PEDRO PIZARRO. RELATION OF THE DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF THE KINGDOMS OF PERU. VOLUME I


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PEDRO PIZARRO. RELATION OF THE DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF THE KINGDOMS OF PERU. VOLUME I.
Педро Писарро. Сообщение об Открытии и Завоевании Королевств Перу. Том 1.

PEDRO PIZARRO. RELATION OF THE DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OF THE KINGDOMS OF PERU. VOLUME I

IN TWO VOLUMES

VOLUME I

TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH AND ANNOTATED

BY

PHILIP AINSWORTH MEANS

\

THE CORTES SOCIETY

NEW YORK

1921

*

COCKAYNE, BOSTON

CONTENTS

PACK

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE 7

INTRODUCTION TO PEDRO PIZARRO'S RELACION
DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO Y CONQUISTA DE LOS
REINOS DEL PERU 9

PRELIMINARY COMMENTS 9

PRE-COLUMBIAN PERU 10

THE STATUS OF SPANISH RULE IN AMERICA
IN 1531 40

GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF THE WORK OF
PEDRO PIZARRO 43

THE LIFE OF PEDRO PIZARRO .... 79

THE BIBLIOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF PEDRO
PIZARRO 83

-> FIRST GROUP OF AUTHORITIES . . 85

SECOND GROUP 100

THIRD GROUP 108

CHRONOLOGY OF THE CONQUEST PERIOD IN THE

ANDEAN REGION 119

5

6 Contents

PACK

RELATION OF THE DISCOVERY AND CONQUEST OP
THE KINGDOMS OF PERU, AND OF THE GOVERN-
MENT AND ARRANGEMENTS WHICH THE NA-
TIVES OF THEM FORMERLY HAD, AND OF THE
TREASURES WHICH WERE FOUND THEREIN,
AND OF THE OTHER EVENTS WHICH HAVE
TAKEN PLACE IN THOSE REALMS UP TO THE
DAY ON WHICH THE RELATION WAS SIGNED
BY PEDRO PIZARRO, A CONQUEROR AND
SETTLER OF THOSE SAID KINGDOMS, AND A
CITIZEN OF THE CITY OF AfiEQUIPA, IN THE

YEAR 1571 131

NOTES VOL. II 491

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS CONSULTED IN CONNEC-
TION WITH THE PRESENT EDITION OF PEDRO

PIZARRO'S RELATION VOL. II 531

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE

The present translation is based upon the
only two known editions of Pedro Pifcarro's
' ' Relacion" . Of these the older will be found in
Martin Fernandez de Navarrete's Coleccion
de documentos para la historia de Espana,
Volume V, pages 201-388, Madrid, 1844; the
other will be, found in the Coleccion de libros
y documentos referentes a la historia del Peru,
edited by Horacio H. Urteaga and Carlos A.
Romero, Volume VI, pages 1-185, Lima, 1917.

The present editor has been at considerable
pains to amplify his text with useful supple-
mentary material. In translating he has ad-
hered to the original, even preserving the less
important vagaries of style for the sake of
creating the same atmosphere in the transla-
tion as that which is found in the Spanish
text; but, in crucial places of special impor-
tance, he has never hesitated to give a loose
translation if obscurity as to an important

8 Translator's Preface

point would otherwise be created. Capitaliza-
tion and the spelling of proper names follow
the original.

Thanks are due to Dr. A. C. Rivas of the
Pan-American Union, to Dr. A. Gandolfo
Herrera of the Argentine Embassy, Washing-
ton, and of Buenos Aires, and to Prof. Mar-
shall H. Saville for aid in translating certain
passages. To my mother, Mrs. James Means,
I am also indebted for help of various kinds.

PHILIP AINSWORTH MEANS

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS
September 25, 1920

AN INTRODUCTION

TO

PEDRO PIZARRO'S

RELACION DEL DESCUBRIMIENTO Y

CONQUISTA DE LOS REINOS

DEL PERU

Preliminary Comments

In order fully to comprehend the work of
Pedro Pizarro and its value we must inform
ourselves somewhat fully as to what may be
termed the historical landscape which he de-
scribes and of which he himself forms a feature.
In order to make this as convenient as possible
for the student, the present translation of the
"Relacion del descubrimiento y conquista de
los reinos del Peru" is provided with a suf-
ficiency of introductory and explanatory
matter, together with copious bibliographical
material and auxiliary appendices.

The "Relacion" is in effect, though not in
intention, an epitaph upon a civilization whose
little day is done. In order that some idea

10 Pedro Pizarro

of the historical and geographical aspects of
that civilization may be at hand for the
reader's ready consultation, something will
be said of the development of that civiliza-
tion, of its environment and of the circum-
stances of its conquest by the forces of Castile.
It will also be found that some data as to our
author himself are provided, all of which,
it is to be hoped, will aid in giving to Pedro
Pizarro the preeminent position which he
deserves, but which few, save the great Pres-
cott, have accorded him.

Pre-Columbian Peru

Little by little modern research into docu-
mentary sources, modern analytical study of
folklore and tradition, and modern archeo-
logical investigation are, as it were, peeling
off the shroud-like wrappings which have so
long kept from us clear perception of the an-
cient history of the Andean region, generic-
ally called Peru by early Spanish writers,
and, more anciently still, called Ttahua-ntin-
suyu, The Land of the Four Provinces.

Introduction 11

Nevertheless, though we of today know far
more than did the writers of great Prescott's
generation, our knowledge is still very im-
perfect; almost every year of study by in-
vestigators of several nationalities adds some
new items to what we already possess. Con-
sequently, all statements made today, and
all theories now put forth, must be frankly
acknowledged to be tentative, strictly subject
to confirmation or to reversal by future study.
If we bear this in mind, however, there can
be no harm in stating what now seem to be
the salient features of pre-Columbian history
in the Andean region.

It is probable, then, that the region in
question received its earliest inhabitants from
Central America, perchance two thousand
years ago, more or less. At that time Cen-
tral America had long been the seat of a com-
plex and rather numerous population who had,
for centuries, been slowly advancing from the
humble stage of culture in which their dis-
tant Asiatic ancestors had lived. 1 As a re-
sult of growing pressure, perhaps economic or

12 Pedro Pizarro

agrarian, perhaps political, perhaps of some
unconjectured description, little groups of
families or clans began to wander, quite un-
directed, quite vaguely, down the shores of
the land-mass on which they lived. There
was here no element of the carefully planned
migration which some writers have sought to
establish. Rather, the series of movements
instituted in this indefinitely remote epoch
was of precisely the same haphazard nature
as that which first gave our continent its
earliest inhabitants. In time two streams,
both intermittent no doubt, of undirected
little knots of nomads began to pour south-
ward, some following the Atlantic seaboard
and some that of the Pacific. A number of
the tribes thus aimlessly drifting found homes
as time went on along their line of travel, and
they established themselves permanently in
the new found lands. Their progress there-
after depended on what degree of inborn
genius for advancement they may have pos-
sessed or upon the reaction on them of their
new surroundings. 2

Introduction 13

As the result of this process, or one very
like it, a period which we may roughly date
as 200 A.D. found a long line of rather ad-
vanced seaboard states flourishing on the
coast of Peru. In the interior, on the At-
lantic watershed of the continent, another set
of societies, less advanced, but possessing
excellent cultural potentialities, was estab-
lished, its ancestor-folk having drifted inland
from the Atlantic shore. As yet, in all prob-
ability, there was little, if any, contact between
the two sets of cultures. 3

As time went on, naturally enough, both
sets of societies, those inland and those on the
Pacific littoral, underwent modifications of
one sort and another. They kept thrusting
out feelers, so to speak; trade constantly
enlarged the sphere of their interests and
geographical knowledge. In time, the two
met, blended, and to some extent, merged.
The result was the weird but colourful civili-
zation to which modern nomenclature applies
the name "Tiahuanaco", using the compara-
tively recent name of an important centre of

14 Pedro Pizarro

the culture as an arbitrarily chosen label for
the whole. The Tiahuanaco culture, passing
through many phases, both chronologically
and geographically, was probably at its height
between 500 and 1000 A.D.4

It is now well known that the civilization
of Central America underwent a marked period
of depression between 700 and 1000 A.D. It
seems not unlikely that a similar phenomenon
took place in the Andean region in the tenth
century A.D. It is fairly clear that the cul-
tural retrogression which then took place was
far more pronounced in the highlands than
it was on the coast. It is not known, of course,
whether or not the causes of this contrast were
economic, climatic, or otherwise. We can
but conjecture, more or less fruitlessly, as to
whether or no such calamities as incursions
by savage and undeveloped tribes, as pesti-
lences, or as earthquakes, may not have had
uneven results in the highlands and on the
littoral. 6

At all events, it is comparatively certain
that the societies in the coast valleys con-

Introduction 15

tinued with the rather elevated degree of
culture to which they had attained pre-
viously to the postulated catastrophe. Some
dropping-off, some loss in skill and in dex-
terity, some shortening of sail with respect to
political pretensions perhaps did take place.
But whatever limitations of this sort may have
been fixed upon, cultural activities on the

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