Please cite as Clark, N.R. 1993. Glossary of Textile Terminology. In The Estuqui?a Textile Tradition. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University. pp. 958-1115.

This is a preliminary working glossary begun in order to sort through the rich but confusing and often contradictory terminology used in reference to Andean textiles. Inclusion of verbatim terms and definitions from the literature does not imply accepted usage, but rather is for discussion purposes. Although inconsistent and far from complete, I hope this glossary will be of use to others as we struggle to understand the complexity of these textiles and to communicate our knowledge more accurately. Debate and additions are invited. Direct any comments to Dr. Niki R. Clark.

Most of the non-English terms are identified as Quechua (Q), Aymara (A), or Spanish (S). Orthography is extremely variable in the literature and I have attempted to note all spellings encountered, in order to lessen confusion on this front. Sources are many and diverse. Those referenced repeatedly are abbreviated: A&T=Adelson and Tracht 1983, APR=Ann P. Rowe, B=Bertonio [1612], B-A&T=Bertonio in Adelson and Tracht 1983, B-G=Bertonio in Gisbert et al. 1987, B&M=Bird and Mendizábal 1986, Dic-C= University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary (2nd ed. 1972), Dic-Cs=Cassell’s (1959), Dic-L=Diccionario Larousse Usual (1974), Dic-R=Random House (1987), Dic-V=Vox New College Spanish-English Dictionary (1987), DLB=David L. Browman, E=Emery 1966, FO=Jorge A. Flores Ochoa, G=Gisbert et al. 1987, GH=Gonçález Holguíen 1952 [1608], GPA=Guamán Poma de Ayala 1980 [1615], JdlE= Jiménez de la Espada 1923, JVM=John V. Murra, RA=Adorno 1987, RC=Rosa Choque, RF= Rosa Fung, S-P=Silverman-Proust 1988, and Y&M=Yacovleff and Muelle 1934a. Personal communications are indicated by “pc”. Treated as separate letters and listed alphabetically are: “ch” and “ll”.

aajachaña (A): el palo que meten dentro de la urdimbre, para que no se enmarañe (B-G:82); see sword, lanzadera
aakha (A): que sirve para poner bien la tela (B-G:83); un palo rollizo y de la misma longitud que los del telar, para abrir la urdimbre y dejar paso a la lanzadera (JdlE:906)
abasca: see ahuasca
abertura de camiseta (S): vncupcuncan (Q) (GH:378)
abertura de ropa para meter la mano (S): maquihayhuarccuna, o hayhuaycuna (Q) (GH:378)
abigarrado (S): variegated
abrigar (S): to cover, wrap, warm (protect from the cold)
-abrigarse con la ropa (S): ppintuy cucuni, o pachacta huñuycu cuni (Q) (GH:287)
—[vestido] para tener abajo y abrigarse (S): llascoña isi (B-G:92)
abrigo, abriga (S): protection against the cold, keeping warm, as in warm clothing
acashuara (Q): pañales interiores de niño (GH:614)
acanalado (S): channeled, grooved, flutes, pleated?
accessory fabric: tejido accesorio (S)
accessory stitch: punto accesorio (S)
acnopu (Q): see ñañaca, acnopu ñañaca
acsu, aksu, ak’su, agsu, ajsu, acxo (Q): acsu: la saya de india (GH:17); aksu: rectangular, two-piece cloth which women wore over a dress, wrapped around the body, with the top two corners pinned at the chest, & cinched at the waist by a belt; during Inca times ‘aksu’ referred to the woman’s dress (A&T 1983:150); “vestimenta prehispánica tanto de las nativas de los antiguos señorios aymaras como de las quechuas; era una pieza rectangular, formada por dos piezas o kallus cosidas por el centro. Con esta prenda se envolvían de un costado a otro, sujetándose en los hombros con topos o tupus: en la cintura se ceñían con una faja o chumpi, de manera que cubría el cuerpo hasta los tobillos. Los motivos … se tejían en el borde inferior a manera de cenefa. Los acsus podían tener colores que tipifican a cada etnía… Fue una prenda que sobrevivió a lo largo de cuatro siglos, pese a la prohibición de su uso por las autoridades españolas a fines del siglo XVIII.” (Money 1983:209); a rectangular cloth of two cloths seamed, with elaborate asymmetrical warp-patterned & plain stripes & bands at lateral sides, worn with warp horizontal, as an ornamental overskirt or panel, sometimes pinned over one shoulder & belted
to form pouch in front for carrying things (A&T:102ff); ajsu (Q): overskirt now worn in Bolivia & Taquili, Peru, originally a wrapped dress & the woman’s basic garment, when tailored blouses & skirts were introduced by Spanish, ajsu became an overdress, overskirt or apron, similar to Spanish delantera (forepart) worn with 16th century skirts, the ajsu is often worn over a wool dress (almilla), & fastened around the waist with a belt or sash (chumpi or w’aka) (Femenias 1989:11); ak’su (Q): contemp. women’s black wrap skirt or overdress w/pallay border worn over long black bayeta dress, doesn’t need to wrap around completely (anymore), often simply folded over belt & hung down in back like decorative tail, in cool weather is fastened over one or both shoulders (ethngr. – Chuquisaca – Meisch 1977:343, 351); aqsu (Q): skirt woven in 2 equal pieces, seamed together in center, with 12-15 lines of blended color in bands at hem and waist (ethngr. – Paratía – FO 1979:52); “Aksus are not symmetrical as are llijllas & awayos, but instead… have two different halves. They are worn folded with the warp horizontal.” (A. Fisher in Schevill 1986:119, #409); see urcu, anaka, haxo, pheque, harphi, saya
-acsullicuni (Q): vestirse la saya (GH:17)
-aksullicuni (Q): vestirse la yndia la manta de abajo (S) (GH:691)
-acsullichini (Q): vestirla, o hazerla vestir (GH:17)
—iñaca acsu, o yñacaslliclla (Q): vestido de muger galan pintado de lauores (GH:368)
—luto ak’su (Q): overskirt in mourning colors (predom. black) (ethngr. – Tarabuco – Meisch 1985:4)
—medio acsu: “cubrefalda o pollera tejida en telar” (G:59)
—la falda del capirote [acsu?] que estas indias lupacas suelen redoblar hacia arriba, y cualquier cosa que se redobla: llintta (A-Lupaqa)
acxo (Q): see acsu
achanccaray (?): plant (Begonia veiichii, Cuzco) used for red dye (Mamani Q. in G:54); see rojo
achiote (S) or achote (Campa): plant (Bixa orellana); red paint or dye made from seeds (Girault in G:53); also called “bixa”; achote from Weiner (1880:788); see rojo
achira (?): plant (Canna edulis), seeds used in red dye (Girault in G:53); see rojo
achucha (Q): ?; pallay motif (ethngr.- Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1989:62)

achuqalla (Q): pouch, (long & narrow, fringed, very decorated ex. #299 in Schevill 86:103, Pl.3), “Pouches of this shape, although often referred to as flute pouches, are used to carry any small objects such as coins. The item is put in the bottom, & the top of the bag rolled over several times & tied with a cord (APR, pc 1985). The name ‘achuqalla’ is also used for a ferret that lives in the walls & roofs of houses throughout the Cuzco area. It probably refers to the long, thin shape, but the fuzzy edges are also reminiscent of the animal. The animal is associated with luck (both good & bad) & there is a belief that money will multiply within the bag. It is not a costume piece. A visual onomatopoeia.” (E. Franquemont 86:103)
aderezo (S): dressing, adornment
adornment: aderezo (S), huallpapu churapu (Q) (GH:174); huanthura; see lauraque, pancara, huayta, piña; see also armament
afeite (S): cosmetics, paint, rouge, make-up
afeitar (S): to shave; to beautify, put cosmetics on (Dic-V:808); see llimppicuni
afelpado(a) (S): plushy, velvety, furry
afelpar (S): to weave as plush or velvet
agave: see Fourcroya
aguac: see ahuac
aguasca: see ahuasca
aguja (S): needle for sewing; see alesna, almarada, ciracuna (Q), naveta, yawri (A); also tupu, phichaca, phicchi
-aguja de espina (S): ciracuna (Q): la aguja o alesna o almarada, o espina de coser, o instrumentos de sastre (GH:84); “made of a spine (thorn) & as long as half a ‘geme’ (5.5 in.), as thick as one of our darning needles, perforated at one end & very pointed” (Cobo in Bandelier 1910:77)
–agujero (S): juscu (Q); hocco (A); (Weiner 1880:785)
—enhilar la aguja (S): caytunchani (Q) (GH:505)
—long needle: yawri (A)
—quealla (A): una espina grande y gruesa (sin agujero B-G:91) que sirve de aguja, y de prender el manto en lugar de phicchi, ver phichaca (B-G:91)
ahano (A): media vuelta de lo que uno teja (S), llau (A): vuelta entera de la tela (S) (B-G:82)
-ahanocatha (A): tejer media vuelta (S) (B-G:83)
-ahanochatha, ahonoquilautha (A): tejer media vuelta (S) (B-G:82)
ahua (Q): la vrdiembre, o tela vrdida (GH:17); the warp; awa (Q): backstrap loom (ethngr. – Chupachu, Huánuco – B&M:342)
-ahua (awa) k’aspi (Q): warpbeam (S-P 88:38)
-ahua (awa) watana (Q): braided cord used to tie warpbeam to ground stakes (S-P 1988:38)
ahuacu (Q): vn pece (GH:18)
ahuacuni (Q): para si, o estarse texendo (GH:17); [texer lo] basto (S) (GH:679)
ahuak (Q): el que texe (GH:18)
-ahuakmaci (Q): el compañero en texer (GH:18); assistant to cumbi camayoc (?) (JdlE:915)
ahuana (Q): backstrap loom, in some places; kallwa (A); awana (Q): backstrap loom (ethngr. – Serrano, Huánuco – B&M:344); awana (Q): ground loom, (ethngr. – Q’ero, Cusco – S-P 1988:38; Paratía, Puno – FO 1977:142); see backstrap loom
—wayta awana (Q): upright pedal loom (European introduction) used by men to weave bayeta, jerga, cordellate (ethngr. – Paratía, Puno – FO 1977:142)
ahuanacuna (Q): el telar y los instrumentos para texer. Vee a alluyni (GH:18)
ahuani (Q): texer (GH:17)
—chhuyachhuyacta o llicallicacta ahuani (Q): texer ralo o claro (S) (GH:126)
—llicallicacta ahuani (Q): texer ralo (S) (GH:679)
—çamppacta ahuani (Q): texer floxo, o suya suyacta &c (S) (GH:77)
ahuanqui (Q): see unku, ahuaqui (ahuanqui?) unco
ahuaq, ahuak (Q): weaver
ahuaquivncu (Q): la camiseta axedrezada de los hombros a pecho (GH:18)
ahuarayani (Q): durar mucho texendo (GH:18)
ahuarini (Q): començar a texer (GH:17)
ahuasca, aguasca, awasca, awasqa, abasca (Q): sau (A) (Weiner 1880:781), ordinary cloth; probably warp-faced; the median level cloth woven by Inca commoners for their own daily clothing, probably warp-patterned cloth (Schevill 86:127)
-ahuascca ppachha (Q): vestido de aguasca (GH:18)
—chau o chaupi ahuascca (Q): medio texido (GH:18)
—llica llica ahuasca (Q): lo mal texido ralo, o no tupido (GH:213)
—lloqquesuyu ahuascca (Q): lo texido hazia man yzquierda (GH:215)
—[ñina] nina ahuascca, [ñina] nina cumpi (Q): ahuasca o cumpi fina (GH:260-261)
—pana suyu ahuascca (Q): lo texido a man derecha como se vee en ropa vareteada que llaman suyusuyu (GH:215)
—ppipu ppipu ahuascca (Q): tela tupida (S) (GH:678)
—çamppa ahuascca, o suyasuya, ollicallica mama mattiscca mana matti (Q): lo mal texido floxo (S) (GH:77)
ahuatamuni (Q): yrse y dexar lo texido (GH:18)
ahuausini (Q): ayudar a texer (GH:18)
ahuay (Q): to weave; tejer con telar (S); sauña, kausuña, kkanaña (A)
-ahuay camayok (Q): el texedor de officio (GH:18)
-awa kurku (Q): vertical loom
ahuayo, awayo, aguayo (A from “ahuay” Q: to weave): ahuayo (A): pañales (B-G:85); term probably introduced to Aymara during colonial period as new styles of mantles for women replaced the traditional isallo & specialized forms, so the terms “ahuayo” or “lliclla” replaced the traditional term in Aymara usage (A&T:89,92) but see ahuayu huthapittatha; contemp. women’s carrying cloth (La Paz); square cloth worn by women as a mantle or used by men & women as a carrying cloth (same as lliclla) (A&T 1983:150); see isallo, iscayo, awayo, k’eparina; also hamacora, huallas, mantita, phullu
-ahuayu, susuña ahuayu, hama cora (A): pañales para envolver (S) (B-G:87)
-ahuayu huthapittatha (A): ponérselos (pañales) como manto de la manera que suelen a las criaturas (B-G:85)
-ahuayuna llauquipatha, phinttuquipatha (A): envolver en pañales (B-G:85)
—susuña ahuayu, ahuayu, hama cora (A): pañales para envolver (S) (B-G:87)
—pipuchani mattini ahuayta (Q): espessar lo texido (S) (GH:516) (compact weave)
ahuayquipita (Q): tiznu (A); ribete; see awakipa
airampu, ayrampu, airampo (A): airampu: red dye from plant (Opuntia soherensis) (A&T:45), made from flower (Lefebvre 1983:3); ayrampu (Q): vn color colorado, o vnas como vuillas de molle que dan este color (GH:41); airampo: native dye (Chervin 1912:67)
ajedrezado (S): checkered; see ayquipa, collquepata, ajuanqui unco
—ahuaqui cassana vncu (Q): camiseta axedrezada en los ombros y triangulada (S) (GH:444)
—ahuaquivncu (Q): la camiseta axedrezada de los hombros a pecho (GH:18)
—ayquipa (A): camiseta ajedrezada (B-G:86)
—kassana vncu (Q): camiseta axedrezada de cumbi (GH:137)
ajsu: see acsu
akharana, llica llica (A): tela o redaño (S) (B-G:87)
aksu: see acsu
alaa apiasi (A): see ala apjasi
ala apjasi (A): see apjasi
alamo (?): plant (Populus nigra) used to dye yellow (Mamani Q. in G:54); see amarillo
alareme (S): type of ropa carried on a trading boat, contact time (Samanos, quoted in Montell 1929:115); see alcacere, aljula
alazán (S): chestnut-colored, sorrel (Dic-C:8); color canela (Dic-L:23); see cchumpi
alcacere (S): type of ropa carried on trading boat, contact time (Samanos, quoted in Montell 1929:115); see alareme, aljula
alder: for dye source, see ramrash, aliso
alesna, lesna, lezna (S): awl
alfiler, o topo chico con que prenden las mantas (S): ttipqui ttopo; ttipquini: prenderlas (Q) (GH:400)
alfombra (S): tapíz con que se cubre el suelo de las habitaciones y escaleras (Dic-L); alfombra o tapíz: hanttacuña, hanaña (A) (B-G:87); see chusi
alforja (S): wallet, long bag open at the middle & closed at the ends (Dic-V:818); talega, abierta por el centro y cerrada por sus extremos, que se echa al hombro para llevar el peso bien repartido (Dic-L); alforjas: woven saddle bags (Schevill 1986:127, A&T 1983:150; ethngr. – Saraguro, Ecuador – Meisch 1982:58); huaaca (A) (B-G:86); saddlebags, adopted from Spanish by Aymara (A&T:134)
algarroba, o algarrobo (S): tree (Prosopis sp.); yali (?), ttacco (Q) (GH:400); resin gives a mustard color for dye (Ulloa 1974:99); algarrobilla: used to dye cotton yellow (Haenke in G:56); see amarillo
algodón (S): cotton; utcu, vtcu (Q) (GH:400); kheya, quela, qhuea (A); cquea (Q,A) (Weiner 1880:781)
–vtcuppacha (Q): ropa de algodón (S) (GH:359)
—ttiqhuiratha, kilaratha (A): limpiar el algodón de sus granos (B-G:81)
—ttiqhuitha, ttisatha (A): limpiar la lana o algodón sacándole la basura o pepitas (B-G:81)
-algodonal (S): vtcu chacra (Q) (GH:400)
aliso (?): plant (Alnus jorullensis [alder]) root used in Bolivia to dye black (Girault in G:54); same plant used in Huancayo to dye yellow (Zumbühl in G:55); related (?) plant (Alnus acuminata) used in Ecuador to dye black (Meisch 1982:64); see negro, amarillo; (Betula nigra) tenían de rojo naranjado muy vivo (JdlE:909)
alitha (A): lana nacer (S) (B-G:82); newly grown wool; millhuayani (Q) (GH:560)
aljula (S): type of ropa carried on trading boat, contact time (Samanos, quoted in Montell 1929:115)
almanaycito ( ): pallay motif, also called tawanito: little four (ethngr. – Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1987:62)
almañancito (S?): soul road; pallay motif (ethngr. – Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1987:61)
almarada (S): triangular poniard; needle for making hempen sandals (Dic-V:821)

almilla, aymilla (S): under waistcoat (Dic-V:821); almilla (A. accd. to Meisch in Schevill 1986:122); garment of bayeta, said to be very similar to the urku, that is fitted to the body with a belled skirt & long sleeves, but with a seam at the waist. “Esta pieza femenina se comenzó a usar después de los levantamientos indígenas de 1781, puesto que las autoridades españolas prohibieron el uso de los trajes ancestrales.” (Money 1983:209); “dress adopted by Andean women in the 16th century, tailored from loom widths of yardage called bayeta” (A&T 1983:150); Meisch describes for women of Tarabuco, Bolivia as a fabric dress of European origin (1986:246) & for men’s shirts, both of k’uyu (bayeta) (Meisch 1987:47); Weiner gives ccahua (A) & camisita (S) as equivalents… “petit vetement-camisole, chemisette” (1880:781); shirt worn by men & women, also a dress (Schevill 86:127, 116 ex.#391 long-sleeved dress sewn of black-dyed sheepswool bayeta for older woman; Adelson & Takani 1978:18-21); see coton, cotón, kutun
almohada (S): pillow, bolster, cushion (Dic-V:821); see tiana (Andes Glossary)
-la almohada, o cabecera (S): çaona (Q) (GH:78)
almohadilla (S): small cushion; small type of cushion used to pad out the caderas (bustles) esp. of 18th century; see cojin, çaona
alpaca: see paco
alpargatas (S): rope-soled sandals (Dic-V:822)
altej kaspi: see kaspi
alum: alumbre (S)
alumbre (S): alum; sulphate of aluminum & potassium used as a mordant (G:52); see cachina blanca, millo, millu
allca (A): contrary in colors & elements. Auca: & of other things that cannot be together. Black is contrary to white, fire to water, day to night, & sin to grace. Cchuara hankona aucapapi (Bertonio:140 in Cereceda 1986:173)
allka, allqa (A): the place occupied by the black band of talegas, at 1/4 and 3/4 points, dividing the talega (with the chhima at the 1/2 point) into 4 parts (ethngr. – Isluga – Cereceda 1986:160-161; see allca
allqa (A): see allka, allca
alluini (Q): trauar o vrdir la tela (GH:22); allwini (Q): to warp a loom (S-P 1988:38)
-alluina (Q): lugar para vrdir (GH:22)
-alluina kcaspicuna (Q): al telar o al tocoro y la urdimbre juntos (JdlE:906)
-alluinatacarpu (Q): estacas en que traman (S) (GH:678); see estacas
-alluinayan (Q): esta a punto para vrdir (GH:22)
-alluirayachcan (Q): estarse vrdido (GH:22)
-alluirccuni (Q): acauar de vrdir (GH:22)
-alluitamuni (Q): dexar vrdido (GH:22)
-alluiusini (Q): ayudar a vrdir (GH:22); see allwi masi
-alluyna caytu (Q): los hilos que vrden la tela (GH:22)
-alluyna cazpicuna (Q): el telar (GH:22)
alluyscca (Q): lo vrdido, o vrdiembre (GH:22); urdimbre, warp
-alluysccactaaycak illahuacayto (Q): los hilos que abren la tela (GH:22)
—huchacta camacta alluiycachani (Q): començar negocio de mucha solicitud (GH:22)
—hucho, o cama alluiycachak, o alluycamayok (Q): el inventador de negocios y pleytos (GH:22)
allwi masi (Q): warping partners, often a master weaver & protegé (ethngr. – Chinchero – E. & C. Franquemont 1988:71-72)
allwini: see alluini
amarillo (S): yellow; kello, kellu, choque (A) (B-G:84); yuri, churi (A); chilka, waqra waqra, punki (Q) (S-P 1988:39); q’illu, qillu, quellu, quilla, k’ellu (Q), ccarhua (Q); see leonado; for sources see alamo, algarroba, aliso, chamañuai, chchejche, chilka, chinchanko curiseque, fauca, itapallo, kaka unku, karwinchu, kellu chchuru, kiko ttica, kolle, llampukjana, mastuerzo, mayu chilka, molle, pachalloque, palillo, pika pika, rroke, sangurachi, ttara, taya, tola, yanali
-amarillo fino (S): [ñina] ninaquello (Q) (GH:260-261)
-amarillo volverse (S): kelloquiptatha, choquequiptatha, alguna diferencia hay entre estos nombres de más o menos (B-G:84)
-amarillo volverse el sembrado, amarillo volverse al enfermo (S): dícese con los mismos nombres (B-G:84)
—color que tira a amarillo (S): chuchi (A) (B-G:84)
—laramaro kello quellcarantutama (A): da o pinta de amarillo sobre azul (B-G:84)
—lamaro kello qulkarantti (A): estar el amarillo sobre el azul (B-G:84)
—misuca (A): variety of panti plant that gives a yellow dye (B-G:52); see panti; same as chillca (Q)? (JdlE:909)
amparilla (S?): see kapach’eqa
anacu, anaku, anaka (A?): Cobo describes the open aksu form & calls it anacu (A): “El vestido de las mujeres, que les sirve de saya y manto, son dos mantas; la una se ponen como sotana sin mangas, tan ancha de arriba como de abajo, y les cubre desde el cuello hasta los pies; no le hacen cuello por donde sacar la cabeza, y el modo como se la ponen, es que se la revuelven al cuerpo por debajo de los brazos, y tirando de los cantos por encima de los hombros, los vienen a juntas y prender con sus alfileres. Desde la cintura para abajo se atan y aprietan el vientre con muchas vueltas que se dan con una faja ancha, gruesa y galana, llamada chumpi. Esta saya o sotana se llama anacu; déjales los brazos de fuera y desnudos, y queda abierta por un lado; y así aunque dobla un poco un canto sobre otro, cuando andan se desvían y abren las orillas desde el chumpi o fajadura para abajo, descubriendo parte de la pierna y muslo. Por lo cual, agora que por ser cristianas profesan más honestidad, acostumbran coser y cerrar el lado, para evitar aquella inmodestia.” (Cobo:239); anaku: “nombre dado por algunas comunidades de Bolivia, no es más que el unku o unkuña.” (Money 1983: 209); anaku (Q?): women’s garment woven on backstrap loom, gathered into hundreds of tiny pleats, worn over the pollera (ethngr. – Saraguro, Ecuador – Meisch 1982:59); described as feminine garment like acsu (Boman 1908 I:66, footnote 1); used as synonym for acsu (Mostny 1857:47); not in G-H; anaku (A?): “camisón” or uncu, and “se denominaba anaku, y después se le llamó impropiamente allmilla” (Paredes 1918:150); anaka (A?): small rectangular blanket (same color & design as local manta, but) hangs from left side at waist (ethngr. cent. valle, Peru – Adams 1959:151); may be same as anacu of Cobo and same, originally, as aksu; see aksu, urcu, pheque
anaranjado (S): orange color; aruma (S?) (ethngr. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1986:256); q’ellucha, punki (Q) (S-P 1988:39); sources: aliso, anchurapa, antaco, chapi, pachamara, tola cordillerana, quenturi; see khurusa, antaco
ancallo (Q): ropa antigua de las mugeres, muy preciada (GH:25)
-ancallu pachayoc (Q): la que viste vestido de mucho valor (GH:25)
ancas (Q): blue (Desrosiers 1986:224); see azul
ancho del paño, mesa, etc. (S): luraca (A) (B-G:83)
anchurapa (?): plant (Cassia abovata, Bolivia), leaves used in orange dye (Girault in G:53); see anaranjado
anillado anudado (S): see knotted looping
anillado al cruce (S): see cross-knit looping
anillado simple (S): see looping
anillado sobre base (S): see looping-over-foundation
anillado y torcido (S): see loop-and-twist
ankas, ancas (Q); añil, indigo (S): quesña, larama, sajuna (A); see blue
ankle band: tobillera, poniete (S)
antaco (?): plant (Relbunium celiatum, Huancayo) used to dye reddish-yellow (Zumbühl in G:55); see anaranjado
antara (Q): ayarichic, sikuri (Q); siku (A); zampoña ( ): cane panpipes
añil, indigo (S): plant (Indigofera añil, I. sulfructidosa, Peru) (Y&M:159) for dyeing blue; ankas, ancas (Q); quesña, larama, sajuna (A); see blue
apa, chusi (Q): fraçada muy gruessa (GH:29); see chusi, aparqui, frazada
—katacuna, apa (Q): cobija de la cama, fraçadas, mantas, o colcha, &c. (GH:138)
—milluyscca apa, o huasca (Q): freçada, o soga hecha assi (GH:240); see milluyni pilluini
—pullu appa (Q): freçada peluda (GH:294)
apalli (Q): backstrap of backstrap loom (ethngr. – Chupachu, Huánuco – B&M:342)
aparina (Q): backstrap loom (ethngr. – Serrano, Huánuco – B&M:344)
aparqui, atara (Q): fraçada muy remendada de muchas mantas cosida vna gruessa (GH:29); see chusi
apiasi (A): see apjasi
apjasi (A): loom beam
—ala apjasi (A): el palo donde está revuelta la urdimbre (B-G:83); warp beam
—mancca apjasi (A): donde revuelven lo tejido (B-G:83): loom end beam?
apjasiri (A): see sau apjasiri
apestado (S): infected, infested
-ropa de apestados (S): tapita isi (A) (B-G:87)
—dejarla [ropa de apestados] en el camino para que el que la cogiera se llene de enfermedad o peste (S): tapinitha (A) (B-G:87)
apestar (S): to infect, to infest
apita, apitha (A): see cahua, apita ccahua
apitha, pphitatha (A): tejer la camiseta con varios colores y labores de unas listas que atraviezan de alto a bajo, y no suelen pasar de cinco (B-G:82): tejer una camiseta listada de alto a bajo (S) (B-G:83)
apretador (S): beater; hakasaa (A), kcallhua (Q) (JdlE:906); tool for compacting weft; see ruki, wichuña; tightener, hair band (Dic-V:838)
apretar (S): to compress, pack tight, make compact (Dic-V:839)
apritaykan (Q-S): compacting newly-inserted weft against the web by pressing with sword (ethngr. – Chupachu, Huánuco – B&M:343)
apron: mandil, delantal (S); see acsu, faldellín
arapa sautha (A): labrar frazadas con diversas tramas (S) (B-G:83)
arappani huasccacta (Q): entretexer o enredar sogas, o enlaçar fardos, como gelosia (S) (GH:510)
arco (S): arch, bow (rainbow?, snake?)
arco iris (S): rainbow, pallay design, kumiri (A) (Dransart 1988:47)
ari (A): filu (Q), hilo agudo (S) (Weiner 1880:783)
ariscca ppachha: ropa estrenada (GH:270)
armament: huallparicuycuna, huallparicuni (Q); see also adornment
artisela (S): artificial silk yarn
aruma (S?): orange color (ethngr. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1986:256)
arrastrar (S): to drag, trail, hang down to the ground (Dic-V:844)
-arrastrar las ropas (S): suyruni suyruycachani (Q) (GH:333)
—ropa larga que arrastra (S): suyru (Q) (GH:333)
—vestido que arrastra (S): lumpi, caychu (B-G:92)
—[vestido rico] que arrastra (S): llumpi caychu (A) (B-G:89)
—vestidura larga que arrastra (S): cuyçuppacha (Q); el de la larga camiseta (S): vncuçapa (Q) (GH:691)
arrollar ropa (S): qquempini qquimpiycuni (Q) (GH:418)
arropar cubrir con ropa (S): ccatani ccataycuni, arropado ccataycusca (Q) (GH:418)
-arropar abrigar con vestidos (S): koñi koñillapa challichini (Q) (GH:418)
-arroparse (S): ccatacuni ccataycucuni ppachacta huñuycucuni (Q) (GH:418)
arrugada ropa (S): cipuçapa ppacha, cippuçapa vya (Q): rostro arrugado (GH:418)
asi, chanka, sawu (A): warp; ahuay (Q); urdimbre (S)
áspera (S): rough
—lana áspera (S): rough wool; ttucu, uyui (A) (B-G:82)
atado (S): lio, bundle
ataniasqa (Q): tie-dyed (ethngr. – Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1987:62)
atar (S): unir, enlazar con ligaduras, juntar, ceñirse a una cosa (Dic-L); tie, fasten, lace, knot, bind; see also sincrini
-atar el hilo de la lanzadera para tejer (S): qhueuchttatha (A) (B-G:83)
-atar la orilla de la tela en el palo (S): sau cchacurtatha (A) (B-G:82); isi sancchacurcatatha (A) (B-G:83)
-atar la boca del costal o bolsa: pichutha, pichuttatha (A) (B-G:88)
-ata la boca del costal plegandola dando lazada (S): seccoy cutamacta (Q) (GH:325)
-atarse la manga de la sobrepelliz al brazo: amparo pauittasitha, cchocaquipasitha, yapitta (A) (B-G:88)
-atarle la manta anudándola al cuerpo como para trabajar o abrigarse: chinojasitha, etc. (A) (B-G:88)
-atarse la manta ciñendola al hombro: haccorantasitha (A) (B-G:88)
-atarse la manta al pescuezo por el frío: macchicasitha, makuñasitha (A) (B-G:88)
atavio (S): dress, adornment
aterciopelo (S): see pile, terciopelo
atuendo (S): dress
auca (A): see allca
auu suu cchakhchi, charca charca (A): vestido grosero de diversas lanas (B-G:92)
awa (Q): backstrap loom (ethngr. – Chupachu, Huánuco – B&M:342); see ahua
awa- : see ahua-, Q root for words related to weaving
awakipa, ahuayquipita (Q): after-weaving; edging of textile put on after finishing (ethngr. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1985:18, 1987:48,53); see trim, ribete, awapa
awana (Q): see ahuana
-awana waska (Q): suspending rope for backstrap loom (ethngr. – Punchao [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:345)
awapa (Q): crossed-warp tubular edging used to finish llijllas, etc. (ethngr. – Chinchero – E. Franquemont 1986a:319); see trim
—ñawi awapa (Q): eye design in tubular edging (ethngr. – Chinchero – E. Franquemont 1986a:320); see ñawi, llama ñawi
awaqaspikuna (Q): two roller bars holding warp taut on horizontal loom (ethngr. – Paratía, Puno – FO 1979 [1968]:99)
awasca, awasqa, abasca (Q): woven area (Meisch 1977:326); ordinary cloth; see ahuasca
awayo, ahuayo (A-LaPaz), awayu (A – Isluga): contemporary woman’s carrying cloth; like lliclla (Q), pullu (Q,A); also isallo, isacayo (A); literally, ahuayo: pañal, “prenda cuadrangular que se usa para cargar a los niños” (G:59); awayo (Q): term used in Bolivia for a woman’s shoulder wrap and/or a carrying cloth for food, babies, or firewood (Schevill 86:127); also odd spelling, ‘huallas’ (A) in Schevill 86:104, #315 is probably an awayo; see also k’eparina, hamacora
—turmurino awayu (?A): without dyed color in the body (ethngr. – Enquelga, Isluga – Dransart 1988:45)
—wanka awayu (A): with a central stripe divided by the seam, with kisa & salta (ethngr. – Enquelga, Isluga – Dransart 1988:45)
awillin (Q): see alluini
axedrezado: see ajedrezado
axso: see acsu
ayangue (?): ojota on coast (Bandelier 1910:138)
ayappampaynin (Q): enterramiento (S) (GH:508); see ppampani
ayapana (?): plant (Eupatorium ayapana, Bolivia) leaves used to dye blue (Girault in G:54); see azul
ayarichic (Q): antara, sikuri (Q); siku (A): zampoña (S); cane panpipes
ayquipa (A): checkered uncu; camiseta ajedrezada (B-G:86, G:59)
ayrampu (Q): vn color colorado, o vnas como vuillas de molle que dan este color (GH:41)
ayratha, churuttatha (A): tejer mal (S) (B-G:83)
aysay (Q): to order, straighten out, as in repair; to hoe & hill in a potato field, straightening out rows or to correct or repair in weaving (ethngr. – Chinchero – E. & C. Franquemont 1988:76)
aytatatha (A): see sau aytatatha
azul (S): vida supra larama (A) (B-G:84); see ancas, blue; for sources see ayapana, ccalalo, indigo, mullaca, papas negras, ppiti ppiti, platanillo, quesña
-azul del cielo (S): laccampucchuacchua, larama (B-G:84)
—fino azul (S): larama naccaqui (A) (B-G:84)
—volver algo o ponerse azul (S): laramaptatha (A) (B-G:84)
—laramaro kello quellcarantutama (A): da o pinta de amarillo sobre azul (B-G:84)
—lamaro kello qulkarantti (A): estar el amarillo sobre el azul (B-G:84)
—yerba que sirve de teñir azul (S): quesña

backbeam: see warp beam
backstrap, of backstrap loom: apalli (Q) (ethngr. – Chupachu, Huánuco – B&M:342); cincha (S), sachku (Q) (ethngr. – Punchao [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:345)
backstrap loom: telar de cintura (S), baticola (Cuzco S); kallwa, kallhua (A); awana, aparina (Q) (ethngr. – Punchao [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:344); makana, kallua (ethngr. – Saraguro, Ecuador – Meisch 1982:56); awa (Q) (ethngr. – Chupachu, Huánuco – B&M:342)
báculo (S): stick, staff
bag: small coin purse: killako (A); men’s bag for coca: ch’uspa (Q), huallquepo (A); see bolsa
baladran (S): large, ornamented poncho popular among the mestizo class in the 18th century, a word originally referring to a priest’s or scholar’s robe (A&T 1983:150)
balai (Q): cesta o caja (S), sappa (A) (Weiner 1880:782)
ball of yarn: ovillo, ouilla (S), kururay (Q), jaya, muruku (A); see ovillo
band: see cinta, chhuru
banda (S): cinturón, faja, faxa (S), chumpi (Q), wak’a (A); in this study, denotes a wide (3+ cm.) band
bar: horizontal stripe in warp-faced textile; see keñua
barbiquejo (S): chin strap
barretear (S): to fasten with bars, to stripe; see listar
base (S): see foundation
basket: see cesta
bast fibers: from cortex (outer structure) of plants; the stem fibers of dicotyledonous plants, such as apocynum & milkweed, also fibers extracted from beneath the bark of certain shrubs or trees such as willow (Schevill 86:127)
baste (v): sew together loosely; hilvanar (S)
basto (S): coarse, rough, common, inferior (Dic-V:865)
-[texer lo] basto (S): ahuacuni (Q) (GH:679)
baticola (S-Cuzco): backstrap loom; ahuana (Q in some places), kallwa (A)
batten: see sword
bayeta (S): solid color (black or white), handwoven wool cloth (us. woven on floor loom); yardage woven on European treadle looms by Quechua & Aymara men (Schevill 86:127); woven for skirts & underwear (ethgr. – Serrano, Huánuco – B&M:344); see k’uyu, buchi, biyetta
-bayeta: man’s long-sleeved shirt, open down front (ethngr. Q – central valley, Peru – Adams 1959:153); see wayeta
beam: front or back beam; see warp beam
beater: see sword, apretador
beige: q’usi (A) (Dransart 1988:45); for sources see quinual, keñua
belt: see faja (S), wachku (Q), chumpi (Q), huaka (A)
belt loom: wachku awana (Q) (about 20 cm. wide) (ethngr. – Coquín [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:345)
bellota (S): acorn-shaped tassel (Dic-V:867)
bermejo (S): bright reddish
bermejón (S): reddish
bermejuelo (S): somewhat reddish
bermellón (S): vermilion; a brilliant scarlet red, a bright red pigment
—pintarse con bermellon la cara y embijarse (S): llimppicuni (Q) (GH:213)
bichrome: see color, doblar, hilo, ch’añu
binding: see edge binding
biyetta (S): embroidered bayeta cloths (Schevill 86:127)
black: negro (S); yana (Q); ch’iara, llanco (A); see negro
blanco (S): hanko, janq’o, pacacaya, lakhui qhuea (A) (B-G:84); chiwi (Uru-Chipaya – Gutierrez in Desrosiers 1986:225); see qoyllu, mapha, wayra
-blanco de la totora (S): chullu (A) (B-G:84)
-blanco hito (S): unancha, sanampa, quellinca (A) (B-G:84)
-blanco sin mezcla (S): hanko oca, hanko phichu (A) (B-G:84)
-blancura (S): hankoña (A) (B-G:84)
-blanquear, poner blanco (S): hankochatha, hankopaatha (A) (B-G:84)
-blanquear, parecer blanco (S): hankojaquiullasitha (A) (B-G:84)
-blanquecino (S): hako, kello, yuu, churi, cchihua (A) (B-G:84)
—ponerse o volverse así (S): hankoquiptatha, kelloquiptatha, cehihuaquiptatha (A) (B-G:84)
-blanquísimo (S): hanko pacacaya, hankona, hankopa (A) (B-G:84)
blanda (S): soft
—lana blanda (S): soft wool; llamppu, ñuttu (A) (B-G:82)
—lana blanda de los corderos (S): coñacoña (A) (B-G:82)
blanket: frazada (S); see chusi
bleach: see blanquear
blouse: see blusa
blue: azul (S); yana, ankas (indigo Q); larama, sajuna, quesña (A); ver azul
blusa (S): blouse; munillu, monillu, monillo (Q): woman’s blouse (ethngr. – Peru)
bobbin, shuttle: bobina (S); kuma, k’espa, kumana (Q); ahchi hak’asaya (A); mini (Q), kajchira (?) (ethngr. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1986:257)
bolita (S): small wad of fiber; may be wrapped around something; see envoltorio
bolsa (S): bag; small [coca] bag: ch’uspa, huallquepo, huallca, istalla, histalla, estalla, pukuchu, sonco, conca chucana; medium-sized [storage] bag: talega, guayaca, huaaca, huayacca, huaynacha, huscusihuaca, huskusa, suyhua, wayaka, wayako, wayakayta, wayaata, wallki; other bags: achuqalla, alforja, guardaplata, killako, shigra, vllti lliptachurana; see huaynacha, huskusay, huscusihuaca; also chulpa/chullpa, costal; in this study, denotes a small [coca] bag or medium-sized [storage] bag
-bolsa de indios (S): ch’uspa (Q) (GH:434); huallquepo (A) (B-G:86); huallca (A)
-bolsa de indias (S): istalla (Q) (GH:434); histalla (A) (B-G:86, 88)
—ponerse la bolsa: huallquepottasitha, histallaattasitha, kirchurositha (A) (B-G:86, 88)
—cerrar bolsa, o costal con lazo (S): seconi (Q) (GH:325)
bolsa/trapo (S): bag/rag; in this study, denotes a small bag, pouch or packet made from a textile fragment (reworked)
bolsilla (S): huaynacha, hiska huaaca (B-G:86)
-bolsilla donde echan la yerba con que comen coca (S): sonco (A) (B-G:86), uñita (Q)
bone pick (camelid metatarsal): wichuña (Q,A); ruki, chuqchi (Q)
bonete (S): biretta, cap, skull-cap, bonnet (Dic-V:574)
bordado (S): embroidery
-bordar o labrar paños de corte, o los que acá llamamos “cumbi”; hacer imágenes de plumería (S): cchiutatha (A) (B-G:82)
—randa (?): hand-stitched joining with embroidery yarn of two pieces of cloth (Schevill 86:129); see seam, costura
borla, borlón (S): tassel; see espiga, mostacilla, tupacochor
—puillu (Q): tassel marking ears of camelids, of special red wool (lloque yarn) (Boman 1908(2):496); see also t’ika; reatilla, pillu
—puyllu (Q): borla, señal de las carneros (GH:299); puyllu (A): borla o señal de lana (B-G:91); see also pillu
—puylluchani (Q): hazer la borla (GH:299)
—puyllukhatata, collullukhatatha, huara huarachatha (A): poner flecos de lana por la camiseta para danzar o festejar (B-G:88)
—puyllullichini (Q): ponerla (S) (GH:435)
—pulluni (Q): ponerle la borla por señal (GH:299)
-borla del Inga por corona (S): mazca paycha (Q); coronado assi: mazcapay chayok mazcapaychallicuk; coronarse: mazcapaychallicuni (GH:435); see masca paycha
borra (S): yearling ewe; coarse wool; goat hair (for stuffing); down, floss, fluff, fuzz, waste (of fiber processing) (Dic-V:875)
botas (S): boots, small leather winebags (Dic-V:875)
bracelet: pulsera, brazalete (S)
braga (S): diaper (infant breechcloth), panties, stepins (Dic-V:876); see taparrabo, diaper, pañal, swaddling cloth(e)s
bragas (S): man’s wide trousers (Dic-V:876); pañales, pañetes de indios, çaraguelles, taparrabo (S); vecara (A); huara (Q)
braid (n): a narrow cord or rope of oblique interlacing structure, using one set of elements (E:60ff); trenza (S); see cabellos, cabellos trençados, peinado; cabo, soga; also see ch’ichilla, k’akchana, kantunqa, llama ñawi, paki, q’uchu, wichi wichi
braid (v): trenzar (S); see peinado, soga
brazalete (S): bracelet, pulsera
brocado (S): brocade; supplementary weft brocading on a backstrap loom, sometimes confused with bordado (Schevill 86:127)
—vestido de tela o brocado (S): lliphi lliphi (B-G:92)
brown: café, castaño, leonado moreno, pardo, pardusco (S); cuypa (A) (B-G:84); ch’umpi (Q,A); yana q’umir (Q) (Meisch 1986:256); wik’uña (Q) (FO 1986:141); dark brown: castaño oscuro, pardusco (S); cchumpi, choque choque, vila choque choque (A) (B-G:84); paqo wik’uña (FO 1986:14), vicuña: light brown (Desrosiers 1986:225); ver marrón, castaño, qhosi; for sources see kenthu, keñua, nogal, quenturi, quinual, remy, rumichshma
buchi (Q?): balanced plain weave yardage for men’s pants (E. Franquemont 1986a:319); see bayeta
bufada (S): probably misspelled (Schevill 1986:113, #368); see bufanda
bufanda, buhanda (S): muffler for the neck; scarf (Dic-V:958); long, wide variety worn over athe shoulder or around the neck as a scarf-like garment by a jilicata or Aymara leader (accd. to Meisch & Zorn in Schevill 1986:122, ex. p.113, #368 from Oruro area meas.: 161 x 35 cm.); see ufanta, ujanta
buhca (Q?): spinning (by women) of wool with a distaff (Garcilaso 1966[1604] Bk. VI, Ch. XXV:369)
buhanda (S): see bufanda
bundle: atado, lío, manojo (S), q’epi, quepi, q’ipi (Q)

(see also k, kh, q, qh)

cabecera (S): beginning or principal part, upper end, head, pillow, bolster (Dic-V:882)
-cabecera, o almohada (S): çaona (Q) (GH:78)
—hazer la cabecera, o poner por cabecera (S): çahonani (Q) (GH:78)
cabello, cabellos (S): chuccha (Q) (GH:439); hair; cabello del hombre: chukcha (Q) (GH:622)
-cabello o lana enmarañado (S): tangled hair or wool; coli, ttampha, ttakha (A) (B-G:82)
-cabellos trençados hechos criscejas, o trenças (S): cimpa, cimpascca, cicllay cuscca (Q) (GH:82)
—trençar, o hazer crisnejas de los cabellos, o tranzarselos (S): cimppani cicllay cuni chukchacta (GH:82)
cabestro (S): halter
cabeça, cabeza (S): see uma (Q)
-cabeça ahusada (S): çayta vma (Q) (GH:439)
-cabeça ancha (S): palta vma (Q) (GH:439)
-cabeça tresquilada (S): rutusca vma; a panderetes (S): patapatarutuasca vma (Q) (GH:439)
-(cabeça) caluo (S): rucma vma pacra vma (Q) (GH:439)
-cabeça redonda (S): rumpu vma, rumppu vma (Q) (GH:439,320)
-cabeçon de camisa (S): camisapcuncan (Q?) (GH:439)
cabo (S): strand, as in 1 of 3 strands in a braid or 1 of 2 strands of a replied yarn; see hebra
cabuya (Taino): fiber of the agave or maguey
-genero de cabuya delgada (S): pacca, pitta (Q) (GH:268)
cachina blanca (?S): el alumbre nativo que se halla en forma de vetas en la provincia de La Paz (Haenke in G:55); see alumbre, millu
cadena (S): chain, sometimes = warp; design on belt (ethngr. SQ – Punchao [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:359, fig. 20)
cadeneta (S): chain stitch (Dic-V:884); possibly weft twining here: both decorative & functional, reinforcement within textile, or lateral edge finish (Ulloa 1974:103); Ulloa describes as “bordado”; if embroidery, prob. cross-knit loop stitch
café (S): coffee color; see brown, ch’umpi
ccahua, cahua, cagua (A): man’s shirt; camiseta de indios, casaca o saltambarca (B-G:86); man’s tunic constructed from a one-piece cloth which is folded in half & sewn up the sides, leaving openings for the arms at the top & an opening in the middle for the head (Schevill 86:127); same as unku (A&T 1983:150); see uncu, pita
—apita ccahua: “camiseta tejida de varios colores de pájaros, flores, etc.” (B-G:62); a shirt woven with various colors & patterns, & some vertical color stripes which usually do not exceed five in number” (B:272 – A&T:147); see apitha, pphitatha
—ayquipa ccahua: a shirt with checker board pattern (B:113 – A&T:148)
—cochusu ccahua: accd. to Bertonio, also proper to the mallcus, “por no ser tejida sino de ‘cumbi'” (G:62, 85); specifically a shirt worn only by mallkus, woven only of cumbi (B:272 – A&T:148)
—kalla ccahua: a shirt, part of one color, part of another (B:45 – A&T:147)
—kolini ccahua, kollini ccahua: “uncu listado en las costuras” (G:59), the stripes are multicolored (p. 62); camiseta listada en las costuras de diversos colores (B-G:86, 92); shirt with stripes of different colors at the edges (B:113 – A&T:147); see koli
—kora kolini ccahua, kora kollini ccahua: with natural-color stripes (G:62); a striped shirt of diverse natural shades of wool (B:57 – A&T:147)
—harphuta ccahua: described as Inca-proper uncu by Bertonio: “camiseta azul hasta las rodillas, y de allí abajo colorada: es traje de los Incas” (in G:59); harphutaccahua (A): camiseta, la mitad de ella azul y la otra colorada (B-G:86); a shirt blue to the knees & red from there downward (B:123 – A&T:147)
—huarahuara ccahua (A): camiseta con que danzan los niños (B-G:86); a shirt with fringe or a shirt worn by children when they dance (B:113 – A&T:148)
—ñauraymitta kahua (Q): todo género de colores de texer y llimpi, colores de tierra para pintar (GH:130)
—panti cahua: uncu completely red or morado (various shades of purple) (G:62)
—phuña ccahua: a shirt woven like soft velvet (B:286 – A&T:148); phuñu ccahua: “camisetas muy finas, que Bertonio clasifica como parecidas a un terciopelo” (G:62)
—ppita or apitha ccahua: “es propiamente camiseta de los mallcos” (Bertonio, quoted in G:59, who continues:) “se tejía con varias listas que la surcaban de arriba abajo, de varios colores y labores, listas que por lo general no pasaban del número de cinco. Eran de cumbi.”
—suko suko ccahua (A): camiseta bareteado o listada de alto a bajo con listas de diversos colores (B-G:86); a shirt with vertical stripes of various colors (B:325 – A&T:148)
—succullu ccahua: “uncus pequeños con destino a los niños” (G:62); camiseta de niños entreverada de colorado o azul (B-G:86); a child’s shirt interwoven of red or blue (B:113 – A&T:148); el vestir a los niños… una camiseta negra, que tenía entretejidos tres hilos colorados, uno en el medio y dos a los lados de alto a bajo, y por delante y detrás (B-G:86)
cairel (S): fringe; fleco de algunas ropas (Dic-L); see cayrel, sillcu (A)
-el cayrel o ribete con que rodean la manta, y tiene muchos nombres (S): sillcu (A) (B-G:86)
-cayrel de muchos ojos (S): achancara sillcu, ocollo nayra sillcu (A) (B-G:86)
-cayrel hecho de un solo color o de lanas no teñidas (S): kora sillcu (A) (B-G:86)
-cairel degusanillos (S): laku sillcu (A) (B-G:86)
—tejer cayrales de diversos colores (S): sullco apiquipatha (A) (B-G:83)
—ribete que echan a la manta sobre sin cayrel que hagan aparte, sino que le van cosiendo y haciendo (S): achachi sillcu (A) (B-G:86)
ccaito (Q): chanca (A), hilo (S) (Weiner 1880:782); see kaytu, ccaytu
calada (S): shed
calado (S): textile technique: drawn, open work
ccalalo (?): plant (Cestrum hediondinum, Huancayo) used to dye blue, hierba santa (S) (Zumbühl in G:54); see azul
calzón (S): man’s wide, short trousers (mid-calf length) usually of black or white wool bayeta
calla (A): see kalla; kallu?; see also spindle
—ppaticalla (A): mantellina tejida de diversas colores, y talegas, etc. (B-G:92); see chusi, ppati calla chusi
callaratanca, harppa (A): sombrero de grande falda (B-G:85)
callua (Q): la tabla con que aprietan lo que texen (GH:45); see kallwa, ruki
-calluani (Q): apretar a golpes (GH:45)
calluni cchusi (A): frazada listada de alto a bajo (B-G:85)
cama la ropa (S): puñuna (GH:443)
camada (S): litter, bed (Dic-V:888)
camayoc, camayok (Q): specialist
—ahuay camayok (Q): el texedor de officio (GH:18)
—ciraycamayoc (Q): sastre o labrandera o costurera, y macirac pacmi, para que es, a que proposito que vale (GH:84)
—ccumpik ccumpiy camayok (Q): los biejos que saben texerla assi (GH:67)
—huttuccuy camayoc (Q): adereçadores de sus cavellos (GH:205)
—qqueuiycamayoc (Q): el que sabe bien torcer (GH:307)
camisa, camiseta (S): shirt, short or long, usually sleeveless tunic-style, worn by Andean natives (usually men); see uncu, ccahua, unkuchana
-camiseta de indio (S): vncu (Q) (GH:444)
-camiseta axedrezada en los ombros y triangulada (S): ahuaqui cassana vncu (Q) (GH:444)
-camiseta ponerse (S): vncullicuni (Q); desnudarla: chutucuni vncucta, o llusticuni o llatanacuni (GH:444)
—locuso (A): la abertura de la camiseta, por donde el indio saca los brazos (B-G:85)
—tejer la camiseta con varios colores y labores de unas listas que atraviezan de alto a bajo, y no suelen pasar de cinco (S): apitha, pphitatha (A) (B-G:82)
camisilla de lienço la debajo del vncu (S): vcunchana (Q) (GH:444)
cancolla (A): color encarnado (B-G:83)
canchan (Q): cementerio yglesiap (sic?) (GH:468)
ccancharini, ccanchani (Q): alumbarar, dar tener luz, o luzir con el vestido (GH:62)
canipu (Q): plancha de plata para la frenteseñal de los nobles (GH:50); caniphu (A): una plancha de plata que los Ingas suelen ponerse en la frente (A) (B-G:88)
c’anti: see kanti
cantini (Q): torcer assi, y deuanar en la mano (GH:50)
cáñamo (S): texture of balanced plain weave (Mostny 1952)
cañamo de hoja de maguey (S): hemp (plant & fiber) (Dic-V:894); chahuar (Q)
-sogas de cañamo (S): chahuar huasca (Q) (GH:446)
-soga maroma de cañamo (S): racu huasca, o mullaypa (Q) (GH:671)
-soga de tres ramales de cañamo (S): chhahuarmullaypa (Q) (GH:671)
cañar (Q?): lap loom used by men for weaving women’s belts (ethngr. central highlands, Peru – Adelson & Takani 1978:17, 59, fig. 102)
cañara (Q?): thick somak-weave women’s belt (ethngr. – gPotosí – Adelson & Takani 1978:54)
cañari (Q?): women’s thick wide (14 cm.) underbelt woven by men with techniques, materials & equipment distinct from that used by women for Calcha textiles (ethngr. – Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1989:60,64)
cap: see tocado
capa (S): loose Spanish cloak, dating from Middle Ages, still worn by Spanish in New World in 17th Century (A&T:84); see manta
ccapaca (A): see isi, tocapu or ccapaca isi
capacho (S): espuerta de juncos o mimbres, sera de esparto que sirve para varios usos, bolsillo o alforja, sombrero viejo (Dic-L:128); capachu (Q,A): large bag used to carry almost anything (Schevill 86:127, ex. p. 108, may be like “shoulder bags carried by the Callawayas, itinerant medicine men, to carry herbs, amulets, and other paraphernalia”, #332 meas. 28.5 x 36 cm.) (Cason & Cahlander 1976:13); a foot-long bag carried by men (ethngr. – Bolivia – Goodell 1969:54); Chilean usage describes 6-ribbed burro basket, & similar, sometimes miniature? archaeological specimens; see capucho
caperuza (S): pointed hood, chimney cap; term used by Garci Diez to describe the Lupaca Aymara chuco to which they made heads conform (deformation) rather than fitting the cap to the head…; see capirote
caphuta?, caputha, pilutha (A): hilar (B-G:81); to spin; see caputha, ccapuna, k’apña
capote (S): kind of cloak with sleeves; greatcoat
capirote (S): conical hood or cap (worn in processions) (Dic-V:895); see phanta, tanga, palta, wayeta
-capirote de las Collas y Lupacas (S): phantta (B-G:86)
-capirote de las viudas (S): cloak of widows; lancaaphantta (A) (B-G:88)
—ponérsele: phanttattasitha (A) (B-G:88)
—quitársele: ecatasitha (A) (B-G:88)
capu aya (A): huso con hilo (B-G:81)
-capu lahua (A): huso sencillo (JdlE:908)
-capu quipatha (A): hilar con destreza (B-G:81)
-capuchakhchatha (A): hilar aprieta (B-G:81)
-capuquipatha, philuquipatha (A): hilar con destreza (B-G:81)
-ccapuna, k’apuña (A), pfuscai (Q): ccapuna, pfuscai (Weiner 1880:787); to spin, hilar
—caupuni yscaypascacta, quimça pascacta, tahuapascacta (Q): torcer hilos de dos en dos, de tres en tres (GH:50)
—caupuska (Q): cosa asi torcida (GH:52)
caputha, pilutha (A): hilar (B-G:81); puchay (Q), puchcani (Q), milluyni pilluini (Q) (GH:545, 240); see cchancca, hilo
—cchancca caputha (A): hilar (B-G:81)
—kuta caputha, kutatha, millkutha (A): hilar muy torcido (B-G:81)
—kuta caputha (A): hilado así (B-G:81)
—kutaqui caputha (A): hilar muy torcido (B-G:81)
—layta caputha, layqu patha (A): hilar sin torcer mucho (B-G:81)
—maya, paya, quimsa aya caputha (A): hilar un huso, dos o tres, etc. (B-G:81)
—murcuta caputha (A): hilar poco torcido (B-G:81)
—nanoqui, hucchusaqui, umaqui caputha (A): hilar delgado (B-G:81); ñañucta puchcani; gordo: racucta (Q) (GH:545);
—pphichikthiri caputha (A): hilar flojo (B-G:81)
—-pauitha (A): devanar el hilo revolviendolo en la mano, o de la mano al brazo (B-G:81)
—-pausu pauintatha (A): devanar del huso a los dedos, y de los dedos al huso (B-G:81)
capucho (S): hood or cowl; sometimes used in ref. to large men’s bag; see capacho
cara (Q): pellejo (S); skin, hide, pelt (Dic-V:1236) (GH:622)
-ccara huasca (Q): soga de cuero (S) (GH:671); see yauirca
-carayapun (Q): pellejo nascer (S) (GH:622)
—millma çapa cara (Q): pellejo lanudo (S) (GH:622)
card (v): cardar, carduzar, carmenar, escarmenar (S); see carmenar
carduzar (S): see carmenar
cargador (S): large cloth used to carry children, firewood, etc. (Schevill 86:127)
ccarhua (Q): yellow (Desrosiers 1986:224); see amarillo
carmenar, escarmenar (S): to card, tease or comb; tisay (Q); karkinchu (A); mithatha, ccaatha huaccatha, mithatatatha huaccatatatha (A) (B-G:81)
carmesí (S): crimson, kermes-coloured powder (Dic-V:899); cochineal
—vestido colorado o carmesí (S): vila patarana isi, puca isi, etc. (A) (B-G:88)
carnero de la tierra (S): llama (Q) (GH:449)
carnero peludo de la tierra, chivo de comer (S): paco (Q); y el raso: karallama (Q) (GH:449)
cardillo (S): golden thistle (Dic-V:898)
caruma (A): listas a los lados de las camisetas de los indios (B-G:91)
-carumachatha (A): hacerlas [listas a los lados de las camisetas (B-G:92)
casquete (S): skullcap
castaño (S): cuypa (A) (B-G:84); khurusa, wanaku (Q) (FO 1986:141)
-castaño oscuro (S): cchumpi, choque choque, vila choque choque (B-G:84)
castilla (S): type of manta or cloth? (Carpio 1939:514)
-paño de Castilla, paño de manos (S): paño, castilla isi (SA) (B-G:87), ver ampara thikhmirasiña (A)
-paños o colgaduras (S): hanaña isi (A) (B-G:87)
-paño de Castilla, paño de manos (S): paño, castilla isi (SA) (B-G:87), ver ampara thikhmirasiña (A)
-paño o ropa vil de diversas lanas como usan los pobres, o los frailes franciscos (S): cchakhcchi isi (A); y por esto a los franciscos llaman cchakcchi padre (SA) (B-G:87)
cata (?): or manta; small rectangular cloth worn pinned over shoulders; worn with cotón (ethngr. Q – central valley – Adams 1959:151)
catacuna o apa (Q): cobija o ropa (S) (GH:451); hanakhataña, lanakhatasiña (A) (B-G:86)
-catacuni cataycucuni (Q): cobijarse (S) (GH:451)
-catani cataycuni (Q): cobijar (S), to cover (GH:451)
—manta de las fiestas con tres listas en cada de aquellos lados (S): cuncani isallo (B-G:92)
ccatita uncuña (A): mantellina listada (S) (B-G:92)
cauna, mullaypa (Q): soguilla de tres ramales (GH:52); ccauna (Q): el hilo o soguilla doblado, o torcido dos vezes (GH:63); see soga
caupini (Q): torcer hilo (GH:52); see caputha, ccapuna
caupuni yscaypascacta, quimça pascacta, tahuapascacta (Q): torcer hilos de dos en dos, de tres en tres (GH:50); see caputha, ccapuna
caupuska (Q): [soga] cosa torcida de hilos de dos en dos, de tres en tres (S) (GH:50, 52); cosa asi torcida (GH:52); see caupuni yscaypascacta
caxane (Q): apparently the 4-square design in the lower part of some Inca camisas (GPA:99; J.Rowe 1979:261); see kassana
caychu, lumpi (A): vestido que arrastra (S) (B-G:92)
—llumpi caychu (A): [vestido rico] que arrastra (S) (B-G:89)
caylla (Q): selvage or hem; see kaylla, orilla, orillo
cayrel (S): flecos (S), fringe; see cairel, ribete, sillcu (A)
ccaytu (Q): hebra de hilo (GH:65); see kaitu, q’aytu
—ceka caytu o huacsca, anco hina mamana pitik (Q): la soga, o hilo rezio de quebrar (GH:81)
—collque caytu huan (Q): con hilo de plata (GH:69)
—ccoricaytu (Q): hilo de oro (GH:69)
—llipipipik caytu (Q): seda en hebra (S) (GH:667)
—mana kantiscca llipiuak caytu (Q): seda floxa (S) (GH:667)
-caytum pitin huascam ppiticun pacha ayçarisccam piticun (Q): el hilo, o soga se quiebra, y la ropa lienço, o paño quando estiran dos del y la masa, o cosa que se estira (GH:289); something stretched or expanded
-ccaytun chani (Q): enhillar o reboluer con hilos, o poner cordones, o señal de hilo (GH:65)
—caytunchani (Q): enhilar la aguja (S (GH:505)
cekhoni cekorcconi (Q): dar lazada frunzir, o plegar costal como la bolsa, &c. (GH:82)
cementerio yglesiap (sic?) (S): canchan (Q) (GH:468)
centro (S): contemporary costume of multiple skirts, white, decorative blouse, wide belt (ethngr. Q – central valley, Yauyo – Adams 1959:151-152)
ceñidor (S): faja, cinturón (Dic-L); girdle, belt, sash (for the waist (Dic-V:909); see also llimphi
ceñir (S): to gird, girdle, encircle, to fasten around the waist
cerquillo (S): fringe of hair around tonsure
cerrar (S): to close (Dic-V:910); see atar
-cerrar bolsa, o costal con lazo (S): seconi (Q) (GH:325)
cerro (S): neck, back, hill, bunch of cleaned flax or hemp (Dic-V:911); see nudo (?)
cesta, cesto, cestón (S): yssanca (Q), compuesta de palillos y hojas (GH:469); balai (Q), sappa (A) (Weiner 1880:782), see capacho, capucho, espuerta, runcu (for measures); also chulpa/chullpa
-cesta o canasta entretexida (S): tipa (Q) (GH:469)
-cesto de coca (S): coca runcu (Q) (GH:469); see runcu
-ceston de ychu solo atado para lleuar fruta o hueuos (S): chipa (Q) (GH:469)
CH: for words beginning with “ch”, see the letter: “ch”
cicllaycuni, cimpani (Q): trençar o hazer crisnejas los cauellos (GH:82)
cimpa, cimpascca, cicllay cuscca (Q): cabellos trençados hechos criscejas, o trenças (GH:82); see peinado
-cimpa o cimpascca (Q): soga de crisnejas (S) (GH:671)
-cimppani cicllay cuni chukchacta (Q): trençar, o hazer crisnejas de los cabellos, o tranzarselos (GH:82); see peinado
cinch: girth for pack animal; see cinchon
cinch rope: tarabita (S) (DLB 1984); see soga, tarabita
cincha (S): cinch, girth; see cincho; backstrap of backstrap loom (ethngr. – Coquín [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:345)
cincho, faja (S): belt; chumpi (Q)
cinchon (S): girth for pack mule (Schevill 86:127)
cincrircarini (Q): enhilar cosas en hilo o soga y las quentas (S) (GH:505)
cingulo (S): priest’s girdle (Dic-V:914)
cinta, cinto (S): chumpillicuna (Q) (GH:470); narrow belt, band, or hair ribbon (Schevill 86:127); see llauto, franja, hakima, watana, huata, watu (Q), tula, tullma (Q), ttisnu (A); in this study, denotes a narrow (<3 cm. wide) band
cinturón (S): wide belt
cinturon guaguito walt’ana (Q+S): swaddling cloth (Schevill 86:127)
ciray, siray (Q): coser (S), to sew; see cirani (Q)
-ciracuna (Q): la aguja o alesna o almarada, o espina de coser, o instrumentos de sastre (GH:84); “made of a spine (thorn) & as long as half a ‘geme’ (5.5 in.), as thick as one of our darning needles, perforated at one end and very pointed” (Cobo in Bandelier 1910:77)
-cirak (Q): costurero o costurera (GH:464)
-cirana (Q): la costura que se ha de coser (GH:84)
-cirani (Q): hazer costura, o labrar, o coser (GH:84)
-enhilar la aguja (S): caytunchani (Q) (GH:505)
-enhillar o reboluer con hilos, o poner cordones, o señal de hilo (S): ccaytun chani (Q) (GH:65)
-cirascca o ciranacuna (Q): costura, seam (GH:464)
-ciraycamayoc (Q): sastre o labrandera o costurera, y macirac pacmi, para que es, a que proposito que vale (GH:84)
—yancalla tumpalla cirana (Q): costura facil (GH:464)
—çaçacirana (Q): costura dificia (GH:464)
—cincrircarini (Q): enhilar cosas en hilo o soga y las quentas (S) (GH:505)
clean (v): see limpiar
cloth: pliable fabric of interworked fibers; woven cloth; tela, tejido (S), ahuasca, awasca (Q), sauri? (A); sau, sauta (A) (B-G:87); see awasca
clothes: ropa, vestido, vestidura (S); pacha (Q); isi (A)
cobertor, tapadera (S): ccophittaña, ccaphitaña (A) (B-G:86); see taparrabo
cobertor, frazada, cobija (S): cchusi (A) (B-G:86); seesobija, chusi
cobija (S): teja que abraza dos canales del tejado; ropa de cama (Dic-L); cobija o ropa (S): catacuna o apa (Q) (GH:451); cobija: hanakhataña, lanakhatasiña (A) (B-G:86)
-cobijar (S): to cover, catani cataycuni (Q) (GH:451)
-cobijarse (S): catacuni cataycucuni (Q) (GH:451)
-cobijarse bien aplicando la ropa (S): apacta huñuycucuni (Q) (GH:451)
-cobijarse con frazada: cchusina hanakhatasitha, chuyquipasitha, phinttuquipasitha, etc. (A) (B-G:88)
coca, cuca (Q): for carrying coca, see inkuña, tari, bolsa, ch’uspa, conca chucana; for accessories, see llipta
—tupa cuca (Q): coca de hoja menuda la mas sabrosa coca Real (GH:347)
coco, kuku (Q): pit or seed of fruit such as peach; pallay motif (ethnog. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1987:55)
cochineal: cochinilla (S); insect which lives on cacti Opuntia & Nopalea & which is used to obtain a vast range of red dyes throughout Middle America & the Central Andes in the 19th & 20th centuries (Schevill 86:127); one of the most popular dyes for pre-20th century Aymara weavings (A&T 1983:150); see carmesi, makhnu, magno (A?), rojo, red, lac
cochusu (A): see cahua, cochusu cahua
cofia (S): hairnet, woman’s cap (Dic-V:919); see toca, ñañaca
cojin, coxin (S): cushion; see almohadilla, çaona
coleto (S): buff coat, buff jerkin (Dic-V:921)
coletón (S): burlap, sackcloth (Dic-V:921)
colgadura (S): hangings, drapery; see paños, hanaña isi
coli, ttampha, ttakha (A): lana o cabello enmarañado (S) (B-G:82); tangled wool or hair
colones (S): colored ribbon made into ti’ka to decorate women’s hats or braided bands to decorate men’s hats (ethngr. – Paratía, Puno – FO 1979 [1968]:53, 56)
color (S): cuypa (A), (nombre genérico) (B-G:84); see tinte, dye, pigment; see also wayru, kulur, individual terms for colors; see k’ura, p’ana, llanka
-color sobre otra color como amarillo sobre azul (S): kello laramar, quellcarantati (A) (B-G:84)
-color encarnado o como sangre (S): vila panti (A) (B-G:84)
-color muerto (S): qsrata, malata (A) (B-G:84)
-color vivo (S): llanka + (Q) (JdlE:910); nac quirisama (A) (B-G:84); tenerla: nac caquihuasama (A) (B-G:84); see llanka, llanco
—cosa muy fina o muy perfecta como en todos los colores (S): ñina (Q) (GH:260-261)
—diuersidad de colores de plumas o de flores o de plumajes (S): pauccarccuna (Q) (GH:281)
—todo género de colores de texer y llimpi, colores de tierra para pintar (S): ñauraymitta kahua (Q) (GH:130)
—tejer la camiseta con varios colores y labores de unas listas que atraviezan de alto a bajo, y no suelen pasar de cinco (S): apitha, pphitatha (A) (B-G:82)
—tejer cayrales de diversos colores (S): sullco apiquipatha (A) (B-G:83)
—fina color (S): naccaqui (A) (B-G:84)
—colores finos (S): [ñina] nina llimpicuna (Q) (GH:260-261)
—amarillo fino (S): [ñina] ninaquello (Q) (GH:260-261)
—fino azul (S): larama naccaqui (A) (B-G:84)
—negro fino (S): [ñina] nina yana (Q) (GH:260-261)
—pintar un color sobre otro: quellcarantaatha (A) (B-G:84)
—estar estremecido un color, o entrar en el campo de otra, como acontece en los romanos: quellcarantatatha (A) (B-G:84)
—pintar losa o hacer razar y no otra cosa (S): quellcatha (A) (B-G:83)
—vaso [de madera] teñido todo de colores (S): llimpiscca quero (Q) (GH:306)
—bichrome: yarn: chimi; see doblar, hilo
—monochrome: kara (A) (B-G:84)
colorado (S): vilapatarana (A), dícese del vestido, de la tierra, o prado lleno de flores coloradas (B-G:84); see rojo, red
-colorado o grana (S): chupica, vila puca (A) (B-G:84)
-colorado fino (S): chupica nacca pachaqui (A), y así de otros colores (B-G:84)
-colorado sin mezcla (S): vila occa, chupica occa, chupica phichu (A) (B-G:84)
—lana colorada (S): chupica (A) (B-G:82)
—ojos colorados (S): mullo nayra (A) (B-G:84)
—pararse colorado (S): pucaptatha, vilaptatha, vilaquiptatha, vilakhatha, etc. (A) (B-G:84)
—vestido colorado o carmesí (S): vila patarana isi, puca isi, etc. (A) (B-G:88)
collana, sapa (A): fino (es para todo) (S) (B-G:84)
collar: cuello (S)
collar (S): necklace; see gorjal, plumas
collca pata (Q): see pata, collcapata, collquepata
collcam pata (Q): see pata, collcampata
colli tonco (A): maíz negro o maíz oscuro, mixed with cochineal & used to dye purple (morado) (JdlE:909); see culli zara
-collque pata (Q): see pata, collquepata
collque (Q): plata (S); silver
-collque caytu huan (Q): con hilo de plata (GH:69)
-collqque uncu, ccori uncu (Q): camiseta chapeada de oro, o de plata (GH:69)
collullukhatatha, puyllukhatata, huara huarachatha (A): poner flecos de lana por la camiseta para danzar o festejar (B-G:88)
-collulluta ccahuani (A): uno que tiene la camiseta con flecos (B-G:88)
ccomer (Q): green (Desrosiers (1986:224); see k’omer, verde
compact: see tupido

complementary sets of elements: when two or more sets of elements have the same direction in a fabric & are co-equal in the fabric structure (E:150); opposites warp pattern weave (Tidball 1969:14-15; intermesh (Cason & Cahlander 1976:72-76); grupos de elementos complementarios (S); see also two-faced, double-faced, substitution
compita (A): see llacota, compita llacota
conca chucana, kunka kuchuna (sic) (Q): hacha, literalmente corta-gargantas, bolsa de tela para la coca (RA:105 from GPA)
contorno del ruedo (S): weft width (Millán de Palavecino 1966:102)
coñacoña (A): lana blanda de los corderos (S) (B-G:82)
copa (A): green (B in Desrosiers 1986:224)
copajira ( ): metallic sulphate for mordant (Chervin 1912:67)
ccopanacuni (Q): ludir vno con otro ropa, o carne (GH:68)
ccopani (Q): ludir carnes, o ropa (GH:68)
copo (S): fibra cruda; bunch of prepared fiber, wool, flax, etc.; fiber wad put on distaff to be spun
coptra ( ): deposits of clothing, shoes, arms
—cumpi-coptra: fine wools & precious cloths “embroidered in the monasteries of the virgins of the sun” ( )
ccorahua, korahua, korawa (A): sling; waraka, huaracca (Q), honda (S) (Weiner 1880:183); see waraka
—paquikorahua (A): honda tejida de blanco y negro (B-G:85); see paqi
cord: heavy twisted element or narrow braided rope (here, diam. = l1-l1 cm.); cuerda (S)
cordón principal (S): warp heading cord
cordillate (S-): masculine indio dress thru 19th Cent: calzón, “bayeta” shirt, chaleco (ethngr. Q – central valley Peru – Adams 1959:153); cloth woven on treadle loom for making men’s pants (ethngr. Q – Seranno, Huánuco – B&M:344)
cordones, cordeles (S): see soga, cuerda
ccori (Q): gold; see choquempi
-ccoricaytu (Q): hilo de oro (GH:69)
-ccori uncu, collqque uncu (Q): camiseta chapeada de oro, o de plata (GH:69)
-ccorihuan chipiyak chipipipik ppachha (Q): sedas de fondo de oro o telas (S) (GH:667)
correa (S): tira de cuero o cosa que se le asemeja, cinturón de cuero (Dic-L)
cortina (S): curtain; ver sinccathapiña isi (A) (“los indios como no la usan no tienen vocablo para ello”) (B-G:86)
ccosccotha, llimphitha (A): iluminar o matizar con varios colores (B-G:84)
coser (S): to sew, ciray, siray (Q); see repulgar, costura
—cirana (Q): la costura que se ha de coser (GH:84)
—cirani (Q): hazer costura, o labrar, o coser (GH:84)
—ciraycamayoc (Q): sastre o labrandera o costurera, y macirac pacmi, para que es, a que proposito que vale (GH:84)
-coser menudo(S): cirani(Q) (GH:463)
-coser labrando o bordando (con?) aguja (S): huan qquellcani (Q) (GH:463)
-coser largo y hiluanar (S): chucuni, o chuctni (Q) (GH:463)
-cosido menudo (S): cirascca (Q); largo: chucusca chuctascca (Q) (GH:463)
cosi, kosi, chusi (Q): coarse cloth for blankets; see chusi
costado (S): side
costal (S): cutama (Q) (GH:463); cutama (A) (B-G:86); long rectangular storage sack of single, striped, 4-selvage plain weave cloth, folded & seamed along weft selvages, us. made of llama hair (Zorn 1986:292-293); cloth sack woven in stripes of brown & black, used to store & transport produce; in ritual provides surface upon which objects are placed (ethngr. Q – Sonqo – Allen 1988:258); see chinpu, iskay p’aki, kinsa p’aki; in this study, denotes a large bag for storage or transport
-costal lleno de papas (S): amca maalura, maaluraamca (A) (B-G:86)
-costalejo (S): guayaca (A), small sack; see wayaka
-costalillo chico (S): huayacca (Q) (GH:463); see wayaka
—ata la boca del costal plegandola dando lazada (S): seccoy cutamacta (Q) (GH:325)
—cerrar bolsa, o costal con lazo (S): seconi (Q) (GH:325)
costillas (?): wool from middle of (sheep’s) body, used for weaving bayeta (Cason & Cahlander 1976:16)
costura (S): sewing, needlework; seam, cirana (Q); cirascca o ciranacuna (Q) (GH:464); see siray
-costura dificil (S): çaçacirana (Q); facil: yancalla tumpalla cirana (Q) (GH:464)
-costurero o costurera (S): cirak o ciray camayok (Q) (GH:464)
—hand-stitched joining with embroidery yarn of two pieces of cloth: randa (?) (Schevill 86:129)
cota de malla (S): quillay vncu (Q) (GH:464)
cotilla (S): 19th Cent strap blouse worn with centro costume (ethngr. Q – central valley, Peru – Adams 1959:151)

cotón (S): printed cotton (Dic-V:946); woman’s single piece, full-length, straight, black wool dress with short sleeves, worn with separate, knitted mangas (ethngr. Q – central valley, Peru – Adams 1959:150); see kutun, coton
coton (S ): long (to ankles) robe of dark brown wool with sleeves (ethngr. – Atacama – Boman 1908 II:65, 66; – Andahua – Millones 1972:315)
cotton: algodón (S), utcu, utku, vtcu (Q), kheya, quela (A); see algodón
count, fabric count (n): the number of elements per cm.¨ of a fabric (ex: sum of warp threads per cm., weft threads per cm., & any supplementary threads; an indicator of textile fineness/coarseness (scale) (Drooker 1989:316); cuenta, cuenta de hilos (S)
cover (v): catani cataycuni (Q) (GH:451); see cobijar (S)
coxin: see cojin
ccoyllu (Q): white (?) (GH1:70 in Desrosiers 1986:224); see qoyllu
ccoylluni (Q): frunzir, o pegar algo cosiendo, o señalar con señales de hilo (GH:70)
coysuquisaratha (A): manner of wearing the llacota when a man walked like a serious man (B:54 – A&T:148)
ccoyçuni (Q): arrastrar ropa (GH:70)
cquea: see kheya
cradle: see cuna, qquirau, tara
cream color: mapha, wayra (Q) (FO 1986:141); see beige
crizneja (S): braid of hair; rope of esparto; see peinado, soga
-soga de crisnejas (S): cimpa o cimpascca (Q) (GH:671)
cross-knit loop stitch: see stitch, cross-knit loop
cuca (Q): coca
ccuccu ccucculla, sumpu sumpulla vncu (Q): camiseta, o cosa angosta estrecha (GH:71)
cuchara (S): vislla (Q) (GH:466)
cuchillo (S): cuchuna (Q) (GH:466)
cuchu vncu (Q): camiseta de colores con labores galana (GH:53)
cuello (S): neck or collar
cuello del vestido (S): ppachhapcuncan (Q) (GH:466)
cuenta (S): bead; count
-cuenta de hilos (S): thread count; see count
cuerda (S): chahuar huascalla llañu chahuar (Q) (GH:466); cordón, cordel (S); see cord, hilo, soga
cuero o pellejo (S): ccara (Q) (GH:466)
-soga de cuero (S): ccara huasca (Q) (GH:671)
-soga gruessa de cuero (S): yauirca (Q) (GH:671)
culli zara (Q): maíz negro o maíz morado muy oscuro, mixed with cochineal & used to dye purple (morado) (JdlE:909); see colli tonco
cullma (Q): see runcu, cullma runcu
cumana (Q): peyne de texedor lançadera (S) (GH:629)
cumbi, cumpi, cumbe, cumpe, qompi (Q): fine cloth; possibly tapestry; see cumpi, llipi
cumpa (Q): franja gruessa como repulgo (S) (GH:528)
cumpi, cumbi, cumpe, cumbe, qompi (Q): fine cloth, equally finished on both faces; possibly tapestry (J. Rowe 1946: 242, 1979:239), or exceptional warp-faced weaves (Desrosiers 1986:228-229)
-cumpi coptra (Q): deposit of fine wools & precious cloths “embroidered in the monasteries of the virgins of the sun”
-cumpi o paño fino muy delgado, y suaue (S): checamanta llañu vnuy, o ninappacha (Q) (GH:210)
-ccumpik ccumpiy camayok (Q): los biejos que saben texerla assi (GH:67)
-ccumpinacuna (Q): telar, y ynstrumentos (GH:67)
-ccumpini (Q): texer ropa fina (GH:67)
-ccumpiscca, ccumpi, ccumpi pachha (Q): ropa fina texida de cumpi (GH:67)
—[ñina] nina cumpi, [ñina] nina ahuascca (Q): cumpi o ahuasca fina (GH:260-261)
cumpita (A): vestido teñido de diversos colores (B-G:92)
-cumpita isi (A): cloth dyed of various colors (B:468 – A&T:146)
cuna (S): cradle; qquirau (Q); see tacapa, tara
cuncani (A): fine cloth; along with isayo it is “ropa o vestido delgado…(que) suena como la seda” (Bertonio, quoted in G:62); see also chlluncaa
-cuncani isallo (A): manto de las fiestas listado de colores (B-G:85); manta de las fiestas con tres listas en cada de aquellos lados (B-G:92)
-abrigarse con la ropa (S): ppintuy cucuni, o pachacta huñuycu cuni (Q) (GH:287)
cunpa (Q): see quilli
cunpani (Q): echar cayrel a la ropa (GH:54)
cunpini (Q): texer lo fino (S) (GH:679)
curuy, kuruy (Q): ovillo
curiseque (?): plant (Berberis churiseque, Bolivia) used to dye yellow (Haenke in G:56); see amarillo
ccuscutha, llimphitha (A): pintar, iluminar con colores (B-G:83); ver quellcatha
cushion: see almohada, almohadilla (S), cojin, çaona
cusma, cushma, kushma (Q): coarse shirt worn by indios; poncho-type textile (Ecuador – belted in front, hanging down back; striped on sides; black w/ red & white stripes; Meisch 1977); a full-length robe of l or 2 pieces of cloth, w/ a slit for the head, w/ the sides sewn together, sometimes w/ sleeves (Handbook of S. Am. Indians 3:gloss); fotos of Conibo wearing cushma w/ sleeves to mid forearm & length to midcalf (Steward & Métraux 1948:Pls. 49,50); cuzma (?): camisa sin mangas de los indios andinos (Dic-L:195);
kushma (Q): dark blue or black men’s shirt (avg. 79 x 78 cm.) of two plain weave panels sewn together with slits for neck & arsm (can be woven of one cloth with neck slit woven in), joined with colored yarn – finish indicative of community affiliation (ethngr. – Saraguro, Ecuador – Meisch 1982:56-7)
cutama (Q,A): costal, large bag
cuti (Q): that which returns, reverses; see kuti
-cuticta, o ticracta cutiman pachallicunqui (Q): al reues te vestiste (S) (GH:402)
cuychilliclla (Q): listada de ropa de muger (S) (GH:566)
cuypa (A): brown; castaño (S) (B-G:84); cuypa (Q): el alazan (G-H:271): see brown
cuyuni (Q): torcer en la pierna lo gordo soga o cordel; qquesuani: torcer la soquilla (GH:50)
cuzma: see cusma
cxo: typo, should be acxo (RA:106)


chacura, cchacura (A): las estacas con que fijan el telar, que es bien diferente al nuestro (B-G:83); see chacurus
cchacuracata (A): see chucurcata
cchacurtatha (A): see sau cchacurtatha
chacurus (A): stakes (for ground loom); estacas (S); takarpu (Q)
chacha isi (A): vestido de varón (S) (B-G:89)
chhahuar (Q): cabuya cañamo desta tierra de hoja de maguey (GH:92)
-chhahuar huasca (Q): soga o sobre carga de cañamo (GH:92)
-chahuar huasca (Q): sogas de cañamo (S) (GH:446)
-chhahuarmullaypa (Q): soga de tres ramales de cañamo (S) (GH:671)
cchakhcci (A): see cchakhcchi
cchakhchi cchañu (A): paño de diversos colores baladí como la jerga, y también cualquier cosa que tiene mezcla de otras (B-G:85)
-cchakhcchi isi (A): paño o ropa vil de diversas lanas como usan los pobres, o los frailes franciscos (S); y por esto a los franciscos llaman cchakcchi padre (SA) (B-G:87)
-cchakhcchitha (A): tejer ropa de esta mezcla de lanas groseras (B-G:85); tejer ropa basta y mezclada de muchas lanas (S) (B-G:83)
—charca charca, suu suu cchakhcci (A): [vestido rico] grosero de diversas lanas (S) (B-G:89)
chakra (Q): field; belt design (ethngr – Coquín [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:345)
—papapa chakra (Q): potato field; belt design of small, longitudinal rectangles (ethngr. – Punchao [Serrano], Huánuco – B&M:345)
chal (?): man’s long scarf, usually white, twill-woven (treadle loom) with large scale blue checks & horizontal band of color stripes near terminal ends; worn, folded lengthwise over shoulder(s) or wrapped around waist over other belt (ethngr. – Taquile, Peru – Frame 1983:27)
chala (S?): ojota (Focacci); see ojota
chaleco (S): man’s vest, waistcoat (Dic-V:958)
chalina (S): scarf (Schevill 1986:113,#368); sash (Adelson & Takani 1978:18); bowtie with long ends (Dic-V:958); see bufanda
challapata (A): literally ‘place of sacrifice’, a large, striped ceremonial poncho, usually with a black ground, worn by hilacatas in the Province of Pacajes (A&T 1983:150)
challu (Q): something ripe or ready for the harvest: pallay motif (ethngr. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1987:58)
chamal (S): blanket worn as garment by some Indian people (Chile, Argentina – Dic-V:958)
chamañuai (A): plant (Bupatorium volkensii, Bolivia) used to dye yellow (Girault in G:53); see amarillo
chamorra (S): short jacket (ethngr. – male – Paratía, Puno – FO 1979 [1968]:56)
cchancca (A): hilo de lana (B-G:81); chanka, see chanco; hilo
-cchancca caputha (A): hilar (B-G:81)
-cchancca kantatha (A): torcer (B-G:81)
-cchancca ttaccatha (A): romper el hilo (B-G:81)
-cchancca ppatakhti (A): romperse de suyo (B-G:81)
-cchancca ttacasi (A): romperse de suyo (B-G:81)
-chancca haccotha (A): urdir la tela (B-G:82)
—choque cchancca (A): hilo de oro (B-G:81)
—pphichikthiri cchanca (A): hilo poco torcido y flojo (B-G:81)
—urcoña cchanca (A): hilo de tres doblado muy fuerte (B-G:81)
chanka, asi, sawu (A): warp; ahuay (Q)
cchañañaque lautha (A): tejer muy tupido (S) (B-G:82)
chañu (A): (bichrome) plied yarn of two strands, one white & one brown (ethngr. Enquelga, Isluga – Dransart 1988:44)
chañunteku ( ): warp-faced wool shag weave used for camisas (MH-LIP, Calama area, N.Chile – Oyarzún 1931:218)
chapi (Q): plant (Gallium) used in Huancayo to dye reddish yellow (Zumbühl in G:55); in Cuzco? means dyed red (S-P 1988:39); see anaranjado, rojo
chapichapi (A): red dye source (plant- Relbunium microphylum, Y&M:159); (A&T:450)
chapín (S): chopine – kind of pattern formerly worn by women (Dic-V:959)
chaps: see zamarro
chapuña (A): flat, wooden tool held in the left hand & used to help bring up the warps on the heddle shed (Meisch 1986:257); from verb chapuña (A): to give a direct blow with great force directly on someone’s (human) body, generally in the chest (ethngr. – Tarabuco, Bolivia – Meisch 1987:51); see wichuña
chaquetilla (A-La Paz): woman’s short bolero jacket
cchaara, chara, chaara (A): black (B in Desrosiers 1986:224)
charca charca, suu suu cchakhchi (A): vestido grosero de diversas lanas (B-G:92); see isi, charca charca isi
ch’aska (Q): morning star (Venus), shaggy hair; common textile motif (ethngr. – highland Bolivia – Meisch 1985:4; 1987:55)
-ch’aska ccoyllur (Q): “luzero del dia” (day star) (GH:90)
-ch’aska paloma (Q-S): star dove; term of endearment; pallay motif (ethngr. – Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1987:61)
-ch’aska q’oyllur (Q): Venus with long hair (Pachacuti Yamqui – in Meisch 1987:55
chasquido (S): crack or snap sound (made by honda w/borla)
chata (S): flattened
chau o chaupi ahuascca (Q): medio texido (GH:18)
chawipi (Q): medium purple
chawpi (Q): central
-chawpi pallay: central warp-pattern stripe in ‘unkhuña (ethngr. – Macusani, Peru – Zorn 1986:245)
chaywani (Q): ?; pallay motif (ethngr. – Calcha, Bolivia – Medlin 1987:62)
checamanta llañu vnuy, o ninappacha (Q): paño, o cumpi fino mu