Miguel de Estete. THE NARRATIVE Of the journey made by El Senior Captain Hernando Pizarro, by order of the Governor, his brother, from the city of Caxamalca to Pachacamac, and thence to Xauxa.
Мигель де Эстете. Доклад о походе Сеньора Капитана Эрнендо Писарро по приказу Губернатора, его брата, из города Кахамалька в Пачакамак, а затем В Хауху.
the report, which was drawn up by Miguel Estete, 9
the inspector, who accompanied him on the journey. This
report is as follows: вЂ”
Of the journey made by El Senior Captain Hernando Pizarro,
by order of the Governor, his brother, from the city of
Caxamalca to Parcama, 1 and thence to Xauxa.
On Wednesday, the day of the Epiphany (which is
vulgarly called the Festival of the three Kings), on the 5th
of January, 1533, the Captain Fernando Pizarro2 set out
from the town of Caxamalca with twenty horse and a few
arquebusiers. On that night he rested at some huts which
were five leagues from the town. Next day he dined at
another town called Ychoca, where he was well received.
They gave him what he required for himself and his people.
8 This should be April.
9 Miguel Estete (or Astete) was the man who pulled the royal llautu
or fringe from the head of Atahuallpa, when he was dragged from his
litter. Astete kept it carefully; and when the Viceroy, Marquis of
Canete, raised Sayri Tupac (son of Manco and grandson of Huayna
Ccapac) to the nominal sovereignty, many years afterwards, Astete pre-
sented him with the llautu of Atahuallpa. Astete settled at Huamanca,
and his descendants now live at Cuzco. They were friends of the ill-
fated Tupac Amaru in 1782, and consistent opponents of Spanish tyranny.
The kindness and hospitality of the good old Senora Astete, and her in-
timate knowledge of Peruvian history, will long be remembered by those
who knew Cuzco twenty years ago.
- lle was accompanied by his brothers Juan and Gonzalo (Herrera).
TREASURE ON THE ROAD.
On the same day he came to pass the night at another
small village called Huancasanga,, subject to the town of
Guamachuco. Next morning he reached the town of Gua-
machuco, which is large, and is situated in a valley sur-
rounded by mountains. It has a beautiful view and good
lodgings. The Lord of the place is called Guamanchoro,
by whom the Captain and his companions were well re-
ceived. Here arrived a brother of Atabalipa, who was
hurrying the gold up from Cuzco, 3 and the Captain learnt
from him that the Captain Chilicuchima was twenty days'
journey off, and that he was bringing the treasure that
Atabalipa had sent for. When he found that the treasure
was so far off, the Captain sent a messenger to the
Governor, to ask him what should be done, adding that he
would not advance until he received further orders. In
this town some Indians reported that Chilicuchima was far
off; and some principal men, having been bribed, stated
that Chilicuchima was only seven leagues distant, in the
town of Andamarca, with 20, 000 men of war, and that they
were coming to kill the Christians and to liberate their
Lord. The chief who said this confessed that he had dined
with him on the previous day. A companion of this chief,
who was taken aside, made the same statement. The Cap-
tain, therefore, resolved to go in search of Chilicuchima,
and, having mustered his men, he commenced the march.
He passed that night at a small village, subject to Guama-
3 Garcilasso says that, as Hernando Pizarro and his party were march-
ing along a mountain side, they saw a golden line on the opposite side
shining like the sun. It turned out to be a long train of Indians who
had set down the golden vases they were bringing from Cuzco in rows,
to rest; they were in charge of a brother of Atahuallpa, named Quillis-
cacha. This is the Yllescas of the Spanish writers.
The above story was told to Garcilasso by several people in Peru, and
by Don Gabriel Pizarro in Spain, who had it from Don Juan Pizarro de
Orellana, one of those who accompanied Hernando Pizarro to Pachaca-
H. PIZARRO RESOLVES TO MARCH TO PACHACAMAC.
chuco, called Tambo; and there he received the same in-
formation as had been given him before.' In this village he
had a good watch kept all night, arid next morning he
continued his journey with much circumspection. Before
noon he reached the town of Andamarca, but he did not
find the Captain, nor any news of him, beyond what had
first been stated by the brother of Atabaliba, that he was
in a town called Xauxa, with much gold, and that he was
on his way. In this town of Andamarca he received the
reply of the Governor, which was that Chilicuchima and
the gold were far off, that he had the bishop of the mosque
of Pachacama in his power, and that, as to the great
wealth of gold in the mosque, the Captain should make
inquiries respecting the road, and if it seemed good to him
to go there, he might go j as those who had gone to Cuzco
would return in the meanwhile. The Captain ascertained
the distance and the nature of the road to the mosque; and,
although his companions were badly shod,4 and otherwise
indifferently furnished for so long a march ; he considered
that he would be doing good service in going to collect
that gold, which the Indians would not be able to bring
away ; and that it was desirable to examine that land, and
to ascertain whether it was suitable for Christian settle-
ments. Although he had information that there were many
rivers, and bridges of network, and long marches, and
difficult passes, he yet resolved to go, and he took with him
certain chiefs who knew the country.
He commenced his journey on the 14th of January, and
on the same day he crossed some difficult passes, and two
rivers, passing the night at a village called Totopamba,
4 Herrage. The word would properly apply only to horses. The
Italian translation of Gaztelu renders it as in the text. Ternaux Corn-
pans, however, uses the word arms instead of shoes. I suspect that Xeres
really intended to say that both men and horses wore badly off for shoes,
and that he used the word for horse shoes to include all, instead of using
which is on a steep declivity.5 The Indians received him
well and gave him good food, and all he required for the
night, and men to carry his baggage. Next day he left
this village, and reached another called Corongo, where he
passed the night. Half way there was a great pass of
snow, and all the way there were many flocks with their
shepherds, who have their houses in the mountains, as in
Spain. In this village they were given food, and all they
required, and Indians to carry the loads. This village is
subject to Guamachuco. Next day they started and came
to another small village called Piga, where they passed the
night. They found no inhabitants, as they had run away
from fear. This was a very severe march, for they had to
descend a flight of steps cut out of the stone, which was
very dangerous for the horses. Next day, at dinner time,
they reach a large village in a valley, and a very rapid river
flowed across the road. It was spanned by two bridges
close together, made of network in the following manner.
They build a foundation near the water, and raise it to a
great height; and from one side of the river to the other
there are cables made of reeds like osiers, but as thick as
a man's thigh, and they are fastened to great stones, From
one cable to the other is the width of a cart. Smaller cords
are interwoven between the cables, and great stones are
fastened beneath, to steady them. By one of these bridges
the common people cross over, and a porter is stationed
there to receive transit dues; while the Lords and Captains
use the other, which is always closed, but they opened it
for the Captain and his followers, and the horses crossed
over very well.
The Captain rested in this village for two days, because
both men and horses were fatigued by the bad road. The
Christians were very well received, and were supplied with
6 On this day the party crossed from the Marafion to the coast water-
MARCH UP THE VALLEY OF HUARAS.
food and all that they required. The Lord of this village
was called Pumapaccha. They departed from it and came
to a small village, where they were given all they wanted,
and near it they crossed another bridge of network, like
the former one. They passed the night two leagues further
on, at another village, where the people came out to receive
them as friends and gave food to the Christians, and
Indians to carry their loads. This day's march was through
a valley covered with maize, with villages on either side of
the road. The next day was Sunday. They started in the
morning, and came to a village where the Captain and his
companions were well received. At night they reached
another village, where the people offered sheep and chicha
and all other necessaries. All this land has abundant
supplies of maize and many flocks; and, as the Christians
marched along the road, they saw the sheep crossing it.
Next day, at dinner time, the Captain reached a great town
called Huaras,6 the Lord of which was called Pumacapllai.
He and his people supplied the Christians with provisions,
and with Indians to carry the loads. This town is in a
plain, and a river flows near it. Other villages were in
sight, with flocks and maize fields. They had two hundred
head of sheep in a yard, merely to supply the wants of the
Captain and his men. The Captain departed in the after-
noon, and stopped for the night at another village called
Sucaracoai, where he was well received. The Lord of this
village was named Marcocana. Here the Captain rested
for one day, because both men and horses were tired. A
strict watch was kept because the village was large, and
Chilicuchima was near with 55,000 men. Next day they
departed from this village, and, after marching through a
valley, where there was much tilled land and many flocks,
stopped for the night at a distance of two leagues, in a
6 Capital of the modern Department of Ancachs, in the valley of the
MARCH TO THE COAST.
small village called Pachicoto. Here the Captain left the
royal road which leads to Cuzco, and took that of the coast
valley. Next day he stopped for the night at a place called
Marcara, the chief of which was named Corcara. Here
there are pastures, and at a certain time of the year they
bring the flocks to browse, as they do in Castille and
Estremadura. From this village the rivers flow to the sea,
which makes the road very difficult, for all the country in-
land is very cold, and with much water and snow. The
coast is very hot, and there is very little rain. The rain is
not sufficient for the crops, but the waters that flow from
the mountains irrigate the land, which yields abundant
supplies of provisions and fruits.
Next day they departed from this village, and marching
along the banks of a river, following its downward course
through fields and fruit gardens, they stopped for the night
at a village called Guaracanga. Next day they stopped at
a large place near the sea called Parpunga. It has a strong
house with seven encircling walls painted in many devices
both inside and outside, with portals well-built like those of
Spain, and two tigers at the principal doorway.7 The in-
habitants were filled with fear at the sight of a people never
before seen, and of the horses, which astonished them still
more. The Captain spoke to them through the interpreter
who accompanied him, to re-assure them, and they then did
In this village they came upon another broader road,
made by the people of the coast, aud bounded by walls on
either side. The Captain rested for two days in this town
7 I think this Parpunga is the Parmonga of Cieza de Leon (p. 247)
and the Parmunca of Garcilasso (ii, p. 195). Rivero spells it Para-
manca (p. 259). Cieza de Leon described the fortress, the ruins of
which are also mentioned by Proctor (Travels, p. 175). Both Cieza de
Leon and Proctor mention the paintings on the walls, alluded to in the
text, by Astete. See also Antignedades Peruanas, p. 28S.
MARCH AT-ONG THE COAST.
of Parpunga to refresh his people and get them re-shod.
On starting again, they crossed a river in balsas, the horses
swimming. He passed the night at a village called Gua-
mamayo,8 which is in a ravine near the sea. Near it they
had to cross another river with great difficulty by swimming,
for it was much swollen, and flowing rapidly. They have
no bridges across these coast rivers, because they become
very wide when they are swollen. The lord of this village
and his people did good service in assisting to carry the
baggage across, and they gave very good food to the
Christians, and men to carry their loads. The Captain
and his followers set out from this village on the 9th day of
January,9 and passed the night in another village subject to
Guamamayo, and three leagues from it by the road. The
greater part was inhabited, and there were tilled fields,
trees, fruit gardens, and a clean walled road. Next day
the Captain stopped at a very large village near the sea,
called Huara.1 This town is well situated, and contains
large edifices for lodging. The Christians were well served
by the chiefs and the Indians, who supplied them with what
they required for the day. On the following day the
Captain stopped at a village called Llachu, to which he
gave the name of " the town of the partridges," because
there were many partridges kept in cages in all the houses.2
The Indians of this village were friendly and did good
service. The chief of this village did not make his appearance.
8 This is the Huaman-mayu, or "Falcon river", mentioned by Cieza
de Leon. It is now called La Barranca. The breadth of the channel
is about a quarter of a mile, and during the rains it is completely full,
and often impassable. See also Garcilasso, ii, p. 185.
9 This date must be either a misprint or a mistake of Astete. They
left Cassa-marca on Wednesday, January 5th. On the 9th they were
at Andamarca. By following their itinerary, it will be found that the
date in the text should be January 30th.
1 The modern town and river of Huara. The port, at the mouth of
the river, is Huacho. 2 This may be Chancay.
ARRIVAL AT PACFTACAMAC
The Captain started rather early next morning, because he was
informed that the march would be long, and he reached a large
village called Suculacumbi at dinner time, a distance of five
leagues. The Lord of the village and his Indians were
friendly, and supplied all the food that was necessary for
that day. At the hour of vespers they set out from this
village, in order to reach the town where the mosque is on
the next day. They crossed a great river by a ford,3 and
marched along a road with a wall on each side, passing the
night at a place belonging to the town, and at a distance of
a league and a half from it.4
The next day was Sunday, the 30th of January.5 The
Captain departed from this village, and, without leaving
groves and villages,6 he reached Pachacama, which is the
town where the mosque stands. Halfway there is another
village, where the Captain dined.7 The Lord of Pachacama
and the principal men came out to receive the Captain and
the Christians, and showed a desire to be friends with the
Spaniards. The Captain went to lodge, with his followers,
in some large chambers in one part of the town.8 He said
that he had come, by order of the Governor, for the gold of
that mosque, and that they were to collect it and deliver it
3 The river Kimac. They must have passed over the site of the future
city of Lima.
4 Marching by the upper road, at the foot of the mountains, they
came to the village of Pachacamae, some miles up the valley, with its
groves of chirimoyas and suchis (Plumieria). A charming spot.
5 This date should be Sunday, February 5th. January 30th was on
6 The valley of Lurin, on the left bank of the stream. The ruined
city and temple are in the desert, on the right bank.
7 Not now existing. There is a hacienda, on an isolated rock over-
looking the rich vale of Lurin, called Bella Vista, half-way between the
village of Pachacamae and the ruins of the city and temple.
8 These are courts rather than chambers, of great extent, with smaller
chambers and recesses opening upon them, all built of immense adobes.
They are still standing. в–
THE IDOL AT PACHACAMAC.
up, or to convey it to where the Governor then was. All
the principal men of the town and the attendants of the
Idol assembled and replied that they would give it, but
they continued to dissimulate and make excuses. At last
they brought a very little, and said that they had no more.
The Captain dissimulated also, and said that he wished to
go and see the Idol they had, and he went. It was in a
good house, well painted, in a very dark chamber with a
close fetid smell. Here there was a very dirty Idol made of
wood, and they say that this is their God who created them
and sustains them, and gives them their food. At the foot
of the Idol there were some offerings of gold, and it was
held in such veneration that only the attendants and
servants, who, as they say, were appointed by it, were
allowed to officiate before it. No other person might enter,
nor is any other considered worthy even to touch the walls
of the house. The Captain ascertained that the Devil
frequented this Idol, and spoke with his servants, saying
diabolical things, which were spread over all the land.
They look upon him as God, and offer many sacrifices to
him. They come to this Devil, from distances of three hun-
dred leagues, with gold and silver and cloth. Those that
arrive, go to the porter and beg that their gift may be ac-
cepted. He enters and speaks with the Idol, who says that he
consents. Before any of his ministers may enter to minister
to him, they say that they must fast for many days and refrain
from women. In all the streets of this town, and at its prin-
cipal gates, and round this house, there are many wooden
Idols, which they worship as imitations of their Devil. It was
ascertained from many lords of this land that, from the town
of Catamez,9 which is at the commencement of this govern-
ment, all the people of this coast serve this mosque with
gold and silver, and offer a certain tribute every year.
There were houses and superintendents to receive the
y Atacamcs, on the coast of Ecuador.
THE TOWN OF PACHACAMAC.
tribute, where they fouud some gold, and there were signs
that much more had been taken away. Many Indians de-
posed that the gold was removed by order of the Devil. I
omit many things that might be said touching the worship
of this Idol, to avoid prolixity. But it is believed among
the Indians that this Idol is their God, that he can destroy
them if they offend him and do not serve him well, and that
all the things in the world are in his hands. The people
were so shocked and terrified at the Captain having merely
gone in to see it, that they thought the Idol would destroy
all the Christians. But the Spaniards gave the Indians to
understand that they were in a great error, and that he who
spoke from the inside of the Idol was the Devil, who de-
ceived them. They were told that from henceforth they
must not believe him, nor do what he advised them; and
were taught other things touching their idolatries.
The Captain ordered the vault, in which the Idol was, to
be pulled down, and the Idol to be broken before all the
people. He then told them many things touching our
Holy Catholic Faith, and he taught them the sign of the
cross в–єJ4, that they might be able to defend themselves
against the Devil. This town of Pachacama is very large.
Adjoining the mosque there is a house of the Sun, well
built, and situated on a hill, with five surrounding walls.
There are houses with terrace roofs as in Spain. The town
appears to be old, judging from the ruined houses it con-
tains; and the greater part of the outer wall has fallen.
The name of the principal lord is Taurichumbi. The neigh-
bouring lords came to the town to see the Captain, with
presents of the products of their land, and with gold and
silver. They wondered greatly that the Captain should
have dared to enter where the Idol was, and to see it
The Lord of Malaque,1 named Lincoto, came to offer
1 Mala, a coast valley to the south of Pachacamae.
NEWS OF CHALCUCHIMA.
obedience to his Majesty, and brought a present of gold and
silver. The Lord of Poax, named Alincai, did the same.
The Lord of Gualco,2 named Guarilli, also brought gold and
silver. The Lord of Chincha,3 with ten of his chief men,
came with a present of gold and silver. This Lord said
that his name was Tamviambea. The Lord of Guaxcha-
paicho, and the Lord of Colixa named Aci, the Lord of
Sallicaimarca named Yspilo, and other principal Lords of
the surrounding country, brought in presents of gold and
silver, which, joined to that taken out of the mosque, made
ninety thousand pesos.* The Captain talked very kindly to
all these Chiefs, rejoicing at their coming. He commanded
them, in the name of his Majesty, always to behave in the
same way, and dismissed them, well satisfied.
In this town of Pachacama, the Captain Hernando Pizarro
received news that Chilicuchima,5 a Captain of Atabaliba,
was at a distance of four days' journey with a large force,
and with the gold; and that he would not march onwards,
but declared that he was ready to fight the Christians.
The Captain sent a messenger to him, urging him to con-
tinue his march with the gold, as his master was in prison ;
telling him that he was long behind his time, and that the
Governor was angry at his delay, as he had been expected
for many days. He sent many other messages, urging him
to come, as he was unable to go and meet him where he
then was, because the road was bad for the horses; and
arranging that the one who reached a certain village on the
road first should wait there for the other. Chilicuchima
2 Huarcu. The modern name of this rich valley is Caiiete. It con-
tains several flourishing sugar estates.
8 The next valley, south of Caiiete.
* It was said, according to Herrera, that the Priests concealed four
hundred loads of gold and silver, and that Hernando Pizarro only col-
lected nine hundred castelianos. Dec. v, lib. ii, cap. S, p. 54.
MARCH TO CAXATAMBO.
sent a message in reply, saying that he would do what the
Captain desired, and that he had no other intention.
The Captain then set out from the town of Pachacama,
to form a junction with Chilicuchima. He marched by the
same road as he had come, until he reached Huara,
which is on the coast near the sea. Then he left the coast
and marched into the interior. The Captain Hernando
Pizarro left the town of Huara on the 3rd of March, and
advanced along a road on the bank of a river during the
whole day, where there were many groves of trees. He
passed the night at a village on the banks of the river.
The village where the Captain slept belongs to the town of
Huara, and is called Guaranga. Next day the Captain left
this village, and reached another called Aillon, near the
mountains. It is subject to a larger place called Aratambo,
which is rich in flocks and maize crops.
On the 5th of March he passed the night at a village be-
longing to Caxatambo, called Chincha. On the road they
had to cross a pass where the snow was very deep, reaching
to the girths of the horses. This village has large flocks.
The Captain remained there for two days. On Saturday,
the 7th of March, he set out, and passed the night at
Caxatambo. This is a large town, situated in a deep valley,
where there are many flocks, and all along the road there
were sheepfolds. The chief of this village is called Sachao,
and he did good service to the Spaniards. At this town
the Captain changed his route, in order to take the broad
road by which Chilicuchima would come, which entailed a
flank march of three days. Here the Captain made inquiries
whether Chilicuchima had passed, in order to form a junc-
tion. All the Indians said that he had passed with the
gold; but it afterwards appeared that they had been told to
say this, that the Captain might be induced to march on-
wards ; while he remained in Xauxa, with no intention of
moving. The Captain, however, considered that these
MARCH TO BOMBON.
Indians seldom spoke the truth; so he determined, al-
though it entailed great trouble and danger, to march to
the royal road by which Chilicuchima must go, in order to
ascertain whether he had already passed. If he had not
gone on, the Captain resolved to seek him out, wherever he
might be, as well to secure the gold as to disperse his
The Captain, with his followers, took the way leading to
a large village called Pombo, which is on the royal road.
On Monday, the 9th of March, they slept at a village,
situated amongst mountains, called Diu. The chief of this
village was friendly, and gave the Christians all they re-
quired for the night. The Governor started early next
morning, and passed the following night in a small village
of shepherds, near a lake of sweet water, about three
leagues in circuit;6 on a plain where there were large
flocks of sheep with very fine wool. Next day, which
was Wednesday, in the morning, the Captain and his com-
panions reached the village of Pombo,7 and the Lords of
Pombo came out to meet him, with some.Captains of Ata-
baliba who were there with troops. Here the Captain
found one hundred and fifty arrobas of gold, which Chili-
cuchima had sent, while he himself remained with his forces
in Xauxa. When the Captain had taken up his quarters,
he asked the Captains how it was that Chilicuchima had
sent that gold, and had not come himself according to
orders. They answered that it was because he was in great
fear of the Christians, and also because he was waiting for
more gold that was coming from Cuzco, as he did not like
to come himself with so little.
The Captain Hernando Pizarro' sent a messenger from
this village to Chilicuchima, to let him know that as he had
a This seems to have been the lake of Lauricocha, the source of the
7 Pumpu of Garcilasso de la Vega, the modern Bombon.
MARCH TO TARMA.
not come, he would go to him, and that he need have no
fear. The Captain rested for one day in that village to
refresh the horses, in case it should be necessary to fight.
On Friday, the 14th of March, the Captain set out from the
village of Pombo, with his horse and foot, to go to Xauxa.
That night was passed in a village called Xacamalca, six
leagues from Pombo, over level ground. On this plain
there is a lake of sweet water which commences near this
village, and has a circuit of eight or ten leagues.8 The lake
has villages all round its shores, and large flocks, while in
its waters are birds and small fish.9 The father of Atabaliba
had many balsas in this lake, which were brought from
Tumbez for his amusement. A river flows out of the lake
to the village of Pombo, and a branch of it is very deep and
rapid. They can float by it to a bridge near the village;
and those who pass pay dues as in Spain. All along the
banks of this river there are large flocks, and the name of
Guadiana was given to it, because of the resemblance to
that river in Spain.
On Saturday, the 15th of the month, the Captain left the
village of Xacamalca, and after marching three leagues he
came to a house, where he and his men were well supplied
with food. He passed that night three leagues further on,
at a town called Tarma, which is on the slope of a mountain.
Here he was lodged in a painted house, which contained
good rooms. The chief of this place behaved well, both
in supplying food and men to carry loads. On Sunday
morning the Captain set out rather early from this village,
8 The lake of Bornbon or Chinchay-cocha. It is thirty-six miles long,
by six broad, and 12,940 feet above the sea. The plain or basin in
which it lies is forty-five miles long. The river of Xauxa flows out of
9 A great number of large and beautiful water fowl, including the
scarlet flamingo, and several varieties of snipe, frequent the banks of
the lake, which arc overgrown with reeds. See Von Tschudi and
PROCEEDINGS AT XAUXA.
having a long march before him. He caused his men to
advance in order of battle, because he suspected some
treachery, not having received any answer from Chili-
cuchima. At the hour of vespers he reached a village called
Yanaimalca, where the people came out to him. Here he
received news that Chilicuchima was not in Xauxa, which
increased his suspicions. The Captain was now only a
league from Xauxa, so after dinner he again marched on-
wards, and, having come in sight of the town, he saw many
bodies of men from a hill; but he could not make out
whether they were soldiers or townspeople who had as-
sembled for some festival.
As soon as the Captain arrived, and before he dismounted,
he asked for Chilicuchima, and the people answered that he
was at some other village, and that he would return next
day. He had absented himself on pretence of business
until he might learn from the Indians who came with the
Captain the intentions of the Spaniards ; for he saw that he
had committed a fault in not having kept his promise, and
that the Captain had come eighty leagues in pursuit of him.
These considerations made him think that the Spaniards came
to seize or kill him, and he had absented himself from fear
of them, especially of those who were on horseback. The
Captain had with him a son of the old Cuzco who, when he
heard of the absence of Chilicuchima, said that he wished
to go where he was, and set out in a litter. All that night
the horses were saddled and bridled, and the Lords of the
town were told that no Indian was to appear in the square,
because the horses were angry and would kill them. Next
day that son of the Cuzco returned with Chilicuchima, both
in litters, and numerously attended. On entering the square
they alighted, and, leaving all their servants, they went on
foot, with a few attendants, to the house occupied by the
Captain Hernando Pizarro, for Chilicuchima to see him and
offer his excuses for not having fulfilled his promise, or come
NEGOTIATIONS WITH CHALCUCHIMA.
out to receive him. He said his business had prevented
him from doing more. The Captain asked why he had not
come to meet him, as he had promised. Chilicuchima an-
swered that his master Atabaliba had sent orders to him to
remain where he was. The Captain then said that he felt
no anger against him, but that he must accompany him
back to the Governor, who had his master Atabaliba a
prisoner, and who would keep him until he had given up the
gold that had been demanded. The Captain added that he
knew how much gold there was, and that it must be de-
livered up, but he assured Chilicuchima that, although he
must accompany him back, he would be well treated. Chili-
cuchima replied that his Lord had sent to order him to do
otherwise, and not to go, because that country was lately
conquered, and might again rebel if he left it. Hernando
Pizarro conversed with him for some time, and finally it was
arranged that they should pass the night there, and again
discuss the matter in the morning. The Captain desired to
carry his point by fair means, because he was anxious to
avoid disturbances, lest it should compromise the safety of
three Spaniards who had gone to the city of Cuzco. Next
morning Chilicuchima came to the Captain's lodging and
said that, as he desired him to accompany the Spaniards,
he could not refuse to obey, and that he was ready to go,
leaving another Captain with the troops at Xauxa. On
that day he got together about thirty loads of gold; and
after marching for two days they met thirty or forty loads.
During those days the Spaniards kept a good look out, the
horses being kept saddled night and day; for this Captain
of Atabaliba had so large a force that if he had made a
night attack on the Spaniards he would have done much
The town of Xauxa is very large. It is situated in a
beautiful valley, and enjoys a temperate climate. A very
large river flows near the town. The land is fertile. The
DESCRIPTION OF XAUXA.
town is built like those of Spain, with regular streets, and
many subject villages are in sight. The town and district
are very populous, and the Spaniards saw one hundred
thousand people assemble every day in the principal square.
The market places and streets were also crowded. There
were men whose duty it was to count all these people, and
to know who came in for the service of the troops ; and
other men had to watch and take note of all who entered
the town. Chilicuchima had stewards whose duty it was to
supply provisions, and many carpenters who worked in
wood, and many other men to attend upon his wants and
wait on his person. There were three or four porters in
his house, and both in his household service, and in every-
thing else he imitated his Lord. He was feared throughout
this land, lor he was a brave warrior, and, under orders
from his Uord, he had conquered more than two hundred
leagues of country, and had had many encounters both in
the plains and in the passes, in all of which he had been
victorious, and in none had he been vanquished throughout
all that lau.d.
On Friday, the -20th of March, the Captain Hernando
Pizarro departed from that city of Xauxa to return to Caxa-
malca, accomoanied by Chilicuchima. He marched by the
same road to the village of Pompo, where he stayed for the
day he arrived, and one more. On Wednesday he set out
from this village of Pompo, and marching over plains
covered with flocks, he passed the night at some large build-
ings. On that day it snowed heavily. Next day he came
to a village amongst the mountains called Tambo, which is
near a large and deep river, where there is a bridge. There
is a flight of stone steps to descend to the river, and if the
position was defended, much mischief might be done. The
Captain received good service from the Lord of this village,
and was supplied with all that he and his party required.
They made a great festival out of respect for the Captain
RETURN MAKCH TO CASSA-MARCA.
Hernando Pizarro, and because Chilicuchima accompanied
him. Next day they came to a village called Tomsucancha,
the lord of which, named Tillima, received them well. There
were plenty of Indians fit for service; for, though the vil-
lage was small, many had assembled from the surrounding
country to see the Spaniards. In this village there are small
sheep with very fine wool, like those of Spain. Next day
they reached a village called Guaneso,1 a march of five
leagues, the greater part over a paved road, with channels
of water by the side. They say that the road was paved on
account of the snow, which, at a certain season of the year,
falls over that land. This town of Guaneso is large. It is
situated in a valley, surrounded by steep mountains, the
valley being three leagues in circuit. On the side leading
to Caxamalca there is a long and very steep ascent. The
Captain and his followers were very well received, and
during the two days that they remained, the inhabitants
celebrated several feasts. This town has other surrounding
villages under its jurisdiction. It is a land of many flocks.
On the last day of March the Captain departed from this
town, and reached a bridge over a large river, built of very
stout timber. There were guards stationed there to receive
transit dues, as is their custom. They passed the night at
a distance of four leagues from the town, where Chilicuchima
had caused all necessary preparations to be made. Next
day, being the 1st of April, they reached a village called
Piscomarca. It is on the slope of a very steep mountain.
Its chief is named Parpay. Next day the Captain departed
from this village, and, after a march of three leagues, arrived
at a good village called Huari,2 where there is a large and
deep river, over which there is another bridge. This posi-
tion is very strong, there being deep ravines on either flank.
Chilicuchima said that here he had fought a battle with
the troops of the Cuzco, who guarded the pass, defending
1 Huanuco. 2 In the valley of the Alaraiion.
RETURN MARCH TO CASSA-MARCA.
it for two or three days. When those of Cuzco were de-
feated, and some of their enemies had crossed the river,
they destroyed the bridge, so that Chilicuchima and his
troops swam across, and killed many of the men of Cuzco.
Next day the Captain set out, and, after a march of five
leagues, he passed the night at a village called Guacango.
Next day he reached the large town of Piscobamba,8 which
is on the side of a mountain. The chief is called Tauquame;
and he and his people received the Captain well, and did
good service to his followers. Half-way to this town, at
Huacacamba, there is another deep river with two bridges
of net-work close together, resting on a foundation of stone
rising from the water; like those I have mentioned before.
From one side to the other there are cables of reed, the
size of a man's thigh, and between are woven many stout
cords ; to which large stones are fastened, for the purpose
of steadying the bridge. The horses crossed this bridge
without trouble; but it is a nervous thing to pass over it
for the first time, though there is no danger, as it is very
strong. There are guards at all these bridges, as in Spain.
Next day the Captain departed from Piscobamba, and
reached some buildings, after a march of five leagues. Next
day he came to a village called Agoa, which is subject to
Piscobamba. It is a good village among the mountains, and
is surrounded by fields of maize. The chief and his people
supplied what was required for the night, and next morning
provided porters for the baggage. Next day the Captain
marched for four leagues over a very rugged road, and
passed the night at Conchuco.4 This village is in a hollow.
Half a league before reaching it, there is a wide road cut in
3 See Cieza de Leon, p. 293. He says that Piscobamba is eight leagues
from Huaraz, over very rugged mountains. See also Garcilasso de la
Vega, ii, p. 134.
4 See Cieza de Leon, p. 286. It is the Cunchucu of Garcilasso, ii, p.
ARRIVAL AT CASSA-MARCA.
steps in the rock, and there are many difficult passes, and
places which might easily be defended. Next day they set
out, and reached a place called Andamarca, which is the
point where they had diverged to go to Pachacama. At
this town the two royal roads to Cuzco unite.5 From An-
damarca to Pombo6 there are three leagues over a very
rugged road; and stone steps are cut for the ascents and
descents ; while on the outer side there is a stone wall, to pro-
tect the traveller from the danger of slipping. If any man
fell, he would be dashed to pieces ; and it is an excellent
thing for the horses, as they would fall if there was no
flanking wall. In the middle of the road there is a bridge
of stone and wood, very well built, between two masses of
rock. At one end of the bridge there are well-built lodgings
and a paved court, where, according to the Indians, the
lords of the land had banquets and feasts when they travelled
by that road.
From this place the Captain Hernando Pizarro went by
the same stages as he came, until he reached the city of
Caxamalca, which he entered, with Chilicuchima, on the
25th of May,7 1533. Here a thing was seen that had never
been witnessed before since the Indies were discovered.
When Chilicuchima passed through the gates of the place
where his master was imprisoned, he took a light load from
one of the Indian porters and put it on his back, an example
which was followed by many chiefs who accompanied him.
Thus laden, he and the others entered where their Lord was;
and when Chilicuchima saw him, he raised his hands to the
Sun, and gave thanks that he had been permitted to enjoy
the sight. Then, with much reverence, and weeping, he
5 One leading, by Huaras, to the coast road at Parmunca ; the other
being the sierra road to Cuzco, by Xauxa.
6 The modern Pomabamba.
7 This should be April. At p. 90, March is given as the date. These
are probably misprints.
RETURN OF SPANIARDS FROM CUZCO.
approached his Lord, and kissed his face, hands, and feet.
The other chiefs, his companions, did the same. Atabaliba
maintained a mien so majestic that, though there was not a
man in the kingdom that he loved more than Chilicuchima,
he did not look in his face or take more notice of him than
of the vilest Indians that came into his presence. This
taking up of a load to enter the presence of Atabaliba is a
ceremony which was performed for all the Lords who have
reigned in that land. I, Miguel de Estete, the overseer,
who went on the journey that the Captain Hernando Pizarro
undertook, now give this account of all that happened.
THE FIRST AUTHOR CONTINUES.
The masters of the six ships which were at the port of
San Miguel, being unable to maintain their crews, had re-
quested the Governor to pay and despatch them. The
Governor called a Council for the purpose of making the
necessary arrangements and for reporting what had hap-
pened to his Majesty. It was decided that all the gold
should bo melted down which had been brought to Caxa-
malca by order of Atabaliba, as well as all that might arrive
before the melting was finished. As soon as it was melted
and distributed, the Governor would not be detained any
longer, but would proceed to form a settlement, in obedience
to the orders of his Majesty.
The publication of this resolution and the commencement
of the melting took place on the 3rd of May, 1533. After
ten days one of three Christians who went to the city of
Cuzco arrived. He was the public notary, and he reported
that that city of Cuzco had been taken possession of in the
name of his Majesty. He also gave an account of the road,
DESCRIPTION OP CTJZCO. 95
on which he said there were thirty principal towns, without
counting Cuzco, and many other small villages. He said
that Cuzco was as large as had been reported, and that it is
situated on a hill side near a plain; that the streets were
very regularly arranged and paved, and that in the eight
days that he had been there he had not been able to see
everything. He saw a well-built house entirely plated with
gold, quadrangular, and measuring three hundred and fifty
paces from corner to corner. Of these gold plates they
took down seven hundred, which together weighed
500 pesos. From another house the Indians pulled off a
quantity weighing 200,000 pesos; but, as it was much al-
loyed, having but seven or eight carats the peso, they would
not receive it. Besides these two, they did not see any
other houses plated with gold; but the Indians did not
permit them to see all the city. They judged from what
they did see that it was very rich. They found the Captain
Quizquiz in the city, holding it for Atabaliba with a garrison
of thirty thousand men, because it is threatened by Caribs8
and other tribes who wage war against that city. He re-
ported many other things that there were in Cuzco, and
that it was well ordered, and that a chief was coming with
the other two Spaniards with seven hundred plates of gold
and much silver that was delivered to the chief at Xauxa,
left behind by Chilicuchima. The whole quantity of gold
collected by them was one hundred and seventy-eight loads,
and these loads were in paliqueres,9 each borne by four
Indians. They were bringing little silver, and the gold was
8 The Spaniards had very hazy ideas about the Caribs; they used the
word as a vague term to apply to any Indians in arms, of whom they
knew nothing. The garrison at Cuzco, commanded by Quizquiz, was
no doubt threatened by the defeated, but still faithful, troops of the
9 This is not a Spanish word. Ternaux Compans thinks that the
word means a litter ; perhaps a corruption of the Indian vrord palkee or
palanquin ; which may have come into use through the Portuguese.
DIVISION OF THE SPOILS.
delivered to the Christians by little and little, and slowly,
because it was necessary to employ many Indians, who had
to go from village to village to collect it. He calculated
that the gold which was on the road would arrive at Caxa-
malca in about a month. It actually arrived on the 13th
of June, and consisted of two hundred loads of gold and
twenty-five of silver. The gold appeared to be of more
than one hundred and thirty carats. After the arrival of
this first instalment another sixty loads of less fine gold
came in. The greater part was in plates, like the boards of
a box, and three to four palmos in length. These had been
taken from the walls of the house, and -they had holes in
them, showing that they had been secured by nails. They
completed the founding and partitioning of all this gold and
silver on the day of Santiago, the gold and silver being
weighed by a Romana.1 The account was then taken, all
being reduced to good gold ; and it was found to make a
total of 326,539 pesos of good gold.2 After deducting the
fees of the founder, the Royal fifth amounted to 262,259
pesos of pure gold. Of the silver there were 51,610 marcs,
of which 10,121 marcs of silver formed the Royal fifth.3 All
the rest, after the Royal fifths and the fees of the founder
had been deducted, was divided amongst all the conquerors
who accompanied the Governor. The horsemen each re-
ceived 8,880 pesos of gold and 362 marcs of silver.4 The
foot soldiers each had 4,440 pesos, and 181 marcs of silver,
some more and some less, according as the Governor con-
sidered that each man deserved reward, with reference to
1 A steelyard.
2 The Governor's own share was 200,000 pesos of gold and 50,000 in
silver, besides the gold litter of Atahuallpa.
3 Garcilasso gives the royal fifth at 546,250 pesos of gold and 105,750
pesos of silver.
4 Garcilasso says that the shares of these captains of cavalry was
90,000 pesos of gold and 30,000 of silver. The sixty men had 726,000
pesos of gold and 180,000 in silver.
DIVISION OP THE PLUNDER.
his services, position, and the labours he had gone through.5
A certain quantity of gold, which was set apart by the
Governor before the partition took place, was given to the
citizens of San Miguel, to those who came with the Captain
Diego de Almagro,6 and to all the merchants and sailors
who arrived afterwards. Thus everyone in the country re-
ceived something; so that it might be called a general
melting, as it was general to all.7 One remarkable thing in
5 Four captains of infantry got 90,000 pesos of gold and 30,000 of
silver, and a hundred men got 900,000 pesos of gold and 135,000 of
6 Almagro got 30,000 pesos of gold and 10,000 of silver.
7 The value of the silver was reckoned at twenty per cent, of the gold.
A ducat was worth eleven rials and one maravedi, or 375 maravedis.
100 pesos of gold were equal to 120 of silver, and 120 pesos of silver
were equal to 144 ducats. Therefore, 100 pesos of gold = 144 ducats.
The Governor's share of gold .... 252,000
вЂћ вЂћ silver .... 60,000
Three Captains of Cavalry. Share of gold - - 129,600
вЂћ вЂћ ,, silver - 36,000
Four Captains of Infantry ,, gold - - 129,600
,, ,, ,, silver - 36,000
Sixty horsemen - - ,, gold - - 1,036,800
,, - - вЂћ silver - 129,600
Hundred foot soldiers - вЂћ gold - - 1,296,000
вЂћ вЂћ - вЂћ silver - 162,000
The 240 men of Almagro вЂћ gold - - 259,200
,, вЂћ - вЂћ silver - 72,000
The Captain Almagro - ,, gold - - 43,200
,, вЂћ - ,, silver - 12,000
The Royal Fifth - вЂћ gold - - 786,600
вЂћ вЂћ - вЂћ silver - 126,900
Increase of the refined silver - - - 38,170
Total ransom of Atahuallpa - - 4,605,670
Of this sum 3,933,000 ducats was the value of the gold, and 372,670
ducats the value of the silver. This may be considered equal to
ВЈ3,500,000 of our money. (G. de la Vega, Pt. II, lib. i, cap. 38, p. 51.)
In the division of plunder our author, Francisco de Xeres, as a horse-
this melting was that on one day they melted 80,000 pesos.
Usually the quantity was 50,000 to G0,000 pesos a day.
The melting was done by the Indians, who have among
them good silversmiths and melters, and they worked with
I must not omit to mention the prices which have been
given for provisions and other goods in this country, though
some are so high as to be incredible. Yet I can say with
truth that I saw it, and that I bought some of the things.
A horse was sold for 2,500 pesos, and another for 3,300 pesos.
The ordinary price of horses was 2,500 pesos, and they were
difficult to get at that price. A jar of wine, of three azum-
bres, sold for sixty pesos. I gave forty pesos for two azum-
brcs. A pair of high boots fetched thirty or forty pesos, and
a pair of shoes as much ; a cloak one hundred to one hun-
dred and twenty pesos; a sword forty to fifty; a string of
garlics half a peso. All other things were in proportion.
(A peso is as much as a castellano.) A sheet of paper sold
for ten pesos. I gave twelve pesos for half an ounce of
damaged saffron. Much more might be said of the high
prices at which everything was sold ; and of the little store
that was set hyy gold and silver. If one man owed any-
thing to another, he paid it in a lump of gold, without
weighing the gold, and being quite indifferent whether it
was worth double the amount of the debt or not. Those
who owed money went from house to house, followed by an
Indian laden with gold, and seeking out their creditors to
Having related how the melting and distributing of the
gold and silver were finished, the wealth of the land, and how
little store was set by gold and silver, as well by Spaniards
as Indians, I will now say something of the place which
man, received 362 marcos of silver and 8880 pesos of gold; besides 9i
marcos and 2220 pesos, to be divided between himself and Pedro Saneho
for Secretary's work.
WEALTH OF THE YNCAS.
was subject to the Cuzco, and now belongs to Atabaliba.8
They say that it contained two houses made of gold, and
that the straws with which it was roofed were all made of
gold. With the gold that was brought from Cuzco, there
were some straws made of solid gold, with their spikes, just
as they would grow in the fields. If I was to recount all
the different varieties in the shape of the pieces of gold, my
story would never end. There was a stool of gold that
weighed eight arrobas? There were great fountains with
their pipes, through which water flowed into a reservoir on
the same fountains, where there were birds of different
kinds, and men drawing water from the fountain, all made
of gold. It was also ascertained from Atabaliba and Chili-
cuchima, and many others, that in Xauxa Atabaliba had
sheep and shepherds tending them, all made of gold; and
the sheep and shepherds were large, and of the size that
they are met with in this land. These pieces belonged to
his father, and he promised to give them to the Spaniards.
They relate wonderful things of the wealth of Atabaliba and
Now I must mention a thing which should not be for-
gotten] A chief, who was Lord of Caxamalca, appeared
before the Governor and said to him through the inter-
preters : " I would have you to know that, after Atabaliba
was taken prisoner, he sent to Quito, his native land, and
to all the other provinces, with ^orders to collect troops to
march against you and your followers, and to kill you all;
and all these troops are coming under the command of a
great captain called Lluminabi.1 This army is now very
near to this place. It will come at night and attack the
8 The city of Cuzco.
9 The tiana or throne of the Yncas. It fell to the share of Francisco
Pizarro himself. According to Garcilasso it was worth 25,000 pesos of
gold, (II, lib. i, cap. 38.)
1 Rumi-iiaui, a general of Atahuallpa. The word means "Stone-eyed."
ACCUSATIONS AGAINST ATAHUALLPA.
camp, setting fire in all directions, and the first they will
try to kill will be yourself, and they will deliver Atabaliba
out of his prison. From Quito are coming two hundred
thousand men of war, and thirty thousand Caribs who eat
human flesh ; and from another province called Pacalta, and
from other parts, come a great number of soldiers.'"
When the Governor heard this, he thanked the chief and
did him much honour, and sent for a clerk to put it all down.
Then he made further inquiries, and, having taken the
statement to an uncle of Atabaliba, to some principal chiefs,
and to some women, he found that all that the chief of Caxa-
malca had said was true.
The Governor then spoke to Atabaliba, saying: " What
treason is this that you have prepai'ed for me ? For me
who have treated you with honour, like a brother, and have
trusted in your words \" Then he told him all the informa-
tion he had received. Atabaliba answered, saying : " Are
you laughing at me ? You are always making jokes when
you speak to me. What am I, and all my people, that we
should trouble such valiant men as you are ? Do not talk
such nonsense to me." He said all this without betraying a
sign of anxiety; but he laughed the better to conceal his
evil design, and practised many other arts such as would
suggest themselves to a quick-witted man. After he was a
prisoner, the Spaniards who heard him were astounded to
find so much wisdom in a barbarian. The Governor ordered
a chain to be brought, which was fastened round the neck
of Atabaliba. He then sent two Indians as spies to find
out where this army was, for it was reported to be only
seven leagues from Caxamalca. He wished to ascertain
whether it was in such a position as that a hundred cavalry
could be sent against it. But it was reported that the
enemy was posted in a very rugged position, and that he
was approaching nearer. As soon as the chains were put
upon Atabaliba he had sent a messenger to his great
Captain saying that the Governor had killed him, and on
receiving this news the Captain and his army began to re-
treat. But Atabaliba sent other messengers after the first,
ordering them to advance without delay, and sending orders
how and in what direction to march, and at what hour to
attack the camp ; adding that he was still alive, but that if
they delayed he would be killed.
The Governor knew all this, and he ordered a careful watch
to be kept in the camp. The cavalry were to go the rounds
three times during the night; fifty horsemen going each
round, and at the rounds of daybreak the whole hundred and
fifty horsemen. During these nights the Governor and his
Captains never slept, but looked after the rounds, and saw
that all were on the alert. The soldiers who slept during
the watch did not let go their arms, and their horses were
kept saddled. This watchfulness was continued in the camp
until, at suDset one Saturday evening two Indians, of those
who served the Spaniards, came in and reported that they
had fled from the hostile army, which was only three leagues
distant, and that on that or the next night the camp of the
Christians would be attacked; because they were marching
rapidly in obedience to orders from Atabaliba.
Then the Governor, with the concurrence of the officers
of his Majesty, and of the captains and persons of expe-
rience, sentenced Atabaliba to death.2 His sentence was
that, for the treason he had committed, he should die by
burning, unless he became a Christian; and this execution
was for the security of the Christians, the good of the whole
land, and to secure its conquest and pacification. For on
the death of Atabaliba all his troops would presently dis-
* " Atabalipa wept, and said that they should not kill him, that there
was not an Indian in 1 he land who would move without his orders, and
that, he being prisoner, what could they fear ? I saw the Marquis weep
with sorrow, at not being able to spare his life, by reason of the risk of
his escaping."вЂ”Pedro Pizarro.
MURDER OF ATAHUALLPA.
perse, and would not have the courage to attack us or to
obey his orders.
They brought out Atabaliba to execution; and, when he
came into the square, he said he would become a Christian.
The Governor was informed, and ordered him to be baptized.
The ceremony was performed by the very reverend Father
Friar Vicente de Valverde. The Governor then ordered
that he should not be burnt, but that he should be fastened
to a pole in the open space and strangled. This was done,
and the body was left until the morning of the next day,
when the Monks, and the Governor with the other Spaniards,
conveyed it into the church, where it was interred with much
solemnity, and with all the honours that could be shown it.3
3 The pretext for murdering Atahuallpa was false, and Xeres, the
murderer's secretary, knew that it was false when he wrote this narrative.
It was pretended that an Indian army was assembled at Huamachuco,
and Hernando de Soto, who was a gentleman and no murderer, was sent,
with a small force, ostensibly to ascertain the truth of the report, but
really to get him out of the way. He was accompanied by Rodrigo
Orgonez, Pedro Ortiz de Orue, Miguel de Estete, and Lope Velez.
Hernando Pizarro had already departed for Spain, to report the dis-
covery and with good store of gold.
Then Pizarro, Almagro, and the worst of the gang, with Friar Val-
verde, determined to murder Atahuallpa, and thus get rid of an obstacle
in their way. There was a mock trial. Pizarro and Almagro were the
Judges, the Clerk of the Court was Sancho de Cuellar, and Filipillo,
who had a malignant spite against Atahuallpa, was interpreter. The
indictment was drawn up in the form of twelve questions:вЂ”
1. Did you know Huayna Ccapac, and how many wives had he ?
2. "Was Huascar the legitimate heir, and Atahuallpa a bastard?
3. Had the Ynca other sons?
4. Was Atahuallpa the heir by inheritance, or usurpation ?
5. "Was Huascar deprived by his father's will, or was he declared heir?
6. "Was Huascar murdered by order of Atahuallpa ?
7. "Was Atahuallpa an idolater, and did he enforce human sacrifices?
8. Had Atahuallpa waged unjust wars ?
9. Had Atahuallpa many concubines?
10. Had Atahuallpa received and spent tribute, since the arrival of
the Spaniards ?
MURDER OF ATAHUALLPA.
Such was the end of this man, who had been so cruel. He
died with great fortitude, and without shewing any feeling,
saying that he entrusted his children to the Governor.
11. Had Atahuallpa given treasure to his relations and captains, since
the Spaniards came?
12. Had Atahuallpa ordered troops to be assembled to make "war on
the Spaniards ?
Ten witnesses were examined, seven of whom were servants of the
Spaniards, and Filipillo turned their words into what meaning he pleased.
One witness, a captain named Quespi, suspected the interpreter, and
would only answer Ari (Yes) and Manan (No), nodding and shaking
his head, that all might understand.
The few men of honour and respectability, then at Caxamarca, pro-
tested against the murder. Their names are more worthy of remem-
brance than those of the thirteen who crossed the line at the isle of Gallo.
They were : besides, 1. Hernando de Soto.
2. Francisco de Chaves,") brothers, natives
3. Diego de Chaves, } of Truxillo.
4. Francisco de Fuentes.
5. Pedro de Ayala.
6. Diego de Mora.
7. Francisco Moscoso.
8. Hernando de Haro.
9. Pedro de Mendoza.
10. Juan de Herrada.
11. Alonzo de Avila.
12. Bias de Atienza.
They represented that Pizarro had no jurisdiction over a foreign king,
like Atahuallpa ; that to kill a king who was a prisoner, aud whose
ransom they had taken, would bring shame and dishonour on the Spanish
name; that if he had done wrong the Emperor should judge him ; and
they appealed from the iniquitous sentence to the justice of the Emperor,
naming Juan de Herrada, one of their number, as the protector of the
king Atahuallpa. But they were overruled, and the murder was perpe-
trated. Two days afterwards Hernando de Soto returned, and reported
that there was no Indian army near, and no insurrection. He found the
Governor, by way of mourning, wearing a great felt hat slouched over
his eyes. He was justly indignant at the murder ; which Pizarro was
unable to defend. He said: "Sir, you have done ill. It would have
been right to have waited for our return; for the accusation against Ata-
baliba is false; no armed men have been assembled." The Governor
answered: "Now I see that I have been deceived." Pizarro blamed
MURDER OF ATAHUALLPA.
When they took his body to be buried there was loud
mourning among the women and servants of his household.
He died on Saturday, at the same hour that he was taken
Valverde the Monk, and Riquelme the Royal Treasurer, who, he said,
had urged him to commit the crime ; and there were mutual recrimina-
Soon afterwards, when the Spaniards left Cassamarca and were march-
ing on Cuzco, Titu Atauchi, the brother of Atahuallpa, attacked them
at Tocto, in the province of Huayllas, with six thousand men, and cap-
tured eight Spaniards. Among his prisoners were Sancho de Cuellar,
Francisco de Chaves, Hernando de Haro, Alonzo de Alarcon, and others.
The Ynca Prince took them to Cassamarca, which place had then been
abandoned by the Spaniards. Cuellar, who had been Clerk to the
Court at the mock trial of Atahuallpa, got his deserts. He was publicly
executed in the square of Cassamarca, at the same pole against which
the Ynca was strangled. Alarcon, whose leg was broken, was carefully
tended ; while Chaves and Haro, who had protested against the murder
of Atahuallpa, were treated with the greatest kindness by the Indians.
Prince Titu Atauchi made a treaty with them, in which it was stipulated
that the Spaniards and Indians should be friends, that Manco (the legi-
timate son of Huayna Ccapac) should succeed to the llautu and that all
the Ynca laws in favour of the people, which were not opposed to
Christianity, should be observed. He then set Chaves and his comrades
free, with many good wishes; and they went to Cuzco to try to get the
treaty ratified by Pizarro, but without success. Titu Atauchi, who was
a brave, generous, and able Prince, unfortunately died very soon after-
It would be interesting to trace the fate of the twelve honourable men
who protested against the murder of Atahuallpa.
Hernando de Soto, as is well known, abandoned Peru and its cruel
conquerors, discovered Florida, and found a grave in the bed of the
Francisco de Chaves, a native of Truxillo, was afterwards employed
in reducing the Conchucos. He was murdered at Lima in 1541, in at-
tempting to defend the staircase against the assassins of Pizarro. Zarate
says that when he died he was the most important personage in Peru,
next to Pizarro.вЂ”Hist, del Peru, lib. iv, cap. 8.
Diego de Mora settled at the new city, called Truxillo, on the coast
of Peru. Gasca made him a Captain of Cavalry, and we last hear of
him as receiving the appointment of Corregidor of Lima, for the Royal
Audience, during the rebellion of Giron.
Juan de Herrada was a staunch follower of Almagro. When that
Captain made his expedition to Chile, his intimate friend Herrada was
MURDER OF ATAHUALLPA.
prisoner and defeated. Some said that it was for his sins
that he died on the day and hour that he was seized. Thus
he was punished for the great evils and cruelties that he
had inflicted upon his vassals; for all, with one voice, de-
clare that he was the greatest and most cruel butcher that
had been seen among men; that for a very slight cause he
would destroy a village, such as some trivial fault com-
mitted by a single man; and that he killed ten thousand
left behind at Cuzco, to bring reinforcements. Five months afterwards
Herrada set out with more men, and, after enduring terrible hardships,
reached Copiapo in Chile, returning with Almagro by the desert of
Atacama. He conveyed to Almagro the Royal Provision, which granted
that Captain one hundred leagues of country beyond the jurisdiction of
Pizarro. This Provision was brought out from Spain by Hernando
Pizarro, and the dispute as to the position of the frontier Hne led to the
civil war and the death of Almagro.
Bias de Atienza is enumerated by Balboa as one of the heroic adven-
turers who crossed the line with Pizarro at the Isle of Gallo. (See note,
p. 9.) He afterwards settled at Truxillo, on the Peruvian coast. But
we hear of him in still earlier days. When Vasco Nunez came in sight
of the South Sea in 1513, he sent out three scouting parties to explore,
under Francisco Pizarro, Juan de Escaray, and Alonzo Martin. The
latter found a canoe on the beach, and, stepping into it, called his men
to witness that he was the first European who ever embarked on the
South Sea. His example was followed by Bias de Atienza, who cried
out that he was the second, (Herrera, Dec. i, lib. x, cap. 2.) His
daughter Inez de Atienza, the widow of Pedro de Arcos of Piura, was
beloved by Pedro de Ursua, whom she accompanied on his expedition to
discover El Dorado and Omagua in 1560. After his murder she became
the mistress of Lorenzo Salduendo, one of the pirates, and was herself
murdered by the notorious pirate Aguirre. (See Search for El Dorado,
p. 85.) A certain Friar Bias de Atienza published a book at Lima, en-
titled Relation de los Religiosos, in 1617; and there was a Missionary
named Juan de Atienza, who died at Lima in 1592. These were pro-
bably sons of the Conqueror and brothers of the lady Inez. (Sol del
Nuevo Mundo, p. 59.)
I have not been able to discover the subsequent history of any of the
other denouncers of the murder of Atahuallpa. Except Francisco de
Chaves, Francisco de Fuentes, and Pedro de Mendoza, I find none in
the list of first conquerors who received shares of Atahuallpa's ransom,
so that the rest must have come with Almagro.
persons, and held all the country by tyranny, so that he was
very heartily detested by all the inhabitants.
Soon afterwards the Governor took another son of old
Cuzco, named Atabaliba, who had shown a desire to be
friendly to the Spaniards, and placed him in the lordship,
in presence of the chiefs and lords of the surrounding dis-
tricts, and of many other -Indians.4 He ordered them to
receive him as their lord, and to obey him as they had
obeyed Atabaliba; for that he was their proper lord, being
legitimate son of old Cuzco. They all answered that they
would receive him as their lord, and obey him as the
Governor had ordered.
Now I wish to*-mention a notable thing. It is, that twenty
days before this happened, and before there were any
tidings of the army that Atabaliba had ordered to be
assembled, it happened that Atabaliba was, one night, very
cheerful with some Spaniards with whom he was conversing.
Suddenly there appeared a sign in the heavens, in the
direction of Cuzco, like a fiery comet, which lasted during
the greater part of the night. When Atabaliba saw this
sign he said that a great lord would very soon have to die
in that land.5
When the Governor had placed the younger Atabaliba in
the state and lordship of that land (as we have mentioned)
the Governor told him that he must communicate to him
the orders of his Majesty, and what he must do to become
his vassal. Atabaliba replied that he must retire during
four days, without speaking to anyone, for such was the
4 Herrera says he was a son of Atahuallpa, named Toparpa. But
this is not an Ynca name at all. He died soon afterwards. (Dec. v,
lib. iii, cap. 5, p. 59.)
5 Garcilasso says it was a greenish-black comet, nearly as thick as a
man. It was seen in July or August, 1533, and is certainly the one ob-
served by Appian, according to Humboldt. On July 21st, 1533, standing
high in the north, near the constellation of Perseus, it represented the
sword which Perseus holds in his right hand.
RETURN OP SICK AND WOUNDED.
custom among them when a Lord died, that his successor
might be feared and obeyed, and afterwards all yield
obedience to him. So he was in retirement for four days,
and afterwards the Governor arranged conditions of peace
with him, to the sound of trumpets, and the royal standard
was put into his hands. He received and held it up for the
Emperor our Lord, thus becoming his vassal. Then all the
principal lords and chiefs, who were present, joyfully re-
ceived him as their lord, kissed his hand and cheek, and,
turning their faces to the sun, gave thanks with joined
hands, for having been granted a native ruler. Thus was
this lord received in the place of Atabaliba, and presently
he put on a very rich fringe, ^secured round his head and
descending over the forehead, so as almost to cover his eyes.
'Among these people this is the crown which he who is
Lord of the lordship of Cuzco wears, and so it was worn by
After all this, some of the Spaniards who had conquered
the land, chiefly those who had been there a long time, and
others who were worn out with illness or unable to serve by
reason of their wounds, besought leave from the Governor
to depart with the gold, silver, and precious stones that had
fallen to their share, and to return to their homes. Per-
mission was granted, and some of them went with Hernando
Pizarro, the brother of the Governor. Others received per-
mission afterwards, seeing that new men continued to re-
sort to this land, drawn thither by the fame of its riches.
The Governor gave some sheep and Indians to the Spaniards
who had obtained leave to go home, to carry their gold and
silver and clothes to the town of San Miguel. On the road
some of them lost gold and silver to the amount of more
than 25,000 casiellanos, because the sheep ran away with
the gold and silver, and some of the Indians also fled. On
this journey they suffered much hunger and thirst, and
many hardships from a want of people to carry their loads.
ARRIVAL OF PLUNDER IN SPAIN.
From the city of Cuzco to the port the distance is nearly
two hundred leagues. At last they embarked and went to
Panama, and thence to Notnbre de Dios, where they again
embarked, and our Lord conducted them to Seville, at
which port four ships have arrived, up to the present time,
which brought the following quantity of gold and silver :вЂ”
On the 5th of December, 1534, the first of these four
ships arrived at the city of Seville. In her was the Captain
Christoval de Mena, who brought 8000 pesos of gold and
950 marcs of silver. There was also on board a reverend
clergyman, a native of Seville, named Juan de Losa, who
brought 6000 pesos of gold and eighty marcs of silver. Be-
side these quantities, 38,946 pesos arrived in that ship.
In the year 1534, on the 9th of January, the second ship
arrived, named the Santa Maria de Gampo, with the Captain
Hernando Pizarro on board, brother of Francisco Pizarro, the
Governor and Captain-General of New Castillo. In this ship
there came, for his Majesty, 153,000 pesos of gold and 5048
marcs of silver. Besides this, several passengers and private
persons brought 310,000 pesos of gold and 13,500 marcs of
silver. This treasure came in bars and planks, and in pieces
of gold and silver enclosed in large boxes.
In addition to all this, the ship brought, for his Majesty,
thirty-eight vases of gold and forty-eight of silver, among
which there was an eagle of silver. In its body were
fitted two vases and two large pots, one of gold and
the other of silver, each of which was capable of contain-
ing a cow cut into pieces. There were also two sacks
of gold, each capable of holding two fanegas of wheat; an
idol of gold, the size of a child four years old; and two
small drums. The other vases were of gold and silver, each
one capable of holding two arrobas and more. In the same
ship passengers brought home forty-four vases of silver and
four of gold.
This treasure was landed on the mole and conveyed to
RETURN OP THE AUTHOR TO SPAIN.
the Gasa de Contratacion, the vases being carried, and the
rest in twenty-six boxes, a pair of bullocks drawing a cart
containing two boxes.
On the 3rd of July in the same year, three other ships
arrived. The master of one was Francisco Rodriguez, and
of the other Francisco Pabon. They brought, for passen-
gers and private persons, 146,518 pesos of gold and 30,509
marcs of silver.
Without counting the above vases and pieces of gold and
silver, the total amount of gold brought by these four ships
was 708,580 pesos, a peso of gold being equal to a castellano.
Each peso is commonly valued at 450 maravedis; so that,
taking all the gold, except vases and other pieces, that was
registered in these four ships, it would be worth 318,860,000
The silver was 49,008 marcs. Each marc is equal to eight
ounces, which, counted at 2210 maravedis, makes the total
value of the silver 108,307,680 maravedis.
One of the last two ships that arrived, in which Francisco
Rodriguez was master, belonged to Francisco de Xeres, a
native of the town of Seville, who wrote this narrative by
order of the Governor Francisco Pizarro, being in the pro-
vince of "New Castille, in the city of Caxamalca, as Secre-
tary to the Governor.
PRAISE TO GOD.