LETTER FROM HERNANDO PIZARRO TO THE ROYAL AUDIENCE OF SANTO DOMINGO. NOVEMBER 1533. Письмо Эрнандо Писарро Королевской Аудиенции в Санто Доминго, ноябрь 1533.

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Письмо Эрнандо Писарро Королевской Аудиенции в Санто Доминго, ноябрь 1533.


To the Magnificent Lords, the Judges of the Royal Audience
of His Majesty who reside in the city of Santo Domingo.
MAGNIFICENT LORDS,—I arrived in this port of Yaguana on
my way to Spain, by order of the Governor Francisco
Pizarro, to inform his Majesty of what has happened in that
government of Peru, to give an account of the country, and
of its present condition; and, as I believe that those who
come to this city give your worships inconsistent accounts,
it has seemed well to me to write a summary of what has
taken place, that you may be informed of the truth, from
the time that Ysasaga came from that land, by whom your
worships will have been apprised of what had taken place
up to the time of his departure.
The Governor, in the name of his Majesty, founded a town
near the sea coast, which was called San Miguel. It is
twenty-five leagues from that point of Tumbez. Having
left citizens there, and assigned the Indians in the district
to them, he set out with sixty horse and ninety foot, in search
of the town of Caxamalca, at which place he was informed
that Atabaliva then was, the son of old Cuzco,1 and brother
of him who is now Lord of that land.2 Between the two
1 Ynca Huayna Ccapac.
2 The puppet set up by Francisco Pizarro, when he murdered Atahu-
•\llpa, and who died two months afterwards.

brothers3 there had been a very fierce war, and this Ataba-
liva had conquered the land as far as he then was, which,
from the point whence he started, was a hundred and fifty
leagues. After seven or eight marches, a Captain of Ata-
baliva came to the Governor, and said that his Lord had
heard of his arrival and rejoiced greatly at it, having a strong
desire to see the Christians; and when he had been two
days with the Governor he said that he wished to go for-
ward and tell the news to his Lord, and that another would
soon be on the road with a present, as a token of peace.
The Governor continued his march until he came to a town
called La Bamada.4" Up to that point all the land was flat,
while all beyond was very rugged, and obstructed by very
difficult passes. When he saw that the messenger from
Atabaliva did not return, he wished to obtain intelligence
from some Indians who had come from Caxamalca ; so they
were tortured,6 and they then said that they had heard that
Atabaliva was waiting for the Governor in the mountains to
give him battle. The Governor then ordered the troops to ad-
vance, leaving the rear guard in the plain. The rest ascended,
and the road was so bad that, in truth, if they had been
waiting for us, either in this pass or in another that we came
to on the road to Caxamalca, they could very easily have
stopped us; for, even by exerting all our skill, we could
not have taken the horses by the roads; and neither horse
nor foot can cross those mountains except by the roads.
The distance across them to Caxamalca is twenty leagues.
When we were half-way, messengers arrived from Ata-
baliva, and brought provisions to the Governor. They said
J Ynca Huascar and Atahuallpa.
« A hut covered with the branches of trees. Apparently a name given
by the Spaniards to the place at which they halted, at the foot of the
5 This was the regular custom of Hernando Pizarro, to torture the
Indians before asking them questions. The consequence was, that he
was told lies, and as in this instance, as will be seen further ou.
that Atabaliva was waiting for him at Caxamalca, wishing
to be his friend; and that he wished the Governor to know
that his captains, whom he has sent to the war of Cuzco,
had taken his brother prisoner, that they would reach Caxa-
malca within two days, and that all the territory of his father
now belonged to him. The Governor sent back to say that
he rejoiced greatly at this news, and that if there was any
Lord who refused to submit, he would give assistance and
subjugate him. Two days afterwards the Governor came in
sight of Caxamalca, and he met Indians with food. He put
the troops in order, and marched to the town. Atabaliva
was not there, but was encamped on the plain, at a distance
of a league, with all his people in tents. When the Gover-
nor saw that Atabaliva did not come, he sent a Captain/with
fifteen horsemen, to speak to Atabaliva, saying that he
would not assign quarters to the Christians until he knew
where it was the pleasure of Atabaliva that they should
lodge, and he desired him to come that they might be
friends. Just then I went to speak to the Governor, touch-
ing the orders in case the Indians made a night attack. He
told me that he had sent men to seek an interview with
Atabaliva. I told him that, out of the sixty cavalry we had,
there might be some men who were not dexterous on horse-
back, and some unsound horses, and that it seemed a mis-
take to pick out fifteen of the best; for, if Atabaliva
should attack them, their numbers were insufficient for de-
fence, and any reverse might lead to a great disaster. He,
therefore, ordered me to follow with other twenty horsemen,
and to act according to circumstances.
When I arrived I found the other horsemen near the
camp of Atabaliva, and that their officer had gone to speak
with him. I left my men there also, and advanced with two
horsemen to the lodging of Atabaliva, and the Captain an-
nounced my approach and who I was. I then told Ataba-
liva that the Governor had sent me to visit him, and to ask
him to come that they might be friends. He replied that a
Cacique of the town of San Miguel had sent to tell him
that we were bad people and not good for war, and that he
himself had killed some of us, both men and horses. I an-
swered that those people of San Miguel were like women,
and that one horse was enough for the whole of them; that,
when he saw us fight, he would know what we were like;
that the Governor had a great regard for him : that if he
had any enemy he had only to say so, and that the Governor
would send to conquer him. He said that, four marches
from that spot, there were some very rebellious Indians who
would not submit to him, and that the Christians might go
there to help his troops. I said that the Governor would
send ten horsemen, who would suffice for the whole country,
and that his Indians were unnecessary, except to search for
those who concealed themselves. He smiled like a man
who did not think.so much of us. The Captain told me
that, until I came, he had not been able to get him to speak,
but that one of his chiefs had answered for him, while he
always kept his head down. He was seated in all the
majesty of command, surrounded by all his women, and
with many chiefs near him. Before coming to his presence
there was another group of chiefs, each standing according
to his rank. At sunset I said that I wished to go, and
asked him to tell me what to say to the Governor. He re-
plied that he would come to see him on the following morn-
ing, that he would lodge in three great chambers in the
courtyard, and that the centre one should be set apart for
That night a good look-out was kept. In the morning
he sent messengers to put off his visit until the afternoon;
and these messengers, in conversing with some Indian girls
in the service of the Christians, who were their relations,
told them to run away because Atabaliva was coming that
afternoon to attack the Christians and kill them. Among
the messengers there came that Captain who had already
met the Governor on the road. He told the Governor that
his Lord Atabaliva said that, as the Christians had come
armed to his camp, he also would come armed. The Go-
vernor replied that he might come as he liked. Atabaliva
set out from his camp at noon, and when he came to a place
which was about half a quarter of a league from Caxamalca,
he stopped until late in the afternoon. There he pitched
his tents, and formed his men in three divisions. The whole
road was full of men, and they had not yet left off marching
out of the camp. The Governor had ordered his troops to
be distributed in the three halls (galpones)6 which were in
the open courtyard, in form of a triangle; and he ordered
them to be mounted and armed until the intentions of Ata-
baliva were known. Having pitched his tents, Atabaliva
sent a messenger to the Governor to say that, as it was now
late, he wished to sleep where he was, and that he would
come in the morning. The Governor sent back to beg
him to come at once, because he was waiting for supper,
and that he should not sup until Atabaliva should come.
The messengers came back to ask the Governor to send a
Christian to Atabaliva, that he intended to come at once,
and that he would come unarmed. The Governor sent a
Christian,7 and presently Atabaliva moved, leaving the armed
men behind him. He took with him about five or six
thousand Indians without arms, except that, uuder their
shirts, they had small darts and slings with stones.
6 The word galpon is not Spanish. Garcilasso says that it belonged
to the language of the Windward Islands, and that the Spaniards adopted
it. ' The word means a large hall or court. The Yncas had such halls
attached to their palaces, which were so large that festivals were held in
them, when the weather was rainy. Such vast halls may still be seen
among the ruins of Hervay and Pachacamac. In Cuzco they have been
converted into modern houses. The villages of slaves in modern haci-
endas on the Peruvian coast, which are enclosed by high walls, are called
7 Xcrcs says that he refused to send the Christian. See p. 50.

He came in a litter, and before him went three or four

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