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Vehicle insurance (also known as auto insurance, GAP insurance, car insurance, or motor insurance) is insurance purchased for cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other road vehicles. Its primary use is to provide financial protection against physical damage and/or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise therefrom. The specific terms of vehicle insurance vary with legal regulations in each region. To a lesser degree vehicle insurance may additionally offer financial protection against theft of the vehicle and possibly damage to the vehicle, sustained from things other than traffic collisions.
Contents

1 Public policies
1.1 Australia
1.2 Canada
1.3 Germany
1.4 Hungary
1.5 Indonesia
1.6 India
1.7 Ireland
1.8 New Zealand
1.9 Norway
1.10 Romania
1.11 South Africa
1.12 United Kingdom
2 Investigation into repair costs & Fraudulent claims
2.1 United States
3 Coverage levels
4 Excess
4.1 Compulsory excess
4.2 Voluntary excess
4.3 Basis of premium charges
4.4 Gender
4.5 Age
4.6 U.S. driving history
4.7 Marital status
4.8 Vehicle classification
4.9 Distance
4.9.1 Reasonable distance estimation
4.9.2 Odometer-based systems
4.9.3 GPS-based system
4.9.4 OBDII-based system
4.9.5 Credit ratings
5 Behavior-based insurance
6 Repair insurance
7 See also
8 References
9 External links

Public policies

In many jurisdictions it is compulsory to have vehicle insurance before using or keeping a motor vehicle on public roads. Most jurisdictions relate insurance to both the car and the driver, however the degree of each varies greatly.

Several jurisdictions have experimented with a "pay-as-you-drive" insurance plan which is paid through a gasoline tax (petrol tax). This would address issues of uninsured motorists and also charge based on the miles (kilometres) driven, which could theoretically increase the efficiency of the insurance, through streamlined collection.[1]
Australia

In South Australia, Third Party Personal insurance from the Motor Accident Commission is included in the licence registration fee for people over 17. A similar scheme applies in Western Australia.

In Victoria, Third Party Personal insurance from the Transport Accident Commission is similarly included, through a levy, in the vehicle registration fee.

In New South Wales, Compulsory Third Party Insurance (commonly known as CTP Insurance) is a mandatory requirement and each individual car must be insured or the vehicle will not be considered legal. Therefore, a motorist cannot drive the vehicle until it is insured. A 'Green Slip,'[2] another name by which CTP Insurance is commonly known due to the colour of the pages which the form is printed on, must be obtained through one of the five licenced insurers in New South Wales. Suncorp and Allianz both hold two licences to issue CTP Greenslips – Suncorp under the GIO and AAMI licences and Allianz under the Allianz and CIC/Allianz licences. The remaining three licences to issue CTP Greenslips are held by QBE, Zurich and IAL – NRMA. APIA now also supplies CTP but is only for over 50's who are no longer working full-time. A similar scheme applies in the Australian Capital Territory.

In Queensland, CTP is a mandatory part of registration for a vehicle. There is choice of insurer but price is government controlled in a tight band.

These state based third party insurance schemes usually cover only personal injury liability. Comprehensive vehicle insurance is sold separately to cover property damage and cover can be for events such as fire, theft, collision and other property damage.

CTP covers only personal injury liability

Third Party Insurance only covers damage that you are responsible for to someone else's property or vehicle .

Third Party Fire and Theft Insurance covers damage that you are responsible for to someone else's property or vehicle & It will cover your vehicle in the event of a fire or theft.

Comprehensive Insurance covers damage to your vehicle from an accident and any damage that you are responsible for to someone else's property or vehicle.
Canada

Several Canadian provinces (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Quebec) provide a public auto insurance system while in the rest of the country insurance is provided privately. Basic auto insurance is mandatory throughout Canada with each province's government determining which benefits are included as minimum required auto insurance coverage and which benefits are options available for those seeking additional coverage. Accident benefits coverage is mandatory everywhere except for Newfoundland and Labrador. All provinces in Canada have some form of no-fault insurance available to accident victims. The difference from province to province is the extent to which tort or no-fault is emphasized. International drivers entering Canada are permitted to drive any vehicle their licence allows for the 3-month period for which they are allowed to use their international licence. International laws provide visitors to the country with an International Insurance Bond (IIB) until this 3-month period is over in which the international assailant must provide themselves with Canadian Insurance. The IIB is reinstated every time the international assailant enters the country. Damage to the driver's own vehicle is optional – one notable exception to this is in Saskatchewan, where SGI provides collision coverage (less than a $1000 deductible, such as a collision damage waiver) as part of its basic insurance policy. In Saskatchewan, residents have the option to have their auto insurance through a tort system but less than 0.5% of the population have taken this option.[3]
Germany

Since 1939, it has been compulsory to have third party personal insurance before keeping a motor vehicle in all federal states of Germany. Besides, every vehicle owner is free to take out a comprehensive insurance policy. All types of car insurances are provided by several private insurers. The amount of insurance contribution is determined by several criteria, like the region, the type of car or the personal way of driving.[4]

The minimum coverage defined by Germany law for car liability insurance / third party personal insurance is:
7.5 Million Euro for bodily injury (damage to people), 1 Million Euro for property damage and 50,000 Euro for financial/fortune loss which is in no direct or indirect coherence with bodily injury or property damage. Indeed Insurance Companies usually offer all-in/combined single limit insurances of 50 Million Euro or 100 Million Euro (about 141 Million Dollar) for bodily injury, property damage and other financial/fortune loss (usually with a bodily injury coverage limitation of 8 to 15 Million Euro for EACH bodily injured person).
Hungary

Third-party vehicle insurance is mandatory for all vehicles in Hungary. No exemption is possible by money deposit. The premium covers all damage up to HUF 500M (about €1.8M) per accident without deductible. The coverage is extended to HUF 1,250M (about €4.5M) in case of personal injuries. Vehicle insurance policies from all EU-countries and some non-EU countries are valid in Hungary based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. Visitors with vehicle insurance not covered by such agreements are required to buy a monthly, renewable policy at the border.[5]
Indonesia

Third-party vehicle Insurance is a mandatory requirement in Indonesia and each individual car and motorcycle must be insured or the vehicle will not be considered legal. Therefore, a motorist cannot drive the vehicle until it is insured. Third Party vehicle insurance is included through a levy in the vehicle registration fee which is paid to government institution that known as "Samsat". Third-Party Vehicle Insurance is regulated under Act No. 34 Year 1964 Re: Road Traffic Accident Fund and merely covers Bodily injury, and managed by a SOE named PT. Jasa Raharja (Persero).[6]
India
A Sample Vehicle Insurance Certificate in India

Auto Insurance in India deals with the insurance covers for the loss or damage caused to the automobile or its parts due to natural and man-made calamities. It provides accident cover for individual owners of the vehicle while driving and also for passengers and third party legal liability. There are certain general insurance companies who also offer online insurance service for the vehicle.

Auto Insurance in India is a compulsory requirement for all new vehicles used whether for commercial or personal use. The insurance companies have tie-ups with leading automobile manufacturers. They offer their customers instant auto quotes. Auto premium is determined by a number of factors and the amount of premium increases with the rise in the price of the vehicle. The claims of the Auto Insurance in India can be accidental, theft claims or third party claims. Certain documents are required for claiming Auto Insurance in India, like duly signed claim form, RC copy of the vehicle, Driving license copy, FIR copy, Original estimate and policy copy.

There are different types of Auto Insurance in India :

Private Car Insurance – In the Auto Insurance in India, Private Car Insurance is the fastest growing sector as it is compulsory for all the new cars. The amount of premium depends on the make and value of the car, state where the car is registered and the year of manufacture.

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