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CLARK, N.R. GLOSSARY OF TEXTILE TERMINOLOGY
 

Please cite as Clark, N.R. 1993. Glossary of Textile Terminology. In The Estuqui?a Textile Tradition. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington University. pp. 958-1115.

INTRODUCTION
This is a preliminary working glossary begun in order to sort through the rich but confusing and often contradictory terminology used in reference to Andean textiles. Inclusion of verbatim terms and definitions from the literature does not imply accepted usage, but rather is for discussion purposes. Although inconsistent and far from complete, I hope this glossary will be of use to others as we struggle to understand the complexity of these textiles and to communicate our knowledge more accurately. Debate and additions are invited. Direct any comments to Dr. Niki R. Clark.

NOTES ON TERMS, SOURCES, ETC.
Most of the non-English terms are identified as Quechua (Q), Aymara (A), or Spanish (S). Orthography is extremely variable in the literature and I have attempted to note all spellings encountered, in order to lessen confusion on this front. Sources are many and diverse. Those referenced repeatedly are abbreviated: A&T=Adelson and Tracht 1983, APR=Ann P. Rowe, B=Bertonio [1612], B-A&T=Bertonio in Adelson and Tracht 1983, B-G=Bertonio in Gisbert et al. 1987, B&M=Bird and Mendizábal 1986, Dic-C= University of Chicago Spanish Dictionary (2nd ed. 1972), Dic-Cs=Cassell's (1959), Dic-L=Diccionario Larousse Usual (1974), Dic-R=Random House (1987), Dic-V=Vox New College Spanish-English Dictionary (1987), DLB=David L. Browman, E=Emery 1966, FO=Jorge A. Flores Ochoa, G=Gisbert et al. 1987, GH=Gonçález Holguíen 1952 [1608], GPA=Guamán Poma de Ayala 1980 [1615], JdlE= Jiménez de la Espada 1923, JVM=John V. Murra, RA=Adorno 1987, RC=Rosa Choque, RF= Rosa Fung, S-P=Silverman-Proust 1988, and Y&M=Yacovleff and Muelle 1934a. Personal communications are indicated by "pc". Treated as separate letters and listed alphabetically are: "ch" and "ll".


aajachaña (A): el palo que meten dentro de la urdimbre, para que no se enmarañe (B-G:82); see sword, lanzadera
aakha (A): que sirve para poner bien la tela (B-G:83); un palo rollizo y de la misma longitud que los del telar, para abrir la urdimbre y dejar paso a la lanzadera (JdlE:906)
abasca: see ahuasca
abertura de camiseta (S): vncupcuncan (Q) (GH:378)
abertura de ropa para meter la mano (S): maquihayhuarccuna, o hayhuaycuna (Q) (GH:378)
abigarrado (S): variegated
abrigar (S): to cover, wrap, warm (protect from the cold)
-abrigarse con la ropa (S): ppintuy cucuni, o pachacta huñuycu cuni (Q) (GH:287)
---[vestido] para tener abajo y abrigarse (S): llascoña isi (B-G:92)
abrigo, abriga (S): protection against the cold, keeping warm, as in warm clothing
acashuara (Q): pañales interiores de niño (GH:614)
acanalado (S): channeled, grooved, flutes, pleated?
accessory fabric: tejido accesorio (S)
accessory stitch: punto accesorio (S)
acnopu (Q): see ñañaca, acnopu ñañaca
acsu, aksu, ak'su, agsu, ajsu, acxo (Q): acsu: la saya de india (GH:17); aksu: rectangular, two-piece cloth which women wore over a dress, wrapped around the body, with the top two corners pinned at the chest, & cinched at the waist by a belt; during Inca times 'aksu' referred to the woman's dress (A&T 1983:150); "vestimenta prehispánica tanto de las nativas de los antiguos señorios aymaras como de las quechuas; era una pieza rectangular, formada por dos piezas o kallus cosidas por el centro. Con esta prenda se envolvían de un costado a otro, sujetándose en los hombros con topos o tupus: en la cintura se ceñían con una faja o chumpi, de manera que cubría el cuerpo hasta los tobillos. Los motivos ... se tejían en el borde inferior a manera de cenefa. Los acsus podían tener colores que tipifican a cada etnía... Fue una prenda que sobrevivió a lo largo de cuatro siglos, pese a la prohibición de su uso por las autoridades españolas a fines del siglo XVIII." (Money 1983:209); a rectangular cloth of two cloths seamed, with elaborate asymmetrical warp-patterned & plain stripes & bands at lateral sides, worn with warp horizontal, as an ornamental overskirt or panel, sometimes pinned over one shoulder & belted
to form pouch in front for carrying things (A&T:102ff); ajsu (Q): overskirt now worn in Bolivia & Taquili, Peru, originally a wrapped dress & the woman's basic garment, when tailored blouses & skirts were introduced by Spanish, ajsu became an overdress, overskirt or apron, similar to Spanish delantera (forepart) worn with 16th century skirts, the ajsu is often worn over a wool dress (almilla), & fastened around the waist with a belt or sash (chumpi or w'aka) (Femenias 1989:11); ak'su (Q): contemp. women's black wrap skirt or overdress w/pallay border worn over long black bayeta dress, doesn't need to wrap around completely (anymore), often simply folded over belt & hung down in back like decorative tail, in cool weather is fastened over one or both shoulders (ethngr. - Chuquisaca - Meisch 1977:343, 351); aqsu (Q): skirt woven in 2 equal pieces, seamed together in center, with 12-15 lines of blended color in bands at hem and waist (ethngr. - Paratía - FO 1979:52); "Aksus are not symmetrical as are llijllas & awayos, but instead... have two different halves. They are worn folded with the warp horizontal." (A. Fisher in Schevill 1986:119, #409); see urcu, anaka, haxo, pheque, harphi, saya
-acsullicuni (Q): vestirse la saya (GH:17)
-aksullicuni (Q): vestirse la yndia la manta de abajo (S) (GH:691)
-acsullichini (Q): vestirla, o hazerla vestir (GH:17)
---iñaca acsu, o yñacaslliclla (Q): vestido de muger galan pintado de lauores (GH:368)
---luto ak'su (Q): overskirt in mourning colors (predom. black) (ethngr. - Tarabuco - Meisch 1985:4)
---medio acsu: "cubrefalda o pollera tejida en telar" (G:59)
---la falda del capirote [acsu?] que estas indias lupacas suelen redoblar hacia arriba, y cualquier cosa que se redobla: llintta (A-Lupaqa)
acxo (Q): see acsu
achanccaray (?): plant (Begonia veiichii, Cuzco) used for red dye (Mamani Q. in G:54); see rojo
achiote (S) or achote (Campa): plant (Bixa orellana); red paint or dye made from seeds (Girault in G:53); also called "bixa"; achote from Weiner (1880:788); see rojo
achira (?): plant (Canna edulis), seeds used in red dye (Girault in G:53); see rojo
achucha (Q): ?; pallay motif (ethngr.- Calcha, Bolivia - Medlin 1989:62)

achuqalla (Q): pouch, (long & narrow, fringed, very decorated ex. #299 in Schevill 86:103, Pl.3), "Pouches of this shape, although often referred to as flute pouches, are used to carry any small objects such as coins. The item is put in the bottom, & the top of the bag rolled over several times & tied with a cord (APR, pc 1985). The name 'achuqalla' is also used for a ferret that lives in the walls & roofs of houses throughout the Cuzco area. It probably refers to the long, thin shape, but the fuzzy edges are also reminiscent of the animal. The animal is associated with luck (both good & bad) & there is a belief that money will multiply within the bag. It is not a costume piece. A visual onomatopoeia." (E. Franquemont 86:103)
aderezo (S): dressing, adornment
adornment: aderezo (S), huallpapu churapu (Q) (GH:174); huanthura; see lauraque, pancara, huayta, piña; see also armament
afeite (S): cosmetics, paint, rouge, make-up
afeitar (S): to shave; to beautify, put cosmetics on (Dic-V:808); see llimppicuni
afelpado(a) (S): plushy, velvety, furry
afelpar (S): to weave as plush or velvet
agave: see Fourcroya
aguac: see ahuac
aguasca: see ahuasca
aguja (S): needle for sewing; see alesna, almarada, ciracuna (Q), naveta, yawri (A); also tupu, phichaca, phicchi
-aguja de espina (S): ciracuna (Q): la aguja o alesna o almarada, o espina de coser, o instrumentos de sastre (GH:84); "made of a spine (thorn) & as long as half a 'geme' (5.5 in.), as thick as one of our darning needles, perforated at one end & very pointed" (Cobo in Bandelier 1910:77)
--agujero (S): juscu (Q); hocco (A); (Weiner 1880:785)
---enhilar la aguja (S): caytunchani (Q) (GH:505)
---long needle: yawri (A)
---quealla (A): una espina grande y gruesa (sin agujero B-G:91) que sirve de aguja, y de prender el manto en lugar de phicchi, ver phichaca (B-G:91)
ahano (A): media vuelta de lo que uno teja (S), llau (A): vuelta entera de la tela (S) (B-G:82)
-ahanocatha (A): tejer media vuelta (S) (B-G:83)
-ahanochatha, ahonoquilautha (A): tejer media vuelta (S) (B-G:82)
ahua (Q): la vrdiembre, o tela vrdida (GH:17); the warp; awa (Q): backstrap loom (ethngr. - Chupachu, Huánuco - B&M:342)
-ahua (awa) k'aspi (Q): warpbeam (S-P 88:38)
-ahua (awa) watana (Q): braided cord used to tie warpbeam to ground stakes (S-P 1988:38)
ahuacu (Q): vn pece (GH:18)
ahuacuni (Q): para si, o estarse texendo (GH:17); [texer lo] basto (S) (GH:679)
ahuak (Q): el que texe (GH:18)

CLARK, N.R. GLOSSARY OF TEXTILE TERMINOLOGY

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