JUAN DE SANTA CRUZ PACHACUTI-YAMQUI SALCAMAYHUA. AN ACCOUNT OF THE ANTIQUITIES OF PERU.
THE ANTIQUITIES OF PERU.
I, DON JUAN DE SANTA CRUZ PACHACUTI-YAMQUI SALCAMAYHUA, a Christian by the grace of God our Lord, am native of the towns of Santiago1 of Hanalucayhua and Hurinhuayhuacanchi of Urco-suyu,2 between Canas and Canches of Colla-suyu,3 legitimate son of Don Diego Felipe Coudorcanqui and of Doña Maria Huayrotari, legitimate grandson of Don Baltasar Cacyaquivi and of Don Francisco Yamquihuanacu (whose wives, my grandmothers, are alive), great grandson of Don Gaspar Apuquiricanqui and of General Don Juan Apu Ynca Mayhua, great great grandson of Don Bernabe Apu-hilas Urcuni the less, and of Don Gonzalo Pizarro Tintaya, and of Don Carlos Anco, all once principal chiefs in the said province, and professed Christians in the things of our holy Catholic faith. They were the first chiefs who came to the tambo of Caxamarca to be made Christians,4 renouncing all the errors, rites, and ceremonies of the time of heathenry, which were devised by the ancient enemies of the human race, namely the demons and devils. In the p. 68 general language they are called hapiñuñu5 achacalla.6 When the first Apostolic Priests entered this most noble province of Ttahuantin-suyu, inspired by the holy zeal of gaining a soul for God our Lord, like good fishers, with their loving words, preaching and catechising on the mystery of our holy Catholic Faith, then my ancestors, after having been well instructed, were baptized. They renounced the Devil and all his followers and his false promises, and all his rites. Thus they became Christians, adopted sons of Jesus Christ our Lord, and enemies of all the ancient customs and idolatries. As such they persecuted the wizards, destroyed and pulled down all the huacas and idols, denounced idolaters, and punished those who were their own servants and vassals throughout all that province. Therefore our Lord God preserved these my ancestors; and to their grandchildren and descendants, male and female, He has given his holy benediction. Finally I am, through the mercy of his divine majesty, and by his divine grace, a believer in his holy Catholic faith, as I ought to believe. All my paternal and maternal ancestors were baptized by the mercy of God, and freed from the servitude of the infernal yoke under which they were enthralled in the times of idolatry, with great risk and peril, on whose souls may our Lord have pity; and pardon all the offences committed in times past by those souls who were made in His image and likeness. I myself, as the grandchild and legitimate descendant of these ancestors, have, ever since I have reached manhood, continued firm and established in the mystery of our holy Catholic faith, exhorting my family to be good Christians, keeping the ten commandments of the law of God, believing in our Lord Jesus Christ, in obedience to our holy Mother Church of Rome. Thus the holy Roman Mother Church believes what I, Don Juan de Santa Cruz, p. 69believe, and in her I desire to live and die in the fear of God three and one, who lives and reigns for ever without end, as I declare. I believe in God three and one, who is the powerful God that created heaven and earth and all things that are therein, the sun, the moon, the stars, the day star, thunder and lightning, and all the elements. I also believe that he created Adam, the first man, in his image and likeness, progenitor of all mankind, whose descendants we, the natives of Ttahuantin-suyu, are, as well as the other nations throughout the whole world, as well white as black. I believe that, for their sakes, the living son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, by the work of the Holy Ghost, became incarnate in the womb of the holy Virgin Mary, coming down from heaven alone to free the human race from the infernal thraldom of the Devil in which they were kept. I believe that our Lord Christ, living among men during thirty-three years, and being true God and Man, afterwards suffered death on the cross at Jerusalem to redeem the human race, and died and was buried, and entered the infernal regions to free the souls of the holy fathers. I believe that he rose from the dead on the third day, and was in the body for forty days, and ascended into Heaven, where he sits in the great power of the Almighty God, and whence he sent the gift of the Holy Spirit to his apostles and disciples, that they might be more powerful in the spiritual things of God. God is the true God above all other Gods, the powerful God our Creator, and he it is who, by his order, rules the heavens throughout all ages, as supreme Lord and Judge and merciful Lord.
I affirm that I have heard, from a child, the most ancient traditions and histories, the fables and barbarisms of the heathen times, which are as follows; according to the constant testimony of the natives touching the events of past times.
They say that, in the time of Purun7-pacha, all the nations of Ttahuantin-suyu came from beyond Potosi in four or five armies arrayed for war. They settled in the different districts as they advanced. This period was called Ccallac-pacha8 or Tutayac-pacha.9 As each company selected suitable places for their homes and lands, they called this Purunpacharacyaptin.1 This period lasted for a vast number of years. After the country was peopled, there was a great want of space, and, as the land was insufficient, there were wars and quarrels, and an the nations occupied themselves in making fortresses, and every day there were encounters and battles, and there was no rest from these tumults, insomuch that the people never enjoyed any peace. Then, in the middle of the night, they heard the Hapi-ñuños disappearing, with mournful complaints, and crying out—"We are conquered, we are conquered, alas that we should lose our bands!" By this it must be understood that the devils were conquered by Jesus Christ our Lord on the cross on Mount Calvary. For in ancient times, in the days of Purun-pacha, they say that the Hapi-ñuñus walked visibly over an the land, and it was unsafe to go out at night, for they violently carried off men, women, and children, like infernal tyrants and enemies of the human race as they are.
Some years after the devils called Hapi-ñuñus Achacallas had been driven out of the land, there arrived, in these kingdoms of Ttahuantin-suyu2 a bearded man, of middle p. 71 height, with long hair, and in a rather long shirt. They say that he was somewhat past his prime, for he already had grey hairs, and he was lean. He travelled with his staff, teaching the natives with much love, and calling them all his sons and daughters. As he went through all the land, he performed many miracles. The sick were healed by his touch. He spoke all languages better than the natives. They called him Tonapa or Tarapaca (Tarapaca means an eagle) Uiracocharapacha yachipachan or Pachaccan.3 This means the servant, and Uicchaycamayoc4 means a preacher, and vicchaycamayoc cunacuycamayoc.5 Although he preached the people did not listen, for they thought little of him. He was called Tonapa Uiracocha nipacachan; but was he not the glorious apostle St. Thomas?
They say that this man came to the village of a chief called Apo-tampu (this Apo-tampu is Paccari-tampu6) very tired. It was at a time when they were celebrating a marriage feast. His doctrines were listened to by the chief with friendly feelings, but his vassals heard them unwillingly. From that day the wanderer was a guest of Apo-tampu, to whom it is said that he gave a stick from his own staff, and through this Apo-tampu, the people listened with attention to the words of the stranger, receiving the stick from his hands. Thus they received what he preached in a stick, marking and scoring on it each chapter of his precepts. The old men of the days of my father, Don Diego Felipe, used to say that Caçi-caçi were the commandments of God, and especially the seven precepts; so that they only wanted the names of our Lord God and of his son Jesus Christ our Lord; and the punishments for those who broke the commandments p. 72 were severe. This worthy, named Thonapa, is said to have visited all the provinces of the Colla-suyu, preaching to the people without cessation, until one day he entered the town of Yamquesupa. There he was treated with great insolence and contempt, and driven away. They say that he often slept in the fields, without other covering than the long shirt he wore, a mantle, and a book. They say that Thonapa cursed that village, so that it was covered with water. The site is now called Yamquisupaloiga.7 It is a lake, and nearly all the Indians of that time knew that it was once a village, and was then a lake. They say that, on a very high hill called Cacha-pucara,8 there was an idol in the form of a woman,9 and that Tonapa was inspired with a great hatred against it, and afterwards burnt it, and destroyed it with the hill on which it stood. They say that to this day there are signs of that awful miracle, the most fearful that was ever heard of in the world.