to a share,
should be known when any business connected with the
levying of taxes is to be arranged. Thus the lands belonged
to the whole village, and he who did not work at the sow-
ing had no share in the harvest.

The reason may now be understood why, in so many
lawsuits that are submitted to the Corregidores and Audi-
encias, scarcely any are between an Indian and another “of
the same village, but between one village and another.

After the Spaniards came, the Indians continued for a
long time to till the lands of the Ynca and of religion, and
to store up the harvests according to the old custom, and to
burn a portion in sacrifice, believing that a time would come
when they would have to give an account to the Ynca.
When the President Gasca marched through the valley of
Xauxa against Gonzalo Pizarro, I remember that he rested
there for seven weeks, and they found stores of maize there
for several years, upwards of fifteen thousand fanegas near
the road. When they understood that these reserved lands
might be sown for their own profit, the people of different
villages began to sow them, and hence arose many lawsuits.

When people went to work on land out of their own dis-
trict, it was also for the Ynca and religion, and the land set
apart for this was called suyus. But there were also some
Indians left to irrigate and guard these suyus, who, though
in a land beyond their own district, were always subject to
their chiefs, and not to the chiefs in the land where they
resided. These are a different class of men from the miti-
maeSj who were removed from the jurisdiction of the chiefs
under whom they were born.


It should be understood how those lands which were
tilled belonged to the sowers. In the Collao, where no
maize can be raised, the people had lands on the coast,
and sent men down to till them, near Arequipa for in-
stance. In the time of the Marquis of Canete, who was
Viceroy of these kingdoms,^ owing to information which I
supplied, these siiyus were returned as belonging to the
province of Chucuito, but all the others suffer bj reason of
this custom not being understood.

The order which, up to this time, has been adopted for
the conversion of the Indians, is for the priests to visit each
village, with a book showing who are baptized, who are
married, who have more than one wife. Thus the shepherd
knows his sheep and is known by them. The ancient cus-
tom bv which no man moved from his district, was a marvel-
louR aid.

The rules of New Spain, where the country is very popu-
lous, are not applicable to this land. This was well under-
stood by that prudent and illustrious worthy Don Antonio
de Mendoza,^ whose memory will long be cherished, and
whose loss will be felt more every day by his Majesty and by
the people of the Indies. At the end of a year, during which
he had studied the affairs of this land, though he was suffer-
ing from illness, he said that before issuing any orders it
was necessary to do three things — first, to see the country ;
second, to know the capacity of the Indians ; and third, to
understand their customs, rules, manner of living, and ancient
system of taxation. For all this it was necessary that he
should have had better health and fewer years.

The order established by the Ynca in matters relating to
the chase, was that none should hunt beyond the limits pf
his own province ; and the object of this was that the game,
while proper use was made of it, should be preserved. After

‘ From 1555 to 1561.

* Viceroy of Peru from 1551 to 1555.


the tribute of the Ynca and of religion had been paid, leasee
was given to supply the requirements of the peaple. Yet
the game multiplied by reason of the regulations for its con-
servation, far more rapidly than it was taken, as is shown
by the registers they kept, although the quantity required
for the service of the Ynca and of religion was enormous.
A regular account was kept of all the hunts, a thing which
it would be difficult for me to believe if I had not seen it.

The Ynca made similar regulations with regard to the
forests, in the districts where they were of any importance.
They were assigned for the use of the regions where there
was a want of fuel, and these forests were called moyas of
the Ynca, though they were also for the use of the districts
in the neighbourhood of which they grew. It was ordained
that they should be cut in due order and licence, according
to the requirements. It should therefore be understood
that the pastures, the hunts, and the forests were used in
common under fixed regulations ; and the greatest benefit
that his Majesty could confer on these Indians, next to their
conversion, would be to confirm the same order established
by the Yncas, for to frame new rules would be an infinite

There was another kind of contribution in the time of the
Yncas, which was as heavy and onerous as all the others.
In every province they had a house called Aclla-huasi, which
means ” the house of the chosen ones,^’ where the following
order was kept : There was a governor in each province
whose sole duty was to attend to the business of these houses,
whose title was Apu-panaca. His jurisdiction extended over
one hunu, which means ten thousand Indians, and he had
power to select all the girls who appeared to him to be of
promising dispositions, at the ages of eight or nine years,
without any limit as to the number chosen. They were
put into this house in company with a hnndred Mama-cun as,
who resided there, where they were taught all the accom-


plishments proper for women^ such as to sew, to weave, to
make the drinks used by the Indians ; and their work, in
the month of February, at the feast of Raymi, was taken to
the city of Cuzco. They were strictly watched until they
reached the age of thirteen or fourteen years and upwards,
so that they might be virgins when they should arrive at
Cuzco, where they assembled in great numbers from all
the provinces in the middle of March. The order of dis-
tribution was as follows : —

Women were taken for the service of the Sun, and placed
in the temples, where they were kept as virgins. In the
same order women were given to the service of Pacha-mama,
and of other things in their religion. Then others were
selected for the sacrifices that were offered in the course
of the year, which were numerous. On these occasions
they killed the girls, and it was necessary that they should
be virgins; besides offering them up at special seasons,
such as for the health of the Ynca, for his success in war,
for a total eclipse of the sun, on earthquakes, and on many
other occasions suggested by the Devil. Others were set
apart for the service of the Ynca, and for other persons to
whom he showed favour. When any man had received a
woman as his legitimate wife or mamanchu, he could not
take another except through the favour of the Ynca, which
was shown for various reasons, either to one who had
special skill in any art, or to one who had shown valour in
war, or had pleased the Ynca in any other way. The num-
ber of women who were set apart for these uses was very
great, and they were selected without any regard to whom
they belonged, but merely because they were so chosen by
the Aiiu-panaca, and the parents could not excuse or redeem
them under any circumstances. Estates were set apart for
the support of the houses of the chosen ones, and this
tribute would have been felt more than any other if it had
not been for the belief that the souls of the girls that. were


sacrificed went to enjoy infinite rest, which was the reason
that sometimes they voluntarily offered themselves for

One of the chief articles of tribute was the cloth that was
given for the service of the Ynca and of religion. Great
quantities of this cloth were distributed by the Ynca among
the soldiers, and were given to his relations and attendants.
The rest was deposited in the store-houses, and was found
there in enormous quantities when the Spaniards arrived in
these kingdoms. This cloth was of many textures, accord-
ing to the uses to be made of it. Large quantities were
made of the very rich cn’mpi, woven with two fronts. A
more common kind was made for the sacrifices, for in all
the festivals much cloth was offered up. For these supplies
the beasts of the Ynca were shorn at the proper time,
worked up, and sent to Cuzco, with the other tribute, in
the month of February, besides what was stored in the
magazines, in accordance with the instructions issued in
each year.

The beasts required for Cuzco were sent in the same
month, in the quantity that had been ordered, all being
males, for females were never wasted either for sacrifices or
for food. The Pachayachachic, whom they held to be the
universal Creator, the Sun, the thunder called Cliuquilla,
the Pachamama, and an infinite number of other objects of
worship, all had their flocks set apart, and the wool from
them was distributed in the city of Cuzco for the sacrifices,
and to clothe the people who served the liuacas. A quan-
tity of cloth was also used for the service of the houses
where the embalmed bodies of the Lords Yncas were kept.
Here also were taken all kinds of food, such as maize, chunu,
aji, and every other kind of provision that was raised in the
farms. All these things were arranged with such order,
that it is difficult to understand how the accounts and re-
gisters can have been so well kept.


An immense quantity of personal service from all the
provinces was also required in the city of Cuzco, for the
Ynca and his court. Every province that was conquered
had to send its principal idol to the city of Cuzco, and the
same province Continued to provide for its service and
sacrifices in the same order as when it was in the pro-

Another very heavy burden consisted in the supply of
men for war, as there were frequent rebellions in various
parts of the empire, and it was necessary to guard all the
frontiers, especially along the river of Maule in Chile, and
on the Bracamoras in the province of Quito, and towards
that of Marcas, and in the province of the Chirihuanas,
bordering on Charcas, and towards the forests of the Chun-
chus and Mosus. On all these frontiers we still meet with
pucaras or fortresses where the garrisons were assembled,
with roads leading to them. Mitimaes also were sent, from
different provinces, to live on these frontiers.

Those who performed special services were exempted
from other classes of tribute. There is an example of this
in the province of Lucanas, where the people were trained
to carry the litter of the Ynca, and had the art of going with
a very even and equal pace. In Chumpivilcas the people
excelled in dancing, and many were exempted on that ac-
count. In the province of Chilcas there is a red wood of
excellent quality for carving, and the Chilcas brought it
thence to Cuzco, a distance of two hundred leagues, in very
great quantities, with many representations carved and
painted on it. The wood was burnt for sacrifices in fires
kindled in the great square, in presence of the Ynca and of
the embalmed bodies of the dead lords. Thus the best pro-
duct of each province was brought to Cuzco.

In the arrangement of tribute, men were also set apart
for the construction of public works, such as bridges and
roads. In all the royal roads from Quito to Chile, and still


further on to the borders of the government of Benalcazar,*
and the branch road to Bracamoras, there were chasquis
stationed at the end of every tupit,, both on the road of the
coast and of the mountains. A tu’pu measures the same as
a league and a half. At these points there were small
houses adapted to hold two Indians, who served as postmen,
and were relieved once a month, and they were there night
and day. Their duty was to pass on the messages of the
Ynca from Cuzco to any other point, and to bring back
those of the governors, so that all the transactions and
events of the empire were known. When the Ynca wished
to send anything to a governor, he said it to the first
chasqui, who ran at full speed for a league and a half with-
out stopping, and passed the message to the next as soon
as he was within hearing, so that when he reached the post
the other man had already started. They say that from
Cuzco to Quito, a distance of five hundred leagues, a mes-
sage was sent and another returned in twenty days. I can
believe this, for in our wars we have sometimes used these
chasquis, and as it was an ancient custom, they readily made
the arrangement. In this way letters have been brought from
Cuzco to Lima in three days, a distance of a hundred and
thirty leagues, over a very bad road. The Yncas also used
these chasquis to bring up fresh fish from the sea ; and they
were brought up, in two days, a distance of a hundred leagues.
They have records in their quipus of the fish having some-
times been brought from Tumbez, a distance of more than
three hundred leagues. The food of the chasquis was pro-
vided from the store-houses of the Ynca ; for those who
worked for the Ynca’s service, or for religion, never ate at
their own expense.

9 Sebastian de Benalcazar, one of the first conquerors of Peru, and
Governor of Popayan.

170 report by polo de ondegardo.

Edifices and Fortresses.

One other contribution and tribute in the time of the
Yncas imposed heavy labour, and this was the demand for
Indians to work at the edifices of Cuzco. This work was
very toilsome, for all their buildings were of masonry, and
they had no tools of iron or steel, either to hew the stones
out of the quarries or to shape them afterwards. All this
was done with other stones, which was a labour of extreme
difficulty. They did not use lime and sand, but adjusted
one stone to another with such precision that the point of
junction is scarcely visible. If we consider the number of
times they must have fitted and taken ofi” one stone before
this accuracy was attained, an idea may be formed of the
toil and of the number of workmen that was required. To
this labour was added the conveyance of stones from great
distances by force of men^s arms. Any one who has seen
their edifices, will not doubt their statements that thirty
thousand men were employed. For not only are these
works above the ground, such as those in the city and for-
tress, but there is also much well-cut masonry underground,
as well hewn as any that can be found in Spain. As they
had nothing but stone tools, it seems to me that a hundred
Indians could not work and shape a single stone in a month,
and any one who likes to look at them will certainly think the
same. These edifices are not only in Cuzco, but in many other
parts where the work must have been much more heavy and
difficult, by reason of the stones being more distant. For
at Cuzco, from Santa Ana, which is in Carmenca, where the
city commences, to Angostura, there is a distance of three
leagues, a little more or less; and within this space all kinds
of stone for building are to be found, black and white, hard
and soft ; and all the stones of the neighbouring hills are
excellent for lime and plaster. I have examined the quar-
ries, and have seen their ingenious contrivances, in company


with dexterous artificers from Spain, and they assured me
they had never seen so many kinds of excellent stone within
so small a space. He who has seen the work which the
Yncas commenced in Tiahuanacu, near Chuqui-apu/ and
considers that the stone is not met with within a hundred
leagues of the spot, will understand the advantage enjoyed
by Cuzco.

This service was exacted throughout the kingdom ; it
being arranged in Cuzco in each year, as regards the num-
ber of men to be employed and the work to be done.

Note. — This report is incomplete at the end, and the copy at Madrid
has been made by a very ignorant clerk who left blank spaces when he
did. not understand a word or passage.

‘ The modern city of La Paz.




Administration (Civil), 155, 156 (see Laws]
Agriculture. Irrigation, 19; sowin;^, 19; ploughing, 48;
harvest, 52; patronage of, 78 ; method of labour, 157
Antiquity of Ynca civilization, 151
April. Harvest time, 52
August. Ceremonies in, 20; rains commence, 21

Bathing. At installation of knights, 45

Breeches. Ceremony of conferring knighthood, by giving,

35, 36, 43
Building. Tribute, 170; materials, 1 71

Cable. Ceremony of, 48, 111 {note)

Celibacy of youths, 82 (see Virgins)

Ceremonies at festival of the Sun, 17 ; at the driving forth
of evils [sitaa), 21, 24, 26, 33; at the installation of
knights, 35-46: of the cable, 48; of the water sacrifice,
50 ; when a woman conceived, 53 ; when a child was
named, 53; when a girl reached the age of puberty, 53,
80; of worshipping heaps of stones on mountain passes,
78; of coronation, 105

Cloth. Distribution, 160 ; tribute, 167

Comets, 95

Confession. Custom of, 15

Conquests. Of first Ynca, 76 ; of Pachacutec, 93-96 ; pro-
gress of by the Yucas, 152 (see War)

Coronation. Ceremony, 105

Costumes (see Drosses)

1 74 INDEX.

Creation. Tradition of, 4, b, 6, 7

Creator. Attributes, 6, 1 ; argument for existence of, 11 ;

prayer to, 20, 28, 33, 89 ; precedence given to, 26 ;

representation of, 76; honour paid to, 84, 167; temple

to, 11
Cultivation (see Agriculture)

Dancing (see Music)

December. Sham-fight in, 47

Deluge. Traditions of, 4, 5, 9, 132, 153

Devils. In early times, their power, 70, 71, 78; exposure

of, 86 (see Huacas in list of Quichua words)
Dramas, 90
Dresses. Of young knights, 36, 40, 44 ; of maidens, 37 ; of

parents and relations, 37, 49 ; of villagers, 77
Drinking (see Libations)

Ears. Ceremony of boring, 35, 46
Emeralds, 94

Famine, 97

Farm, 98 (see Agriculture)

Fasting, 82, 85, 97

February, 52

Festival of the Sun, 16; for driving forth evils, 21; of

knighthood, 35-46 ; for multiplication of flocks, 46 (see

Fish. Sent fresh from the coast to Cuzco, 169
Flocks. Feast for, 46 ; management of, 158, 160, 161
Forest conservancy, 165

Fortress of Cuzco. Commenced, 88 ; building, 90
Future state. Belief as to, 48 ; speculations as to, 85

Hair. Ceremony of shearing, 37, 53 ; combing of girls^

80 ; men ordered to shave, 82
Harvest, 52

Heads. Practice of compressing, 78, 82
Human sacrifices, 54, 79, 85, 100
Hunting. Rules as to, 164

INDEX. 175

Insignia (see Royal)
Irri(jatio7i, 19

January, 51

July. Occupations in month of, 19

June. Festival in sowing-time, 19 .^

KnigJdhood. Festival of admission to, 35, 36 ; Eaces, 41 ;
installation, 43, 44 ; ceremony of bathing, 45 ; piercing
the ears, 46 ; breeches, 43 ; discipline, 39, 40, 42, 46 ;
cultivate maize, 52 (see Youths, candidates for)

Land tenures, 155

Landmarks, 83

Laws enacted by Yncas, 76, 83, 158-61, 164

Legends (see Traditions)

Libations, 26, 49, 103

Lineages. Enumeration of, 23 ;• of each tribe, 77

Love. Excessive, between youths and maidens, 81

Charms, 81, 88

Maidens. At installation ceremony, 37; their duties, 41 ;

encourage youths at the races, 42
Maize. Cultivated by young knights, 52 ; used as a charm, 63
March. Month of, 52
Marriage ceremony, 54, 76, 80, 107
May. Festivals in months of, 16
Moon. Idol of, 37
Mourning for the Tnca, 95, 100
Mummies. Honours paid to, 26, 27, 48, 50
Music, songs, and dancing, 18, 26, 32, 39, 42, 44, 48, 50,

51, 52, 59, 89, 99, 167

November, 36

October. Festival of boring ears of youths, 35
Origin of tribes, 4 : of Canaris, 8 ; of Yncas, 74, 153

Paintings, representing lives of Yncas, on boards^ 4

Pearls, 94

Plays (see Dramas)

Ploughing . Time of, 48

176 INDEX.

Prayers. To the Creator, 20, 23, 28, 89; for fruitful flocks,
29 ; for the Huacas, 29, 32 ; for the Sun, 30, 56 ; for
the Yncas, 31 ; to Huanacauri, 38 ; of the first Ynca, 79

Priest, 17, 18, 38, 41, 52, 83, 89, 98, 114 (see Sorcerers,

Races. Run by candidates for knighthood, 41 , 80

Rainbow. Appearance of, 75

Rope (see Cable)

Royal Insignia, 6, 19, 39, 41, 44, 91, 100, 105, 106, 111, 120

Sacrifices, 17, 20, 27, 32, 38, 43, 46, 49 ; by water, 50, 52 ;

human, 54, 58, 79, 85, 100, 166 ; various kinds, 81
Sheep. Images of, 19, 41 (see Flocks)
Shearing (see Hair)
Shepherds, 46, 81

Songs, 59, 84, 89, 99 ; war,- 95 (see Music)
Sorcerers, 89 ; cursed by Huascar Ynca, 115 (see Wizards)
Sun. Festival of, 16 ; not looked upon as God, 17 ; legend

of, 18; prayers for, 30, 56 ; worship of, contemned, 83;

worship of by Colla chief, 90
/S’ia/of Tonapa, 74
Superstitions respecting Spaniards, 60 (see Devils, Traditions)

Tenure (see Land)

Traditions of earliest age, 70; of Tonapa, 71, 87; of Huana-
cauri, 75 ; in Huarochiri, 123 ; of Coniraya and Cavil-
laca, 124; of Huathiacuri, 135; of Pariacaca^ 144 (see
Creation, Deluge, Origin)

Tribute. Of crops, 162; virgins, 165; cloth, 167; soldiers,
168; labour, 168

Virgins. Houses of. Different classes, 82, 98, 108, 112 ;
ravished by order of Huascar Ynca, 112; rules as to,
165 ; sacrifice of, 166

War. Of the Chancas, 91, 154; with the Collas, 101; with
Quito, 108; of Huascar and Atahualpa, 113 (see Con-

Weaving, 78 (see Cloth)

INDEX. 177

Wives, 54, 80, 166 (see Marriage)

Witches, 63

Wizards, 13, 63 (see Sorcerers) ; persecuted, 83

Worship (see Ceremonies, Festivals) ^

Youths. Candidates for knighthood, 36; discipline they
were subjected to, 39, 40, 42, 46 ; races run by, 41 ;
breeches given to, 35, 36, 43 ; dress and ornaments of,
44, 45, 80; bathe, 45; sham fights, 47; ears bored,
46 ; celibacy of, 82 (see Knighthood) ; cultivate maize, 52


Words with a t also occur in Garcilasso de la Vega, and with a J in

Cieza de Leon.

Acahuara. A plain in the valley of the Vilca-mayu, south

of Cuzco, near the modern village of Andahuaylillas, 1 8
•\XAcari. A valley on the Pacific coast, 62. See Citza de

Leon, pp. 28, 265 ; and O. de la Vega, i, 244, 267
Achacache. On the shores of lake Titicaca. Inhabitants

called Urcos-suyus, 100
Achpiran. A hill visible from the temple at Cuzco, behind

which the sun sets, 17
Acoya-puncu, Angostura de. The first stage from Cuzco, in

the direction of Colla-suyu, 22, 1 70
Allcayriesas. Aborigines of Cuzco (see CulUnchinas and

Cayaucachis), 76
Amayhamba. A place beyond Ollantay-tampa, 29
Anahuarqui. Hill, two leagues from Cuzco, 41, 42
Ancasmarca. A province five leagues from Cuzco, in Anti-

suyu, 9
Anchi-cocha. In the province of Huarochiri, 125, 136
Anco-yacu river, 114

■\XAndaltuaylas (Antahuaylla), 18, 22, 152
■fAngaraes (Ancara), 78, 93. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 132
Anta. Near Cuzco, 9, 59, 120
Antamarca. Huascar Ynca slain at^ 119

178 INDEX.

■\Anti-suyu province, 22, 27, 54, 96

Apu-tampu (see Paccari-tampu)

fXApurimac river, 23, 92, 116, 119

Arapa. A village north of lake Titicaca, 156

tj^^eg-wijoa, 95, 96, 159

•fXAso.ncaru (Azangaro), 100. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 76;

Cieza de Leon, p. 369
■\XAsancata peak, 87, 95. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 159
AuUagas. A province in CFpper Peru (modern Bolivia), 159
■[Ayaniarca, 35, 90. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 80
Ayapata. A district in the province of Caravaya, 93
fAymara, 96, 114, 159. See G. de la Vega, i, pp. 235, 237;

ii, p. 50

■fX^omhon [Pumpii], 114. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 130

■yXGacha, 18. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 159 ; ii, p. 69

Oacha-pucara. Fortress at Cacha, 72

Cachona village. Probably Cachora, a small village near

Abancay, 41
■\Cac-yaviri. On the south side of lake Titicaca, 101
Cajamarca (see Cassamarca)
Callachaca, 91, 98
Capi-mayu. River flowing through Cuzco ; now called

Huatanay, 50
Carapnicu mount, 72

■\Carancas. In the south of Bolivia, 159
flCaravaya province, 72, 93, 95, 102, 115
t| Cassamarca (Caxamarca), 7, 67, 94
■fCayamhi. In the kingdom of Quito, 97, 98, 108, 109
Ccapac-uilca. Sacrifice on hill of, near Cuzco, 17
Chacamarca. There is a place in the district of Vilcas-

huaman with this name {Alcedo, i, p. 353), 73, 78, 100
■\XChachapuyas province, 98, 111, 113, 116
Chaclla. A district of Huarochiri, 94, 121
Chaijas province, 93
iChiUi, 103, 115
Chillqui (Chollqui). A district south of Cuzco ; now called

Paruro {Alcedo, i, p. 413), 96

INDEX. 1 79

Chillqni-urpu, 93

fChimu, 94, 108. See G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 195, 424

■\Chincha-suiiu. Northern division of the Ynca empire^ 22,

fChincha-ytaica. On the coast, 88, 93, 94
fChij’ihuana, 102, 109, 115, 168. See G. de la Vega, i, pp.

50,54; ii, pp. 274, 277
■[Chita. Heights a league and a half from Cuzco, 23. See

G. de la Vega, i, p. 341 ; and ii, p. 71
^Chollques. (Probably Chillqui of G. de la Vega, i, p. 80).

Near Paruro, 96
Choco village, 41

Chorrillo. A village in Huarochiri, 125, 142
■\-lGhumpivillcas, 96, 168. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 229
fChunchus, 168. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 263
Chuntay-cassa, 116

fChuqui-apu, 171. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 225
Chuqui-chaca, 29
Chuqui-cancha, 56, 57
Chuqui-cliinchay , 95

Churicalla. Two leagues south west of Cuzco, 23
Cienequilla. On the road from Lima to Huarochiri, 136
Coca-challa. A ravine in Huarochiri, 145
Cocha-cassa. Near Huancarama, a lake somewhat oflf the

road from Cuzco to Andahuaylas, 115, 117. See G. de

la Vega, i, p. 266
■fColcapata, 19. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 179 ; ii, pp. 7, 109,

168, 237
•fColla-suyu. South division of the empire of the Yncas,

22, 27, 54, 67, 93, 105, 108
■^XGdlas. A tribe in the northern part -^f the basin of lake

Titicaca, 96, 100, 109
fXGoUao. A general name for the region round lake Titi-
caca, 164
■fCoUahua, or Caylloma. A lofty region between Cuzco and

Arequipa {Alcedo, i, p. 492), 159
CoUo-chahuay , 103
Culla-pampa, 94

180 INDEX.

Collca-pampa, 74, 75

Condorcoto. A mountain in Huarochiri, 138

■f’lCoquimpu. In Chile, 103, 115

Cullinchinas. An aboriginal tribe of Cuzco, 7G

fCunti-suyu. Western division of the empire of the Yncas,

23, 27, 54, 96
■\-Ourampa, 115. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 323; and Alcedo,

i, p. 565
Cusipampa. A tributary of the Apurimac, 23
fCusi-pata. Great square in Cuzco, 87. See G. de la Vega,

ii, pp. 159, 252, 254
Cuti. A hill in the puna of Puraacancha, 18
■fCuzco-ccapac (see Hurin, Hanan), 79
Cuzco-cara-urumi. A rock so called, which gave the name

to the city, 76

fHanan-Cuzco. Upper Cuzco, 26, 33, 43, 44, 47, 48, 76,

79, 151
Hatun-Huanca Sausa. Valley of Xauxa, 93. See G. de la

Vega, ii, pp. 128, 517. (See Sausa)
Hayacuchos (ov Hayachuco). Indians who performed dances

at Cuzco. The latter form is probably correct, 90, 112
fHuaca-chaca. A bridge over the Apurimac, 116. See G.

de la Vega, i, pp. 234, 241
•\-Huaca-puncu-mayu. River also called Capi-mayu and

Huatauay, flowing through Cuzco, 50
■\Huacay-pata. Great square at Cuzco, 17, 39, 43, 53,

■\Huacra-chucu, 97. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 322
Huamalies province, 94
fHuamanca (Guamanga), 95
Huaman-cancha, near Cuzco, 43
Huamanin,, near Vilcas, 95
Huanacu (see Tia-huanacu) , 16
Huana-calla, 91

•fXHuancas. Great tribe of, 87, 93, 98, 114
Huancarama. Between the Apurimac and Andahuaylas, 115
fHuancanc. On the north side of lake Titicaca, 100

INDEX. 181

■fHuancavillca. The modern Huancavelica, 94, 102
■f^Huanucu province, 94, 114
Huaray-pacha, 22
Huarmi-pucara, 101
Huari, 15

Huarochiri province, 125, 135, 143
■fHicaruc, 88. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 80
Huascar-pata, 111

fXHuayllas, 98. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 132
Huayparya. South of Cuzco, 22
Hucuru, 87

■fHurin Cuzco, or Lower Cuzco, 22, 33, 43, 44, 47, 48, 76,

“fJaquijahuana (see Sacsahvana), 23. See G. de la Vega, i,
p. 80; ii, p. 53. Also Oieza de Leon, pp. 9, 32, 150,
320, 321

Langui-supa, Yayanacota de. The lake of Lanqui in the
lofty region west of the vale of Vilcamayu, 88

Latallaco hill, near Lima, 136

Llallahua-pucara, 100, 101

Llantapa, in Huarochiri, 142

LucHoc-chullo farm, 98

Lupaca province, in Colla-suyu, on the western shore of lake
Titicaca, 101

Mama province, a district of Huarochiri {Alcedo, ii, p. 433),
94, 121

Manares province, 102

Mantucalla. Ynca remained at, during sacrifices, 18

Maras. A village north of Cuzco, 43

■\Marca-huasi. About ten leagues from Cuzco, in the pro-
vince of Abancay {Alcedo, ii, p. 457), 23

•\Ma8ca8. Vanguard in Ynca^s array, 116. See G. de la
Vega, i, p. 80

Matahua. A place near Cuzco, 38

Matra-coto. Mountain in Huarochiri, 143

Mauli, liver, 168

182 INDEX.

Mulli-pumpa. In Urcos, 18
XMulla-hatnjpahi. In the kingdom of Quito^ 113
Musiis {Moxos), 168

•\-Muyna, 111. See G. de la Vega, \, pp. 80, 86, 190, 306,
349 ; ii, pp. 306, 485

Ollachea. In the province of Caravaya, 93
Ollanta-tamjpu. In the vale of Vilcamayu, near Cuzco, 51, 116
Omoto-yanacMiri. Sacrifice at, 17
“fXOtabala. In the kingdom of Quito, 110

•fXPaccari-tamjm, 6, 38, 71, 173. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 65
“fXP^^chacamac. On the coast of Peru, south of Lima, 29,

31, 33, 60
Pachatusam. A high hill near Cuzco, 95, 104
•fPajjris, 96, 102, 116. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 80
fParinacochas, 59, 96. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 231
■fXPastus, 99, 110. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 40 ; ii, p. 241,

Pati. A plain near Andahuaylillas, 18
Paucaray, 93

Pisac. In the vale of Yilcamayu, near Cuzco, 23, 100
Pocama’Cancha, 112
Pollcaro river, 116
Poquen-cancha. Temple where historical records were kept,

near Cuzco, 4
fPoqui-llacta, 102. See G. de la Vega, i, pp. 79, 86
•fPotosi. In Upper Peru, 161
■fPuca-marca, at Cuzco, 21, 118. See G. de la Vega, ii, p.

•ftPucara. In the Collao, 6, 7, 100, 101
Puipu-huana. A mountain peak in Huarochiri, 144
Pxima-cancha, 18, 95, 108
fPuma-chupa. A suburb of Cuzco, 50. See G. de la Vega

ii, pp. 239, 242, 247
Puma-huaca, 94
Puna-marca, 92
Puquhia. Near Moquegua, 100 {Alcedo, iv, p. 236)

INDEX. 183

Puqumqxie, 47

Futina. In the province of Azangaro, near lake Titicaca^ 83

■\QueliuaT. Vanguard in the Ynca’s army, 116. See G. de
la Vega, \, p. 80. Quehiie became a village near Che-
cacupe, in the vale of VilcE^mayu [Alcedo, iv, p. 284)

Quejpay-pampa, 118

Queros-Hicanacauri. Sacrifice at, 17

Quihuar-cancha. In Cuzco^ 21

■fQuichuas, 100, 116

Quichuipay lake, 95

•fQuilacti. In Upper Peru, 98

■flQuillasenca, 98, 109 {Alcedo, iv, p. 290). A tribe betvreen
Quito and Pasto

Qidlli-yacolca. Ravine near Cuzco, 41

Quillis-cachis. Aborigines of Cuzco, 110, 116

Quilluas, 159

fQuiqiiisana. A village in Quispicanchi, in the vale of Vil-
camayu, south of Cuzco (Alcedo, iv, p. 293), 18, 22, 96

Quinti. In Huarochiri, 143

Quiras-Tnanta ravine, 39

•^XQuito, 97, 98, 108, 110

Quiza-chilla. Final victory over the Chancas at, 92

■\-Quispi-cancha. A province south of Cuzco {Alcedo, iv, p.
295), 18

Quisuar-cancha. Temple at Cuzco, 11

Quiyancatay mountain, 87

■fRimac-pampa, at Cuzco, 20. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 239

Rimac-yuncas, 94, 108

Rontoca. In the Quehuars, 18

•fRucanas {Lucanas), 93, 117. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 267;

ii, pp. 147, 358
Rumi-huasi, 93
Rurama, near Quiquijana, 18
fRurucachi, 18, 88. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 159

Sacalpina. A league from Cuzco, 54

•fSacsnhuaman. Fortress at Cuzco, 88, 90, 93, 99, 103, 106

184 INDEX.

•\XSacsaJiuana, 12, 119

Sallcatay mountains, 87, 117

8 uncus, 110, 116

Santa Ana. A village in Huarocbiri, 130

A church in Cuzco, 170

San Agustin. Site of the palace of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui

at Cuzco, 100
San Damian. A village in Huarochiri, 130, 142, 144
Santo Domingo. On the site of the temple at Cuzco, 17, 37
San Geronimo de Surco. A village in Huarochiri, 133
San Juan. A village in Huarochiri, 130
San Lorenzo de Quinti. A village in Huarochiri, 144
Santa Maria de Jesus de Huarochiri, 143
Santiago de Hanalucayhua y HurinhuayhuacancJii, 67
Sanuc, 74
Satpina, 22
Sausa, 6, 87, 88, 93
Sausiru farm, 52
Sienacaca, 144
Sihuana. In Cacha, 18

Soras. In the province of Lucanas [Alcedo, iv, p. 445), 93
Succanca hill, 1 7
Sulcanca, 18
Suntu hill, 18

Surco. In Huarochiri, 133
Snsur-puquio, 12
Sutic-toco. In Paccari-tampu, 77

f Tampa, 29, 77, 98, 116

Tancar village, 82

fXTarma,’94; 103

Tautar, 23

Taya-cassa. An island near Huanta, formed by the river
Anco-yacu, which divides the province of Huanta from
that of Angaraes (Alcedo, iv, p. 515), 93

fXTiahuanacu, 4, 5, 6, 7, 73, 171

Tilca, 23

Ti(j^uina. South part of lake Titicaca, 73

INDEX. 185

fTiticaca, 5, 60, 112

fTococachi. Suburb of Cuzco, 85, 97. See 0. de la Vega, ii,

p. 249
“fTtahuantin-suyic. Empire of the Yncas, 68, 76, 87, 103,

107, 111
■\XTimi-fam’pa, 97, 108, 113

Pachacamac, 98

fTiccuman, 103

•f* JJacay-pata (see Huacay-jpata)
■\-Uiscaca-hamha. Wizards kept at, 60
tJC/rcos, 18, 29, 102, 151

fUrco-suyu, 67, 100. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 159
Utcu-pampa. Huascar taken prisoner at, 117

Vallollo mountain, 87
Varivilca (see Huarivilca)
Villca-coto, 133

fVilcanota, 18, 83, 88, 152. See G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 179, 255
fVilca-cunca, 99, 119. See G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 51, 511
t Vilca-pampa, 63. See G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 270, 301
fXVilcas-huaman, 93, 95, 108, 114, 115. See G. de la
Vega, i, pp. 324, 326 ; ii, p. 58

•fXauxa (see Savsa)

Yacachacota. Huaca at, 88

Yacolla hill, 18

•fXYaJiuar-ccocha, 110

Yamquesupa village

Yana-cocha, 88

Yana-yacu, 113

Yana-yana. Sacrifice at, 18

Yaurisquis. Near Paruro, south of Cuzco {Alcedo, i, p. 4 43), 23

•fYauyus, 114. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 143

iYunca, 31, 94, 123, 134. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 224

fYuncaypampa, 91

■\Yucay, 151

1 80 INDEX.


Some .are corrupt, and cannot be made out, owing to errors in

Words with a t also occur in Garcilixsso de la Vega, and with a J in

Cieza de Leon.

Accari. This word occurs in a prayer for the Ynca. Acca

is the fermented liquor called chicha. Ri is a particle

meaning ‘but/ ‘but however’ (JIoZ2′?an, pp. 264, 267), 31

nn ( Sorcerers who told fortunes by maize or llama’s
Achacuc, 29 ? -, -.. ,, , u

1 4 i “”‘^nj according as they came out odd or

‘ V even. Mossi No. 3 ; Von Tschudi, p. 17

Achvs. Achu or Achuch. An interjection of reprehension
at one who exaggerates (Mossi, No. 4 ; Von TsclnicU, p.
19), 79

■\AcUa. Chosen women (see Yurac, Huayra, Pacu, Yana)
82, 98, 108, 112

■fAcUa-huasi. House of chosen women, 165. See G. de la
Vetja, i, p. 292

Acnupii, 29, 33. Aampuy (Von Tschudi, p. 9), or Acnopiiy
(Mossi, p. 5), richly dressed. Acnani, to prepare cere-
monies. Acnapuy, pretty, handsome (Markham, p. 67)

Acoy-cunacataca. Accoy, innumerable (Marhhavi, p. 65),
Ciina, the plural particle. Taca, a particle of affirma-
tion (Hohjuin, p. 265)


190 INDEX.

Camasca. A wizard, 14

Gamay-quilla. December,, 47

Camchomcanquiman. Probably for Cachcanquiman. Pre-
terite of the optative second person singular of the
verb Cani, I am. ” that you were”. 79

Camtaca, 81

Canahuisa. Sorcerer^ 89, 114

Canay. June, 19

Canca. They will be, or he will be. From Cani, I am,
28, 29

Cangachihuay. A thrush, 33

Cancha-ri. Gancha, a place, yard, court. Ri, a particle
meaning but, but however, 30, 56

Ganchu. A wizard, 83, 89, 114

■\Gancu (see Sancu)

Gani. I am, 79

Ganqui. Thou art, 33, 79, 115. G. de la Vega, Pt. ii,
lib. i, cap. 23

Ganquichic. We are, 115

Ganipu. Medal of gold or silver worn by nobles on their
foreheads, 16

Gapaucha-cocuy . Human sacrifice. Gcapachani means to
do a thing with pleasure, also to cut by the root. Gocuy,
an offering. Gocuni, to offer oneself, 85

Ganta, or Gamta. Accusative of Gam, thou, 30

Gayitoray. A way of making chicha, 35

■fGarachi. The itch in llamas, 160. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 378

Garca. A sorcerer, from the dung of llamas ; diviner by
odds and evens, 89

Garcan. Third person singular perfect indicative of Gani,
” I am,” 79

Garhua-yalli. A term unexplained by Dr. Avila, 122

Gari {Gcari). A man, 28, 86

Gari-cachun. Gcari, a man. Gachun, imperative third per-
son of Gani, ” I am^’ ;

Gari-cachuyu. Probably for Gari-cachun, 33

Gari-llacta. Gcari and llacta, a village, 56

Gasilla. Gasi, vain. Casilla, in vain, 28, 30, 56

INDEX. 191

Casillacta, SO, 31, 56

Catamuscampas. Catani, to cover, roof, 115

Catuiman, 32

Cauchay. Cauchani, to pick leaves, 30

Causachun. Third person imperative of Gausani, to live, 30

Causamiis, 33

fCay. This. Also the infinitive of Cani, I ara. Applied

to nouns to denote the natui’e of a thing, as Runa, a

man; Rima-cay, humanity, 30, 79. G. do la Vega, i,

p. 198
Cay-lla. Lla, a particle of love, liking, preference, 28, 29, 33
Cay-cama. Gama, a preposition, with, as for as, according

to, 81
Gay-cari-caclmn, 79, 86
Gay-huarmi-cachun. Gay, this ; Gcari, a man ; Huarmi, a

woman; Oac/iim, third person imperative of (Jani, I am,

79, 86
Gay-colla. Proper name Golla, 38
Gay-coscay. Proper name, 86
Gayciistaymi. (TJie word is corrupt), 29
Gayhuacyanquifal. Gayhua, a certain plant; qulta, wild.

But the word is corrupt, 81
Cay qui. Gay-yq^ai, thine, 28, 33
Gayqnita. Ta, accusative ending, 78
Gayquichu-ras. Ghu, a particle of interrogation, 30
Gayqidquisicas-pilla. Qnlqni, the same, 30
Gayu. A song, 89
Gcacca. A rock, 87
Gcalla-sana. A portent ; Gcallani, I break ; Sanampa, a

sign, 107
Gcallac-pacha. ” Beginning of time”, 70
Gcamantira. Small bright feathers that birds have under

their beaks, 80
•\Gcapac. Eich, royal, 29, 78. G. de la Vega, i, p. 95 ; ii,

pp. 27, 315
acchama quispisutuc umii. Water in the spring at

Titicaca; Ghama, joy, Q,ulsp)isutu, crystal dvops; Urnu,

water. “The royal joy bringing crystal water drops”, 87

192 INDEX.

Ccapac acliun. An exclamation, 31

-fAyllu. The royal family, 23, 98. G. de la Vega,

ii, pp.’243, 345,541

cocha-cocuy. A ceremony, 54, 57, 86

Cagir. Viceroy, 99

llama. The royal sheep, 159

llautu. Eoyal fringe, 100

huari. An oflficer’s name, 102

. Baymi. November; great festival, 35, 36, 47, 83,

84, 85, 103

— Tica, 89

— Unancha. Royal standard, 91, 105, 120

— TJncu. Royal tunic, 111

— Usnu. Royal tribunal, judgment-seat, 107
paratamus (corrupt ?), 79

Ccari (see Cari). A man, 28, 86

Ccenti. A humming-bird

Ccuri (see Curi)

■[Chaca. A bridge 73, 78, 100. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 119

•fChacara. A farm, 31, 48. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 226

Chachac. A priest, 77

Chachachun. Chachani, to shake clothes, to shake a tree

for fruit, 31
■fChahuar. Aloe fibre, 40. G. de la Vega, i, pp. 58, 227
ChahuarJmay . Month of June, 19
Chama. Joy, 87
huarisca. A song; Huari, God of power, 74.

Tschudi, ii, p. 315

uricasa. Probably for huarisca, 89

-[Champi. Mace, battle-axe used with one hand, 6, 106.

G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 177, 518
Chamachun. Chamani, I rejoice, am content, 31
Chapipuca. Chapi ? (corrupt) ; Chawpi, middle; Puca,

red, 32
Chasca-chuqui. Lance ; Chasca, netted, dishevelled. A

lance whence a fringe was suspended, 95
•\Chasqui. Messenger, 169. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 49, 60,

119, 120, 121

INDEX. 193

Chasquihuoy, 29

Chapa. Sentry, watcli, 115

Chay. This, 31

Chayan. Chayman, here, 79

Chayariyuya. Chaya, return ; Yuya, mind, memory, 79

Chica. So, as, 75

Chica-llacta. Llacta, a village, 115

Chiccha. Chicchi, hail ; Chicha, a shoe, 7i), 78

Chicpa (corrupt), 78

Chihuay. A bird, 29

•fOhilca. A shrub (Baccharis scandens), 118. G. de la Vega,
i, p. 187

■fChipana. A woman’s breast; a lens of metal for con-
centrating the sun’s rays; a bracelet worn by the High
Priest, 45, 106. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 30, 163

Chipicnispa. Chipicnini, I wink, 89

Chiqui. Misfortune, 75

Chiqui-manta. Mania, from 32

Chiquiy. My misfortune, 115

Chiraoca. Clear, genial season; Ca, an old form of geni-
tive, 79

Chirmaynaymantan. Chirma, harmful, 115. G. de la Vega,
ii, p. 326. To be unquiet or to do harm

Chispa. {Corrupt), 30

Chocanaco. A trial of strength. Should be Choccanacuy.

A throwing of stones. [Mossi, No. 77), 47
Chucup-mama. Should be Churup, genitive of Churu, a
shell ; iWama, mother ; mother of the shell. A pearl, 94

XGhumpi. A belt (see ZZama) ; also a dark brown colour
{Gieza de Leon, p. 146)

Ghunires. (Gorrupt), 101

•\Ghumi. Frozen potato, 1 62, 167. G. de la Vega, pp. 17, 359

Ghwpasitas. Worshipping the summit of a pass. Ckiipa,
a tail, 59

Chuqui. A lance, 16, 20, 21, 25, 36, 115, 167, 95. G. de
la Vega, i, p. 225 ; ii, p. 171

Chuqui-yllayllapa. Thunder and lightning

Cliuqui. Gold, in the Colla dialect, 90

194 INDEX.

•\Churac. Participle of Clmrani, to put, 31, 33. G. de la

Vega i, p. 198
Churachay . Ghay, that, 33

Ghurncllay . Llay, a particle, denoting pleasure or endear-
ment, 91
Churaspac. Preposition, for, 31

GJmrasqnayqui. Yqui, second possessive pronoun, 2S, 32
■\Ghuri. Son, 56. G. de la Vega, \, pp. 91, 214
Churinta. Accusative, 31
Churu. A shell, 106

“fChuspa. A bag for coca, 20, 38. G. de la Vega, i, p. 296
ChutarpiL. (Corrupt). Chutani, I tighten. Chutasca, a

thing well fastened (see Huanarpu) , 81
Cicapac. Dative case of Cica, a corrupt word ; perhaps

Sicya, a measure, or Sicra, a small basket, 79
Citua (see Situa)

Coca-hacho. ” Eater of coca”. HacJni,” chewev” (Mossi) 118
■fCocha. Lake, 117. G. de la Vega, i, p. 49 ; ii, p. 66
Cochaman. Man, against, or to, 79
Gochamanturayocpia. Tura, brother of a sister. Yoc, a

particle of possession. Pa, genitive particle, 86
Cochispa. {Corrupt), 56
Coco. Missiles ; thistle heads ; a game, 47
Colla-chicha, 62
■fCollca. A granary, 98. Ramos, cap. 18 ; G. de la Vega, ii,

p. 237
Collca-uncu. A dress ; TJncu, a tunic ; Collca, a granary ;

also the Pleiades {Acosta from Balboa, p. 58), 37
•fCollque. Silver {see Napa, Chachac), 19, 47, 77, 90
Concaraca. Cunca, neck. Rac, before, 79
Conca-qui. Yqui, second possessive pronoun, 89
Conopa. Household god, not among the Yncas ; but among

the coast tribes
Conti-vicas. Sorcerers {C unti-uica) , 114
Cori (see Curi)
■fCoya. Queen (see Mama), 23, 96. G. de la Vega, i, pp.

68, 96, 293
Rayvii. August, 20

INDEX. 195

Coyafacssa. (Coiriipt.) A woman dedicated to the sun, 25

Coyniy-pashinatapac {Corrupt) Coniy, warmth, 79

Cozco (see Cuzco)

Cucunari (see Coco), 89

Cuchi. Rainbow, Ccuychi, 75

Cuclm.y, 32

■fCumpi. Fine cloth, 88, 97, 99, 105, 118. G. de la Vega,
ii, p. 324

Cunijncu. Weaver of fine cloth, 160

Canacuy-camayoc. Cunaaiy, a preacher; Catnayoc, one
who has charg’e of anything, 71

C unti-huisa, Sorcerer, 89

fCuraca. A lord, 87, 99

Curayoc. Ccoray, the act of hoeing. Yoc, particle of pos-

fCiiri. Gold, 19, 47, 78, 89, 90

— fGancha. Temple, 16, 17, 76, 78, 89,92, 99, 100,
103, 104, 108. G. de la Vega, i, p. 283

ccacca. A bowl to hold water from Titicaca, 87

■\napa. Golden figure of a llama, 19, 47

chachac. A priest in some parts {Arriaga), 77

Cuscayqid. Equal ; Yq^rii, thy, 89

fCiisi. Joy, 81. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 159, 423

Cud-cidlasun. To feel joy, 89

Cusi-simirac. A happy smile ; good news, 81

Cusi-Uacta. A happy village, 31

Cusinchicpi. Giving rewards ; Fl, from ; Cminchlnl, I con-
sole, 80

Cusi-ussa-poclwy . A good ripening, 30

Cuspalla, 89

■fCuy Cmjliuan. Guy, a guinea pig; Hiian, with, 85, 101

Cayllu or Cuyrii. A white llama; Coyru, white, applied to
metals and animals, 27

Cuyru-mama. ” White mother”, applied to the earth, 5G

•\Cuzco (see Hanan, Hiirin)
asu ycocliilliquilla, 37

Gualanpap’i (see Hani ait p”’ pi)

196 INDEX.

Hahocha. Perhaps Hahua (outside) ; Hucha (sin), a slight

offence, 115
fHahuay. Grandchild. Hence Hahuanina, a lineage, 29.

G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 531, 533
Hampi-camayoc. A doctor, one who has charge of medi-
cines or poisons, 99
Hamuttapty. Subjunctive of Hamutani, I understand, 79
fEanan-Cuzco. Upper Cuzco, 26, 33, 43, 44, 47, 48, 76,

-79, 151
Hanan-hamuyrac. Hamuy, to come ; Bac, even, 89
Hanan-pichun. Hanan, upper ; Pichu, a bird, 79
Hanantarac. Hananta, dative case ; Rac, even, first, 89
Hapa-cochan. To boast, 29

Hapi-nunu. Devils; Hapi, to seize; J\^M?m, breast, 68, 78, 87
Hatallihuay. To hold, to have charge of, 29, 31, 56
HatalUmuchun. To hold, 31
■fHatun. Great, 29

pucuy. January, 51

runa. A giant, 115

Hauca. May, rest, repose, 16
Hauchha. Cooked herbs, 115
Haycay. How much, how great, 29

Pachacamac, 28

Hayllayqui-pac. Haylli, song; Yqui, thy, 39

Haymiquay. Help {hut corrupt), 28

Haynillalay (corrupt), 79

HicrinpacJiap. Perhaps for Hurin-pacha, 86

Hillacunya-chnquicunya. Men dressed up as lions, so

called, 45
Hillusn. Greedy, 115
fHinalla. So, in this way, 89
Hinallatac. Tac, a final particle, 115
Hinatac, 81
Hinamatima (corrupt). Probably Hinantin, all together,

79, 89
fHuaca. Sacred, a sacred thing, 5, 27, 29, 32, 34, 55, 58,
76, 83, 93
cainayoc. Priest in charge of a huaca, 43, 58

INDEX. 197

Huaca mncJia. Worship of a huaca, 83, 86
Htmcanqui. A love philtre, 81, 88
-fHuacay-pata. Great square at Cuzco, 31

chaspa. Guard

chamuy. Chamay, joy

fHuaccha (see Huacliay). Poor, 30. G. de la Vega, i, pp.

90, 97
Huaccunacatacay. Huaccani, to mourn, 115
Huachay -llama. The llama of the poor, 159
Huacra-chucu. Horn head-dress, 97. O. de la Vega, ii,

p. 226
Hnacns-cJiasjya {corrupt ?), 30

fllualiuay. A child, 31, 56. G. de la Vega, i, p. 314
Hunlanpapi or Huallavpani. A large tuft of feathers, 49
fHualcanca, Shield, 106. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 171
Hualla-liuisa. A sorcerer, 89, 114
Huallma (see Taqui). A song, 18. Haylli of G. de la

Vega, ii, p. 8
Huallana-chamayariscca. A joyful song, 89
Haallpaquiypa. Hualpac, Creator, 115
Hualpay. Creation, formation, 29
Hiiallparillac. Two particles, ri and lla, 30
fHtiaman-cancha. Place of a falcon, 43

liana. Seat of a falcon, 76

champi. Club, 106

nin, 95

Euan. With, 89

Huana. Correction, 29

fHuanacu. Wild species of llama. Guanaco, 16, 41

Huanarp2i (see Chutarpu). The female form of Chutarpu, 81

Huanchurin. With, 30

Huancliin. With, 30

Huanta-chinaca. A drinking bout, 130

Huara. Breeches, 36, 141

•\-Euaraca. Sling, belt, 36, 38, 39, 40, 47, 53. G. de la

Vega, ii, pp. 134, 167
Huarachicu. Ceremony of breeching, 34, 80
Iluarayaru, 43

198 ■ INDEX.

Huari (see Taqui). A song, 39, 44
Huarita. Accusative form, 42
Huarmay. My boy, 30, 31

■\Huarmi. Woman, 80. G. cle la Vega, ii, p. 482
• auca. Amazon, 102, 103

cachun. Imperative of Cani, I am, 28

Jiapiy-^pacha, ccarichasquiy pacha. The time for

marrying. ” The time for the woman being caught,
the time for the man to chase^^ 80

XHiiarya {corruiit). Perhaps Huayra, wind, air, 30. Cieza-

de Leon, p. 389
Huasa. Back, shoulder, 30
■\Huascar. Rope, 49
fHuasi. House, 76
Huatica. Tempter, 115
Huatyasca. Broiled food, 135
Huaypau. Interjection, 29
Huayru-adla. Chosen virgins for the Ynca, 82
fHuayna. Youth, young, 1, 98, 99, 104

punchau. A name of the Sun God, 47

captiy. Subjunctive, 75

captiyllapun, 75

Huccsis-canchic. ” We are”, 78

Huccrma {yachachacJnm) (see yacha), 29

Huisa. A sorcerer, 89

Hullpaycuscayqiii {corrupt), 89

Hidtis. Clay-pot in which llipta is kept, 96

Huni. Perhaps hunu, a number, 31

Hunichic, 29

Hunihuay, 32

Humi. A number or division of men, ten thousand, 165

Hu2)yasumicusu. Sumaycucuni, to boast or praise oneself, 90

■\Hurin-chiccha. Chicchi, hail ; Hurin, lower, 89

cocha. Lower lake, 79

pacha. Lower land, 30, 32, 86

p>ichun. Lower bird, 79

Iludusca. For Huatusca, to prophesy ; or else from Ifustuni,
I stamp, 32

INDEX. 199

Hiiya-clivcu. Ckucu, a head-dress, 101
Huyarilmiay. Perhaps -4 ^/ri/may, April, 28

Itari-panaca. Panaca, name applied to lineages or families, 23

Laycca. A priest, 83, 98, 114

Llaca-cliuqui. A lance adorned with plumes, 95

■\Llacta. A village, 76, 31, 115

pachacasilla. Head man of a village (see Pachaca)

Llanca (see Llama)

■\Llama huacar pana. Right hand is paila ; Llama, a
sheep, 1 6

huanacu. A wild llama, 16

jwcos cuyllos. White alpacas, 16

paucar paco. Beautiful alpacas, 16

uqui paco, 16

cliumjji. Dark brown llama, 16

llanca. Working llama, 16

ccapac. Belonging to the crown, 159

huacliay. Belonging to the people, 159

cmjllu. White llama, 27, 31, 32

michec. Shepherd, 81

Uama-hanamsi. Drama, 90, 101

Llanay [corrupt), 70

Llanca-pata. Small plates of gold, 19

Llanquisi. Shoes, 80, 106

Llantu-picliu. Shade, 28, 33

Llapan. All, 89

Llasac. Heavy, 79

Llauraruna, 29

Llaychunca. A soothsayer by odds and evens, 89. The

Llayca of G. de la Vega, i, ix, 14
Llayman, 79

Llaidu. Royal fringe, 12, 16, 36, 58, 100, 106, 111
Lliclla. Mantle, 9, 24, 40. Cieza cle Leon, p. 146
Llipta. Lime chewed with coca, 62, 96
Llusque. Month of May, 17
Llutaciicci-capac. A name for the god, 89

200 INDEX.

Macliiyqui. Thigh. Yq%ii, second possessive pronoun, 86

Madamniqui. A boy [Macta), 86

Mamanchu. Wife, 166

fMama-cuna. Matrons in charge of the virgins of the Sun,

18, 165. G. de la Vega, i, pp. 293, 294, 300, 302
fMana. No, not, 30, 32

Manayllcnj. From Manani, I ask, pray for, 89
Manchuricayquiman. For Mancharini, I tremble, 79
Manamyancanchu. Manam, not. Canchu, 79
Manaracpas. Before that, 79
Manures. Before, 102
Manta. From, 32, 115
Mantapas. From, 81

Manchachic. Manchani, I fear. Imperative, 79
Manchay-simi-yocpa. Manchay, fear, 86
•\Maquiy-lluttaquey. Maqui, hand ; Lluta, to cover, 79
Maras-ttoco. Window at Paccari-tampu, 77
•\Marca-ri. Village ; Marccani, I carry, 31
Marca-rihuay , 29
Marca-lUhiiay , 33
Marop. A pestle, 131
Masnu-yauri. A term unexplained by Avila (see Yauri),

Massuma. A festival in Huarochiri, 122
^May. Who, where, 29, 33, 91. G. de la Vega, i, p. 198
3faypin. Where is it ? 33, 79
Maypini-canqui (see Canqv.i), 28
Maycanmi. Which of them, 79
Maycanmi-canqui. Canqui, art thou, 86
Maymana. Where, 32
Maynic. Whether, 81
Mayrnantapas. Whence, 81
■fMayu-cttna. Rivers, 89
3fic7iachic. Avarice, 30
•\Michec (see llama)
Micuy. To eat, 31, 32
Micuynin. To eat, 33
Micuncancachun. To eat much, 30

INDEX. 201

Mirachun. Mirani, I multiply, increase, 29

Miruna {corrupt ? ), 30

■fMitanta. Turn, time, 31

Mitaysanay. Turn, 115

^Mitimaes. Colonists, 4, 22, 23, 95, 97, 113, 161

Mojocati. A sacrifice ; perhaps Mosoc, new, 50

\Molli. Trees, 90

Moro-urco.- A house near the temple of the Sun, where a
great cable was kept ; Muru, a coloured spot ; JJrco, a
hill, 48

Moronpassa tarpuyquilla. July ; Tarpuy-quilla, ‘Hhe sow-
ing month,” 1 9

Moya. Forests, 165

Mudia. Worship, 37, 43, 44, 83, 89, 90, 114

Muchancoyqui. Miichani, I worship, 115

Muchascay, 31

Mucumuchun. Muccu, a joint, knot ; Mucliuni, I suffer, 30

Muchun. Suffering, 30

Muchuspacan. Suffering, 30

Mtdlii. Shell, 17, 20, 62, 63

•\Miinayqui. Love ; Yqui, second possessive pronoun^ 79.
See O. de la Vega, i, p. 523; ii, p. 239

Miisac. Perhaps Munac, loved, 23, 32

Mutca. A mortar, 131

Nacasca. Beheaded, 32

•fNanaclla. Suffering, 45

Napa. Salutation, 19, 39, 47

Najjahuay. Salutation

NauL Eye, 86

Neca. Towards, 79

Nicocupa. To ask for another, 32

Nicpa-carichun. To say anything importunately, 30

Nicpunchac. Nee, towards ; for punchau, day, 56

Nihuay. Near, 32

•\Ninacta. Fire, 31

Niocmin (corrupt ?), 32

Nipacachun, 71

202 INDEX.

Nis, 28

Nis-caca. Nisca, a particle^ denoting one who has the re-
putation for any quality, 115. Holguin, p. 257

Niscayqui, 30

Nispa. A particle, 31

Nispac, SO, 56

Nispachucapac, 31

Nis’pacamacpa, 86

Nispacamacatn, 32

Nispaclnirascay , 30

Nispallutac, 33

Nispanictisun, 89

Nisunqui, 81

Niyhuan. Niy, a saying, 115

J^Kca, I, 90

Numi. Bosom, 68, 78, 79, 87

■\Nusta-caUi-sapa. ”A. princess unrivalled for courage;”
Nusta, a princess ; Calli, courage ; Sapa, unequalled,
37, 41, 42

tOcZ/o (see Pallet)

•fOscoUo. A wild cat, 141. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 116

Pac, 91

Pacamascayqui. Pacani, to hide, 31

•\Paccarlsca. Origin, birth, 38

Paccarimusca. Morning, 78

Paccariscanchic. Born

Pachaccan. Servant, major-domo, 71

•f Pacha (see Huriii, Purum, Ccallac, etc.), 30

Paclia-pucuy. February, 52

Pflcha-chacara. Farm, 31

■fPacJiacamac. Creator of the world, 7, 88, 93, 94, 98, 108,

114, 127. G. de la Vega, i, p. 106 ; ii, p. 38
Pachachulla, 32
Pachacunaripis, 89

Paella. Bald, barren, bleak, empty, 32
Pacnipaccaricli un, 56

INDEX. 203

fPaco (see Llama)

Pa cop a, 86

Facta. Equal, fair, just, 79

Pacu-acUa. Chosen women for chiefs and lords, 82

fPahuay. Flight, 91 ^

“fFaUa-sillu. A female figure; Palla, princess, 19

focUo. Ocllo, a woman of the blood rojal, who had

taken a vow of celibacy, but was not secluded in a
convent, 25. G. dela Vega, i, iv, cap, 7

PaUcaijmantam. A branch ; il/aii/a, from, 115

PaUarac. Collected, 28

fPancurcu. A torch, 23

fPapa. Potato, 29, 159, 162. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 5,
17,213, 359

Papa-Qara. Potato and maize (sa^’a), 30

Papi. Injured, damaged, 79

Passa. Pacsa, the moon in the Colla dialect, 37

Paucar-huara. March, time of many flowers, 52

Camay oc. One in charge of royal insignia, 99

paco (see llama), 16

quintu. Bunch of fruit, 19

runcu. Small plate of gold, 19

suntur. Head-dress of the Ynca, 6, 19, 39, 41

Paycaptin. Pay, he ; Captin, subjunctive of Cajii, I am, 31

Payllanquifacmi. Payllani, I reward, 79

Pialco. A bird, for Pilcu, 25

Picliiu. A bird, 46

Plhucupi (corrupt), 29

Plhxiana. Perhaps Pihiiia, brave

Pilco-camayoc. One who has charge of plumes of a bird, 99

casa. Garland, 26, 44

— — pichiu. A bird, 46

yacu, 25

luncu-paucar-uncu. Beautiful head-dress of plumes,51

Pimi-cuchun. Perhaps Pincachini, jump, 30

Pincanqui. You bound, jump, 86, 91

Pirca. A wall, 96

PIscapapas. Pisca, a large partridge, 29

204 INDEX.

Picaspapas, 33
Pitispa. Pitini, to break, 30

Pitusiray-sanasiray. One person fastened on the top of
another ; Pitu, equal, a pair ; Siray, sewn together ;
Sana, perhaps for Sama, rest, 75
Pocoyca. Ripe, 79

Puca-caychu-unca. Red tunics; Puca, red, 45
“^-Pucara. Fortress
Pucay-urco. A ceremonial dress ; Urco should probably be

uncu, a tunic, 49
Pucu-pucu. A bird, 73
Pullao. A tree, 142
Punari. Desert, 31
\Pwichau-Ynca. The Sun Idol, 16

Ajpu. The Sun Idol, 56

Huayna. The Sun Idol

Churi. Son of the day, 30

Punchaoca. Of the day. Archaic form of genitive, 79

Purichic. To walk, 30

Purichuruna, 56

Purin. He walks, 79

Puris. He walks, 29

Pusupichu (corrupt), 28

Puracahua. A dress or ornament, 97

Purapura. Pura, both. Ornaments on each side, 90, 106

Purunpacha. Purun, savage ; Pacha, time, 70, 1 35

racyaptin. Racya, before; Nntin, plural of

multitude, 70, 135
■\Pururaucas. Stones turned to men, 154. Acosta ; G. de

la Vega, ii, p. 57
Purunmas. False men, 152. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 57
Puti. A trunk, 110
Putu. A large calabash, 143

Qualpay, 31
Quarpas, 31
Queru. A cup, 103
Quespilla. Crystal, 28

INDEX. 205

Quida, 30

Qvictacamascay , 30

Quichu. A song, 99

Qidcusiquispu, A bezoar stone, 31

Qiiicuchica, 63, 80

Quicuna, 78

Quiuanpas, 89

fQuillaca. Moon, 79, 109

Quillari, 30, 36

Quillarincanpas, 56

QaillpuiichicJqn, 79

Quimampichun, 79

Quinraynin-pichun. Broad, 79

tQ«u’n?/a. Chenopodium Quinoa, L, 159. (r. cZe ^a li^t^^^, ii,

pp. 5, 7, 213, 357,367
Quipasiyun. Quipani, to cover, 79 .
tQwi’pws. Knot records, 10, 51, 169

t camayoc. Keeper of the records, 55, 58

•fQuirau. Cradle, 53. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 531
Quisaruna. Quiso, the birds for sacrifice {Acosta), 30
Quiscuar. Tree, 90
Quistacmi, 79
Qiiispi. July, 20
Quispicta. Cleai-, bright, 56

pilla, 30, 33, 56

Quispi-casica, 32

llacta. Bright village, 30, 31, 56

sutic. Bright name, 87

Quita. Savage, 30

Rallcapacpalhaean. {Corrupt), 79
Ranuptiy, 79
Ranotayri, 79

“fRaurana. To burn, 41, 42, 43. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 531
Raurac. Burnt, 89
Rahnicachun. Be at the Raymi, 79

■\Rayrni Ccapac. The great festival, 35, 36, 47, 83, 84, 85,
95, 100, 108, 166

206 INDEX.

Rmjmi Napa, 39, 41, 42

Baypancanquena, 79

Recsichillaran. To make to know

Riacllahuay . [Corrupt), 89

Riaiytam, 79

Ricaptiy, 79

Ricsi, 79

Riculla, 79

Ricunanquim. To look, 79

fRimachun. Speak, 86

Rimasu, 90

Rimayni. To speak, 86

Rochocallasun, 89

ti^tma. A man, 31

yachachachachurh. A teacher, 29

yanani. Servant, 56

cay. This man, 30

• scay, 30

■ rallac, 79

hualpac. Good workman, 81, 89

•\Rurac. Maker, 28, 33. G. de la Vega, i, p. 109
Rurascayquicta tacancharin, 56
Rutichico. The cutting of hair, 53

Sacaca, A comet, 95
Sacapac. Castanets, 32
Saccocachun, 31

Sanca-sonco-quila pionco. A dress, 49
Sancu. Sacrificial pudding, 24, 27, 32, 33, 81
■\Sapa. Only one ; unequal, 37
Sarampion. (Corrupt). A disease, 110
■\8ara-colU. Different kinds of maize, 163


Sasca. Sacsa, Tagged; /Sawca, joy, 31

Sasicuspa, 81

Saycaftiy. To stand. Subjunctive, 79

t Saycoynicaypitac. To tire. Subjunctive, 79

INDEX. 207

Se(^sec. Thom bush, 96. Mossi, No. 278

Sihuicas. Sihui, a thorn, 96. Idossi, No. 235

Simi. Mouth, 86

fSinchi-naui-yocpa. Strong eye, 86

t Situa. Festival, 20, 32, 34. G. cle la Vega, i, p. 179

Soncoapa chinacoc huacca chinacoc. Small stones used as

love producers, 81
Sulluya. Bastard. Sullii, premature, 118
Sunquichay, 81
Suntur-jpaucar. Royal head-dress, 6, 17, 39, 41, 44, 106,

111, 120
Sitpa-yacoUa. White mantles, 36
Suntinrammica. Suntuni, to heap up, 86
■\Suri. Ostrich, 78. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 31, 394
Suruc-chuqui. A lance with long tassels, 95
Sutic-toco. A window at Paccari-tampu. Sutic, name ;

Toco, window, 77
■fSuyu. Province, 58, 163

fSuyuntuy. Turkey buzzard, 88, 101. G. de la Vega, ii,
‘p. 390

Tacamachic. A black duck, 30

Tacancuna. Tacana, a hammer, 29

Taclica. (Corrupt), 89

Taqtiacaycha. Probably Taquiani, I fix, am constant, 29

Taqui. Music, 18, 26, 32, 39, 42, 44, 48

Huallina. A song, 18

Alanqitua saqui. A song at the Situa festival, 26

Ayma. Song, 89

Gayo. Song, 89

Chapay quenalo. Song, 50

Chupay hvaylhi. Song, 51

Huallina mayuriscca. Song, 89

Haylli. Song, 89

Gachra, 89

Quichu, 99

Uucu, 59

Turca, 89

208 INPEX.

Tarayac, 79

Tarichasquihuay . Tarini, to find^ 33

Tarpimtay. Priest; Tarpuni is to show, 17, 18, 38, 41,52
•fTasqni. A girl, 80. G. de la Vega, i, p, 197
Tayna. Perhaps Tauna, a stick, 32
Tayta. Father, 101
Tica-tica. Music, 26
Tica. Brick, or if Ttica, a flower
“[Tiya ; Tiyana. Seat, 90, 99
Tiyancay. To sit
Titu. Difficult, 29

tfToco. Window, 77. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 238
Tocto. Honey ; a bird, 47, 49
Tocuya, 86

Topapo. Tupu, a measure, 29
Torca (see Taqui)
•fTtahuantin-suyu. The four provinces or divisions of thg

empire, 68, 76, 87, 103, 107, 111
Ttopayaricta. Tapani, to rend, 79
Tupac-hunnacu. Royal huanacu, 41

pichuc llantu. Royal fringe of feathers, 88

usi, 74, 88

• yauri. Royal sceptre, 41, 74, 75, 88, 91, 97, 106, 111

iXTupu. Measure, 79, 169. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 9; Cieza

de Leon, p. 146
Turumanya. Rainbow, 75
fTuta. Night, 30. G. de la Vega, i, p. 182
Tataca, 79
Tutayac-pacha, Time of night ; dark ages, 70

Ucu-pichu. TJcu, deep; Pichu, a bird, 28, 33

fUchulla. TJchu, pepper, 32

•\JJcumari. A bear, 111

TJicchay -Camay oc. A preacher. Huichay (not TJicchay) up, 71

TJhiscayquita. (V ichccani) to shut, 30

Uma-chucn. Head dress, 106

Umachun, 78

INDEX. 209

JJmnda. Head (accusative), 32

TJma-Raymi. September, 34

ti7ma. Priest, 83, 89, 98, 114

TJmina. Emerald, 94

Unacchuylla. To prolong, 111

Unachayamoran. {Gorru^jt), 75

Unanchaptiy, 79

JJnancha. Standard, 91, 105, 106, 120

Unanchascam, 79

JJncancampac, 30

“fJJncu. Mantle, 37. G. de la Vega, i, p. 296


Uncallu, 40

•fUnu. Water, 87. G. de la Vega, i, p. 198

JJpiachun. Drink (imperative), 30

Upatari. Ujpallani? to be silent, 102, 104

TJqui-jpaco (see llama)

TIracahua. A deep place, 106

Uracarpana. Sacrifice, 85

•fUrpi. Dove, 129. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 393

Usachun. To accomplish, 31

Uscata. Sorcerer, 89

JJi^nayqni. JJsnu, tribunal, landmark, 79

TJsnu. Landmark, 107

Usuta. Shoe, 36, 40

fUtvruncu. Jaquar, 96. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 385

Uyari. To hear, 81

Vyarihua. Hearing, 33

JJyarillaray. To listen, 79

Vallavicas (see Hualla-huicos)

Varoytiypas {corrupt)

Vatica (see Huatica)

Vicuna, 79. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 117, 378, 383, 384

Vilca. Sacred, 63, 93, 107. G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 255, 416

camayoc. One in charge of sacred things, 58

Vilca y-cunapac, 115
Vinaypas. Increase, 81

210 INDEX.

Y. Possessive particle, 3rd persou, 29

Yacachun. Follow, 31

fYacha. A school, 79. G. de la Vega, i, p. 335 ; ii, p. 247

Yachachvn. Let him learn, 30

Yachaptly. Subjunctive form, 79

Yacliaranquira, 79

Yachipachan, 71

t Yacolla. A cloak, 36, 44. G. de la Vega, i, p. 290

Yacarcaes. Wizards, 86

Yacarcay. Invocation, 14

•fYahuar-sancu. Sacrificial bread, smeared with blood, 27,

Yalmoyra. Festival, 19, 48
Yaichicliuruay . {Corrupt), 30
Yampac, 56

■fYana. Black, 30, 91

Yana-aclla. Wives for the common people, 82, 146
Yanaussi, 79

Yana-caca. Black rock, li6
Yana-namca, {Obscure), 123
Yananya. Servant, 31
Yana-yana. Sacrifice
Yaravi. An elegy, 52
Yatalliymay. (Corrupt), 29
Yauirca. A thick cable, 95
Yauri. Sceptre, 26, 40, 41, 42, 92
Yayacarui. Rainbow, 75

•^Yayay. Father, 31. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 353
Ychastalpas. Perhaps, 81

•fYchna. Vermilion. G. de la Vega, ii, p. 413
Ychu. Grass, 40, 41. G. de la Vega, i, p. 254
Yllarichun. To shine (imperative), 30, 56
Ymay. What, 33
Ymay-pacha. What time, 31
Ymay-pachama, 28
Ynihuay, 28, 33
Yiica-uillu. Female figure, 19
ocUo. Woman of the blood royal, 25

INDEX. 211

Ynca-runa-yanami. Royal servant, 30

churl. Son of the Ynca, 31

ranti. Viceroy, 112

fYnti. Sun, 31, 90, 101, 112

fYniip-Raymi. Festival in May, 16

Yntic. Genitive (archaic form), 49, 79

Ynimcampac, 30

Yochaycaym ayoc, 32

Yocllamunqui, 81

Yquicauras. Perhaps Yquicayani, to cut up, 30

Yquida. Positive particle, 2nd person, accusative, 30, 56

Yurac-aclla. Chosen virgin of medium beauty (Ramos, cap.

9), 82
Yuya. Thought, memory, 89
Yuyayronayta. A wise man ; a cautious man, 79


Those with t also occur in Garcilasso de la Vega ; those with %, ia

Cieza de Leon.

Acliacalla (see Hapi-numi)
Anta-imca. A Huaca, 83

Atajjymapuranutapya. {Corrupt). A Huaca v^^orshipped by
the Huancas, 88

CacJia-Uiracocha. The idol in the Temple at Cacha, 18. G.

de la Vega, i, p. 159 ; ii, p. 69 ; Cieza de Leon, p. 356
Caclia-huaca (see Ccapa-cocha)
Cana-chuap Yaurica. A demon exposed by Ccapac Yupan-

qui, 86
Canamay. A huaca, 96. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 330
Caprichay. Creator ; called also Tica-ccapac, 83
Carayucho-Euayallo, or Hnallallo Caruicho. A huaca of

the Huarochiris, 123, 1 12
Cavillaca. A goddess of the Huarochiris, 125, 127
Chellcascayu. A Huarochiri idol, 122

212 INDEX.

Chinchay-cocha. A huaca from, 83, 93

Choque suso. A god of the Huarocliiris, 145

Chumpi-casico, or Huanacanri, 36

Chuqui yllallapa. Huaca of thunder and lightning, 16, 20, 21

Chuquilla, 26, 56, 155, 167

Chuquipillu. A huaca, 83

Chuqui-racra. A huaca found by the Ynca at Villcas.

Racra, split. Literally ” a forked dart” or lightning,

Chuspi-huaca, 94

Coniraya. A god of the Huarochiris, 124, 134
Conopas. Household gods of the Huarochiris, 122
Coropvna. A huaca ; a mountain peak, 83. O. de la Vega,

i, p. 232

Guacamayofi. Macaws, ancestors of the Canaris, 9

Huallallo Caruincho. A God of the Huarochiris, 123,

Chiqui-racra. (See Chuqui-racra) , 83, 93

fHuanacauri. Huaca of a brother of Manco Ccapac, 13,

17, 25, 26, 35, 38, 52, 57, 75, 80. See 0. de la Vega,

i, pp. 65, 6Q ; ii, pp. 169, 230

XHuarivilca. The huaca at Xauxa, 7, 87. Cieza de Leon,

p. 300
Huathiacuri. A sort of demi-god in Huarochiri, 135

Pacha-mama. The earth goddess, 56, 155, 166, 167
fXPachacamac. ” Creator of the worW, 29, 31, 33, 60.

See G. de la Vega, i, p. 106 ; ii, p. 38; Cieza de Leon,

pp. 251, 253, 254
fPachayachachic. “Teacher of the world’\ The Creator.

The Creator, 6 ; Temple to, 11, 106 ; Existence of, 11 ;

Idol of, 16; Prayer to, 16, 20 ; Festival of, 82, 85, 90,

107, 108, 115, 119, 154, 167. See G. de la Vega, i, p.

109 ; ii, p. 56
Pariacaca. A god of the Huarochiris, 87, 93, 128, 138,

139, 142
Passa-mama. An idol of the moon, 37

INDEX. 213

Punchau. The idol of the sun, 16, 30, 56. See G. de la
Vega, i, p. 182

Rurucachi. A huaca, 88

■fXSupay. A devil, 115. See O. de la Vega, i, p. 108 ; ii,
p. 397; Gieza de Leon, p. 224

Tarapaca (see Uiracocha, Tonapa), 31, 71, 79, 115

fTecsi, or Tied Ccapac (see Caprichay, Uiracocha), 6, 81,
83. See O. de la Vega, i, p. 109; ii, p. 38

Tocapo Uiracocha, 6, 28, 33

Tonapa (see Tarapaca). A legendary prophet or demi-
god, apparently in the Collao, 71, 72, 74, 79, 87, 88,

Unciiraya. A jar with the figure of a devil so-called, among

the Huarochiris, 122
Uiracocha (see Viracocha). See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 66
Urpi-huachac. Wife of Pachacamac ; a legend in Huarochiri,


“f Viracocha (see Tecsi, Tocapo, Pachayachachic)

■ Tecsi, 6, 28, 29, 30, 33

Tocapo, 6, 28

Coniraya, God of the Huarochiris, 124

Ya, 29

Chanca, God of the Chancas, 29

■ Hatun, (Great), 29

Apstin, (Chief), 29

Urusayna, 29

Ghuqui- chanca, 29

Tarapaca, 31

Tonapa, 69, 70, 71, 72

mparaca (atHuaruc), 88

Ynti, 112

Yanacauri (see Huanacauri)
Ymaymana {Uirococha) , 6, 30, 32
fYnti. Sun God of the Collas, 112

214 INDEX.


Those with t also occur in Garcilasso de la Vega ; those with J, in

Cieza de Leon.

Amaru Yupanqiii Ynca. Eldest son of Pachacuti Ynca, 95,

96, 99, 104
fAnahuarqui Mama (see Mama), 98
flAnco-AUu [Hanco-Allu) . Chief of the Chancas, 91,92,94.

Hanco-hualla of G. de la Vega, i, pp. 242, 324, 326 ; ii,

p. 58. Cieza de Leon, p. 280
Anco, Don Carlos, 67

Apu-caTTia. A minister of the temple, 100
Apu- or Auqui-challcu Yupanqui. A minister of the temple,

100, 106
Apu-Hualpaya. Governor or Regent of Huayna Ccapac, 104
Apu-Quiricanqui, Don Gaspar, 165
Apu-Tampu- Pacha. Father of Manco Ccapac, 74, 77
Apu-Urco-Huaman-Ynti-Cunti-Mayta. Son of Mayta

Ccapac, 85
Arequi Ruca. Ynca general on the march along the coast, 98
•\Asto Huaraca, Chief of the Chancas, 92. 0. de la Vega,

i, p. 347
flAtahvaljja Ynca. Birth, 107; at Quito, 111; message

to his brother, 112; Viceroy, 112; war of, 113; taken

prisoner by Pizarro, 118
XAtoc (see Huaminca Atoc)
Aucaylli Ayllu. Lineage which carried the cries to Chita,

on the Anti’Suyu road, 23
•\Ayar Caclii. One of the four brothers who came out of the

cave of Tampu; brother of Manco Ccapac, 57, 74
“^Ayar Racca. Brother of Manco Ccapac, 74. Garcilasso

gives the name Ayar Sauca (i, p. 73).
■\Ayar JJclxu. Brother of Manco Ccapac, 74
Aylhi. Lineage

Aucaylli, 23

Chamin Cuzco, 22

INDEX. 215

Ayllu -fCcapac. The blood royal, 22. See G. de la Vega,

ii, p. 531
-fChina Panaca, 23, 78. See G. de la Vega, ii,

p. 531

Copara, 144

Hahtn, 22

•\Huanaynin, 85. Huahuanina of G. de la Vega, ii,

p. 531

Masca Panaca, 23

Marasaylla, 22

— Quesco, 23

— Tarpuniay. The priest caste, 23

— Sanu, 23

— fUsca Mayta, 22. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 531

— Usca Panaca, 23

— ■\Vica-quirait, 22. See G. de la Vega, ii, p. 531

— Yauroy Panaca, 23

— Yapoinayu, 22

— Yahuaymin Sutic, 22

— Yaraycu, 22

Cacya-quivi, Don Baltasor de, 67

■\XGanas. A tribe south of Cuzco, on the borders of the

Collao, 67, 102, 152
■\XCanaTis. Origin, 8; Huaca of, 83, 93; Conquest of, 49,

98, HI; Chief of (see Urco-calla), 112; Punished by

Athahualpa, 113, 116
■\\Ca7Lches. A tribe bordering on the Canas, 67, 152. Cieza

de Leon, pp. 355, 358
Capacuyos. A tribe which conspired against Ynca Pacha-

cutec, 96
^\Cavinas. A tribe south of Cuzco, 91, 96. Cieza de Leon,-

p. 354
^Cayaucachis. An aboriginal tribe of Cuzco, 76. See G.

de la Vega, ii, p. 239
■^Ccapac Yupanqui. Ynca, 85, 88

■f-lChachajmyas. A tribe in Chincha-suyu, 22, 27, 54, 103
fXChallcuchima. A general of Atahuallpa, 111, 115, 118

216 INDEX.

Chamin Cuzco Ayllu, A lineage whicli carried the cries down

the Chincha-suyu road, 22
Ghana Coricoca. A valiant widow in the war with the

Chancas, 92
■\XChancas. A tribe of great power, west of Cuzco, 29, 91,

92, 152. See Cieza de Leon, p. 280, 315, 316
Chauca-chiipta. The name of the Indians in Huarochiri,

who were found by Dr. Avila, in new shirts called

Musnu yauri, and Carhua yelli, 122
■fChillquis. Vanguard of the Ynca army. Tribe near Cuzco,

in district now called Paruro, 102, 116
-fChina-Fanaca Ayllu. A lineage which carried the cries

down the Cunti-suyu road. Descendants of the Ynca

Sinchi Ruca, 23, 78
•fChollques, 96. Probably Chillqui of G. de la Vega, i,

p. 80
■\XGhumpivillcas, 96, 168. See G. de la Vega, i, p. 229
Chuqui-huy-]jachuqui’pa. Sister and wife of Ynca Huascar,

•fColla-Gcapac. Chief of the Collas, 90, 91
Condorcanqui, Don Felipe de, 67
Gopara Ayllu. A lineage in Huarochiri, 144
■\Guys Manco. A great chief at Cuzco ; chief of the valley

of the Rimac, 105. See G. de la Vega, ii, pp. 185, 190,

192, 194

Haca-roca. Husband of the Princess Mama Ruca, 107

Hanco-Allo (see Anco-Allu)

Hatun-Collas. Chief of the Collas, 90

Hatun-Ayllu. A lineage which carried the cries down the

Chincha-suyu road, 22
XHuaminca Atoc. General sent against Atahualpa, 112, 113.

See Gieza de Leon, pp. 167, 273
•\IIuanaynin Ayllu. Descendants of Ma3’ta Ccapac, 85
Huanca Auqui. General of the blood royal, employed

against Atahualpa, 113, 115, 117
Ruayrotari, Maria de, 67
Huasco Tornay Rimac. Chief of the Chancas, 92

INDEX. 217

■fXHuayna Ccapac, 1 ; born, 98, 99; accession, 104; coro-
nation, 106; wars, 108, 110; death, 110

fZloque Yujpanqui Ynca, 82

fMama-huaca. Wife of Manco Ccapac, 62, 75, 76

achi. Mother of Manco Ccapac, 74

\Ana1iuarqui. Wife of Tupac Ynca Yupanqui, 98

Chimpu-cuca or Tancarayacchi. Wife of Lloque

Yupanqui, 82

■fCorillpay cahua. Wife of Ccapac Yupanqui, 87

Ccoya chuqui huypa chuquipa. Wife of Huascar

Ynca, 111

■fChuqui-checya. Wife of Ynca Yahuar-huaccac, 90

Chimpu-runtucay. Wife of Huayna Ccapac, 108

Cuca. Second sister of Huayna Ccapac, 107

• Cusirimay. First wife of Huayna Ccapac, 105, 107

“fMamicay Chimpu. Wife of Ynca Ruca, 89

“^Runtu-cay. Wife of Ynca Uira-ccocha, 90

■\XManco Ccapac. Deluge, 4 ; call from the Sun, 5 ; issues

from Paccari-tampu, 6 ; brother of Huanacauri, 35, 44,

52 ; birth, 74 ; marriage, 76 ; enemy of Huaca, 76 ;

prayers of, 79 ; ceremony ordered by, 80
Manco- Churin-Cuzco. The ^lite of the Ynca’s army, 116
■fXifanco Ynca, 1 08, 1 1 9
Marasaylla Cuynissa Ayllu, 22
Masca-Panaca-Ayllu, 23
Mayhua, Juan Apu Ynca, 67
•fMayta Ccapac Ynca, 83

•fMayus. Tribe near Cuzco. Ynca’s body-guard, 110, 116
Mihicnaca Mayta. General in army of Huayna Ccapac, 108,


Ninancuyoclii. A son of Huayna Ccapac, 107

•fPachacuti Ynca Yupanqui. Takes the name of Yamqui
Pachacutec, 93, 94, 95, 99

■flPaullu Ynca, 23

218 INDEX.

-fPinao Ccapac, Tocay Ccapac. Conquered by Manco Ccapac,

76. Garcilasso has Pinahua (i, p. 71)
Pisar Ccapac. Chief of Cassamarca, 94

Quesco Ayllu, 23
“f-Quichuas, 100, 116

fQuis-quis. A general of Atahualpa, 111, 114, 115, 116,
117, 120

fPaJma Ocllo. Mother of Huascar Ynca, 107, 111

fPuca Ynca, 87, 88, 89,.

fBumi-naui. A general of Atahualpa, 111

Sanu AylUi

Santa Cruz, Pachacuti Yamqui Salcamayhna, Juan de.

Author of ” Antiquities of Peru,” Ql
fSinchi Buca. The second Ynca, 44, 78, 80, 81

Tarpuntay Ayllu, 23

Tintaya, Gonzalo Pizarro de, 67

“fTocay Ccapac, A great idolater conquered by Manco

Ccapac, 77, 90. Garcilasso has Tocay (i, p. 71)
Tocto Oclla Guca. Mother of Atahualpa, 107
Tomay-Huaraca. Chief of the Chancas, 92
fTupac Ynca Yupanqui, 96, 97, 101, 104, 152
Tupac Ranchiri Ynca. A priest of the Ccuri-cancha, 92

fUira-ccocha Ynca (see Viracocha) , 12, 90, 92, 95

Urcu-huaranca . Son of Mayta Ccapac, 85

TJrcxi-Ynca. Son of Ynca Uira-ccocha. Slain by the Chief

Yamqui Pachacutec, 91, 93
Ur^u-Calla. Chief of the Canaris, 112
Urcuni, Bernabe Apu Hilas, 67
•fUsca-Mayta Ayllu, 23
Uturuncu Achachi, An Ynca general, 99, 102, 103

“fVicaquirau Ayllu, 22

Vilcaquiri. A brave Ynca captain, 92

fViracocJia Ynca (see Uiraccocha), 12, 90, 92, 95

INDEX. 219

fYahuar-huaccac Ynca, 89

Yahuaijmin Ayllu Sutic, 22

Yamqui huanacu, Francisco de, 67

Yamqxil Pacliacutec, Chief of Huayra Cancha. Defeats and

kills Ynca Urcu. Submits to Ynca Yupanqui, who

takes his name, 91, 93
Yaraycu Ayllu, 22
Yaurii Panaca Ayllu, 23
Yajpo-raayu Ayllu, 22
■^-XYwpanqui Ynca (see Pacliacutec and Yamqui), 10, 11, 12,

33, 54, 91, 92, 93, 96, 100, 154


Artaun, Don Sebastian de, Bishop of Cuzco. Treatise on
the fables and rites of the Yncas addressed to, 3

Avila, Dr. Francisco de. Author of a narrative of the errors
of the Indians of Huarochiri, etc., 121

Barco, Pedro del, 118
Benalcazar, Sehastian de, 169
Bohadilla, Dona Isabel de, 21

Candia, Pedro de, 118

Canete, Viceroy Marquis of, 161

Castro, Licentiate, 62

Guzman, Diego Artiz de, 11

Lartaun (see Artaun)

Molina, Cristoval de. Author of ”Fables and Rites of the
Yncas^’, 3

Olivcra, Luis de, 59, 62

Ondegardo, Polo de. Report by, 149. Cieza’ de Leon, p.
387 ; G. de la Verja, i, p. 273 ; ii, p. 91

Pizarro, Francisco de, 118

220 INDEX.

Segovia, Hernan Lopez de, 11

Toledo, Viceroy Francisco de, 60
Toro, Friar Pedro de, 62

Valverde, Fray Vicente de, 119