Juan Santos, and destroyed all the missions of the Cerro de la Sal.
A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL TRIBES
No one dare venture among them; and they live scattered about
in the forests, like wild beasts. The greatest number of them
live on the Pachitea, which they navigate on rafts. They are said
to be cannibals. The men have beards, and wear long frocks.
The women go naked till they are married, when they wear a waist
cloth. The men are very dexterous in hunting. When one of
them is pursuing the chase in the woods, and hears another hunter
imitating the cry of an animal, he immediately makes the same
cry to entice him nearer, and, if he is of another tribe, kills him if
he can, and eats him. They are in a state of deadly hostility with
all their neighbours. They have large houses, and live in the
interior during the rainy season; but in the dry time they resort
to the banks of the rivers. Their weapons are clubs, lances, bows,
and arrows. Smyth, Herndon.
CATAUXIS. A tribe on the river Purus, sixteen to thirty days
voyage up. They have houses, sleep in hammocks, and cultivate
mandioc. They go naked, wearing a ring of twisted hair on their
arms and legs. They use bows and poisoned arrows. Their
canoes are made of the bark of a tree. They eat forest game,
tapirs, monkeys, and birds; and they are cannibals, eating Indians
of other tribes. Acuna, p. 107, who calls them Quatausis ; Wal-
lace, p. 515.
CATAUUIXIS. A tribe of the river Jurua, according to Von
Spix. Evidently the same as the Catauxis. Spix und Martins,
iii, p. 1183.
CATUQUINAS. A tribe of the river Jurua. They use the blow-
pipe and poisoned arrows, as well as bows and arrows, and live
on snakes, fish, and monkeys. Spix und Martins, iii, p. 1184.
CAUANAS. A race of dwarfs on the river Jurua, only four or
five spans high. One of them was seen by Von Spix at Para.
Spix, iii, p. 1183 (see Carcanas).
CAUXANAS. A tribe between the Iza and Japura; who are said
to kill all their first-born children. They eat alligators. Wallace,
p. 511 j Spix und Martins, iii, p. 1185.
CAYANAS. A tribe of the river Madeira. Acuna, p. 117.
CAYUHABAS. A tribe to the eastward of the Moxos (which sec).
OF THE VALLEY OF THE AMAZONS.
Their chief was named " Paytiti." Baraza; Reise Beschreibun-
CIIAIS. A branch of the Chepeos (which see). Velasco.
CHAMICURAS (see Ajuanas).
CHAPAS. A branch of the Roamaynas (which see). They
wander along the banks of the Pastaza river, between that river
and the Morona. M.Rodriguez; Velasco; Villavicencio''s Map.
CHAVELOS. A branch of the Aguaricos (which see). Velasco.
CHAYAYITAS. Indians of the Upper Maranon, of the first mis-
sionary epoch (1638-83). Chayavitas is a village containing about
three hundred and twenty inhabitants. M. Rodriguez ; Velasco.
CIIEPENAGUAS. A branch of the Chepeos (which see). Velasco.
CHEPEOS. A numerous tribe of the Maraiion, of the first mis-
sionary epoch. M. Rodriguez ; Velasco.
CHICHAS OREJONES. A tribe of the " Gran Chaeu." They
are met with between the Chiriguanas and Guaycurus; in a very
inaccessible country. They dress in cloth made from llama wool,
and are said to work in silver mines. The Incas employed them
in this work; and it seems probable that they composed one of
the Milimaes, or colonies of the Incas. They live peaceably with
another tribe of Indians, called Churumalas. They cultivate the
land, and come down to the river Bermejo, to fish; but are very
careful to prevent the Spaniards from discovering a road into their
country. They are called Orejones, because they are believed to
be descended from the Orejones nobles del Cusco, " officers of the
Inearial court." Lozano, pp. 72-3.
CHIQTJITOS. A numerous tribe in the province of Santa Cruz
de la Sierra, in Bolivia ; and between the head waters of the rivers
Mamore and Itenez. They are considered as minors by the Boli-
vian government; and they cultivate cotton, and sugar eane. Their
produce is sold for the benefit of the community, and a fund is
formed for the relief of the infirm and aged. They speak seven*
different languages, called tapacuraca, napeca, paunaca, paiconeca,
quitemoca, jurucariquia, and moncoca, which is the common lan-
guage of the Chiquitos. The word Chiquilo means small or little ;
a name which was given to these Indians by the early Spaniards
A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL TRIBES
for the following reason. When they first invaded this country,
the Indians fled into the forests ; and the Spaniards came to their
abandoned huts, where the doorways were so exceedingly low, that
the Indians who inhabited them were supposed to be dwarfs.
Their houses are built of adobes, and thatched with coarse grass.
For manufacturing sugar, they fabricate their own copper boilers ;
and they understand several trades. They also weave ponchos
and hammocks, and make straw hats. They are very fond of
singing and dancing, and seldom quarrel amongst themselves.
They are a peaceful race. When he takes a fancy to wear striped
trousers, the Chiquito Indian plants a row of white and a row of
yellow cotton. Should he wish for blue, he adds a row of indigo.
The heart-leaved bixa grows wild around him, the vanilla bean
scents the doorway of his hut, while the coffee and chocolate trees
shade it. Castelnau, iii, p. 217; Gibbon, p. 164.
CHIRIGUANAS. A tribe of the " Gran Chacu", nearest to the
confines of Peru ; speaking the Guarani language, and supposed
to be a branch of that wide spread nation. When Inca Yupanqui
conquered them, they were indiscriminate cannibals; and in 1571
they repulsed an invasion of Spaniards, led by the viceroy Toledo
in person. G. de la Vega ; Lozano ; Dobrizhoffer.
CHIRIFUJSTOS. A tribe, on the head waters of the Curaray.
CHOLONES. A tribe of the Huallaga, on the left bank. They
were first met with by the Franciscans in 1676, in the forests near
the Huallaga, who established them in mission villages.
They are now found in the mission villages of Monzon, Uchiza,
Tocache, and Pachiza, on the Huallaga. Their skin is a dark
brown, they have shiny black hair, and scarcely ony beard ; nose
arched, and check bones high. They consider themselves great
doctors, and are very superstitious. They are proud, perverse, and
fond of a wild life; but are possessed of courage, and great self-
possession in danger. They are good-tempered, cheerful, and
They use the blow gun, called by the Spaniards cerbatana, by
the Portuguese gravatana, and by the Indians pnettna. It is made
of a long straight piece of the wood of the Chonta palm ; about
OF THE VALLEY OF THE AMAZONS.
eight feet long, and two inches in diameter, near the mouth end,
tapering to half an inch at the extremity. The arrow is made of
any light wood, about a foot long. A marksman will kill a small
bird at thirty or forty paces, with the pucuna. Mercuric- Peruano,
No. 51 ; Poeppig Reise, ii, p. 320; Ilerndon, p. 138-9.
CIIUDAVINAS. A branch of the Andoas (which see). Velasco.
CHUFIAS. A branch of the Aguaricos (which see). Velasco.
CHUNCHOS. A numerous and formidable group of tribes, in
the forests to the eastward of Cuzco, and Tarma : first reduced to
subjection by the Inca Yupanqui. They are said, by Velasco, to
be descended from Inca Indians.
Those to the eastward of Cuzco are divided into three branch
tribes, the Iluachipagris, Tuyuneris, and Sirineyris. They call
their chiefs " Huayris". General Miller, in 1835, saw a chief of
the Huachipayris, and some of his tribe, in the plains of Paucar-
tambo, where the great river Purus takes its rise. Their hut was
well built, on a rising ground, wall six feet high, with a good
pointed straw roof. The chief was about five feet ten inches in
height, well made, of a good cast of features, and a jovial dis-
position. These Indians are afraid to be in utter darkness, at any
time, for fear of evil spirits. They cultivate corn, yucas, plantains,
and pineapples. They live in long huts, twenty people in each,
and wander for leagues through the matted forests, in search of
game. They have no religion whatever, and bury their dead in
the huts. They are fierce, cruel, and untameable.
The Chunchos of the forests of Tarma are quite independent,
very fierce, and formidable. G. de la Vega, i, lib. vii, cap. xiv;
Velasco; General Miller, R. G. S. Journal, vi, p. 182; Van
Tsc/iudi, p. 466; Gibbon, p. 51 ; MarkJtani's " Cuzco and Lima".
CHUNIPIES. A tribe of the "Gran Chacu"; between the Rio
Grande, and the Bermejo. They are said to be descended from
Spaniards, and are very peaceful and courteous ; and, besides food
obtained from hunting and fishing, they cultivate maize. They go
quite naked ; and are constantly at war with the Tobas and Moco-
vies, but live in friendship with four other tribes, who appear to be
of the same origin, and who resemble each other closely, namely
A LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL TRTI5ES
the Tequetes, Guamalcas, Yucunampas, and Velelas. Lozano, p.
CHUNTAQUIROS (see Pirros).
CHURITUNAS. A branch of the Jeberos (which see). M. Rodri-
CHUZCOS. A tribe of the Huallaga, established in a mission
village, by the Franciscan Father Lugando, in 1631. Mercurio
CINGACACHUSCAS. A tribe supposed to have been descended
from the Inca Indians ; now disappeared. Velasco.
CIURES. A tribe of the river Pastaza. M. Rodriguez.
COATA TUPUUJAS. A tribe of the river Jurua, reported to have
short tails. Von Spix, iii, p. 1183; Castelnau.
COBETJS (see Uaupes).
COCOMAS. A tribe of the Maranon and Lower Huallaga; of the
first missionary epoch, 1638-83. Their province was called, by