1042. á cuantos los miran. Los refers to ojos mentioned above. The period at the end of the line must be a typographical error, for the sense seems to favor a comma. The two subordinate clauses introduced by si and connected by y do not require as much separation as is afforded by a period.
1052. Como quedó concertado. Note the repetition of line 1000. Lope is given to repetitions in his works, but this is perhaps the only verse in the play which he has unconsciously repeated.
1062. inglés á Cádiz. "Año de 1625." (Note by Hartzenbusch.) The incident referred to is the irrational attack upon Cadiz by the English fleet under Sir Edward Cecil in October, 1625. The English were ignominiously defeated and the Spanish encouraged to continue an unequal struggle.
1066. tusón dorado. The name of a celebrated order of knighthood founded in 1429 by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy and the Netherlands. It originally consisted of thirty-one knights and was self-perpetuating, but Philip II absorbed the nominating power. In 1713 Charles VI moved the order to Vienna, but this action was contested by the Spanish and the dispute was settled by dividing the order between the two countries.
1067. Con débil caña, etc. "En la edición antigua de la comedia: Con débil caña, con freno herrado." (Note by Hartzenbusch.)
1068. Marte... Cupido, Mars, the god of war, Cupid, the god of love.
1076. Sembrando. "En la Corona trágica se lee sembrando; en la edición antigua de la comedia, tendidas."(Note by Hartzenbusch.) The sonnet is found also in the Obras Sueltas, vol. IV, p. 500, under the title, Á la Venida de los Ingleses á Cádiz. Hartzenbusch speaks of it as though it appeared in the Corona trágica, but his note is misleading, for it really is found in a collection of Poesías varias in the volume stated which begins with the Corona trágica.
1086. Mas qué os, etc. More exact punctuation would place the initial interrogation after mas and before qué.
1089. Filis. In Greek mythology Phyllis, disappointed because her lover, Demophon, did not return at the time appointed for their marriage, put an end to her life. According to one account she was changed after death into an almond-tree without leaves. But when Demophon, on his return, embraced the tree, it put forth leaves, so much was it affected by the presence of the lover. To the mythological Phyllis, however, Lope is indebted only for the name. To him "Filis" was a more material being in the person of Elena Osorio, daughter of a theatrical manager and a married woman. During the early part of the period 1585-1590 he dedicated to her some of his most beautiful love-ballads, and in the latter part, when he turned against her and was exiled from Madrid and Castile, he continued to address poems to her, but now filled with bitter complaints. (See Introduction.) The fact that he mentions her name here in a play written in the later years of his life is of interest; either he wrote the sonnet in his earlier years and used it here, or it would seem that the poet's mind reverts to his youthful follies. But in one of the last works written just before his death Lope speaks of his daughter, Antonia Clara, under the name of "Filis," which has given rise to some confusion. "Phyllis," moreover, is a very common name in pastoral poems in the 16th and 17th centuries.
1126. hubiérades... Dijérades=hubierais... Dijerais. Cf. v. 835 and note.
1133. Si es disfrazar, etc. In the pastorals the author usually disguised personages of distinction in the garb of shepherds and shepherdesses. These compositions were very popular in Spain during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.
1145. que viene... á pretender, who comes to court to make pretensions. Pretender also means "to sue for place, seek position" and might be here "to seek favor at court."
1153. En él este amor bebí. Here as well as in the following line él refers to cántaro.
1155. Sirena. The Sirens were fabulous mythological monsters, half bird and half woman, which were supposed to inhabit reefs near the island of Capri and lure sailors to their death by the sweetness of their song.
1186. que tiene razón, indeed she is quite right. Zerolo's edition has que instead of qué of the Hartzenbusch edition, and it is clearly the author's intent.
1231. Por servicios que me hiciese, etc., Whatever services he did me, however many years he put me under obligation.
1237-40. Observe that one of these verses concludes each of the following stanzas or décimas. Such a verse is called the pie de décima.
1252. Andalucía forms one of the most important and romantic of Spain's ancient divisions and still occupies a unique position in the life and character of the Spanish people. Geographically it occupies almost the whole of the south of Spain.
1262. dorado, a yellow flower.
1266. Manutisa is usually written minutisa.
1282. Adónde bueno=Qué tal. There is also a sense of motion as indicated by verse 1284, but it is difficult to give a concise translation. Freely expressed we may offer: "Whither bound, my pretty maid?"
1291. Pero... admira, But on my word I am astonished.
1300. No tengo por mal acuerdo requebrar, etc., I do not consider it ill-advised to enumerate, etc. Requebrar usually means "to flatter," but it also means "to break in small pieces," hence "to give in detail" or "to enumerate."
1303. Os costará, etc. The sense of the verb is plural unless we take it as impersonal and supply an infinitive construction after it.
1305. Para el río. This expression is out of its natural order and might well be set off by commas. The sense is: "A hat with its band for going to the river."
1306. Avantal=delantal. Cf. v. 1110 and note.
1307. virillas. In addition to its usual meaning, vira, or virilla, is used to denote the border around the top of the shoe, which is its meaning in the present instance.
1314. No hay plata... Potosí. Potosí is a city of Bolivia situated on the Cerro de Potosí at an altitude of thirteen thousand feet. The Cerro de Potosí is said to have produced up to the present time over three billion dollars in silver. The first mine was opened there in 1545, and the year of Lope's birth, 1562, a royal mint was established in the city of Potosí to coin the output of the mines. Small wonder is it then that the Spaniards still refer to the city in proverb as a synonym for great riches. Lope mentions it in several of his other dramas.
1324. Compare this speech of doña María with that of Areusa in the Celestina against the exacting duties of servants. (See Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, vol. III, p. 43.)
1341. de mañana, early in the morning.
1349. Bien aforrada razón, etc. In this reply of doña María we see not a little of the précieux spirit which in the same century became so popular in France. A man must not proceed "brutally" to a declaration of love at the very beginning, but by interminable flatteries and conceits lead up to such a declaration, and even then must not expect the object of his devotion to yield at once to his cleverly conceived pleadings.
1404. cristal deshecho refers to the running water of the fountain.
1410. henchirle. The antecedent of le is cántaro.
1417. Ó asoma por el estribo, etc., Or shows through the doorway of the carriage her curls on the hooks of a 'rest.' In modern usage when applied to the parts of a carriage estribo means the "step" but in the text it is used apparently as the equivalent of portezuela. Descanso seems to have been at the time a device used in women's head-dress, such as was represented some years later by Velázquez in his famous portrait of Mariana de Austria, which now hangs in the Prado Museum at Madrid.
1439. Conténtese ó quitaréle. Observe the change from the second person to the third in this verse and the following one.
1455. ¿Qué se hizo tu desdén? What has become of your pride?
1460. Habrán hecho riza en ti, Have probably done you a great injury. Hacer riza, "to cause disaster or slaughter."
1477. si no envidaste, etc., if you have not staked any money, lay down your hand and remain apart. Leonor applies here the terms of a game of cards when speaking of the love-affairs of doña María.
1493. No pone codo en la puente, etc., a reference to the custom of the idlers and braggarts lounging in public places and seeking trouble or offering defiance to every passer-by.
1495. los lavaderos. The banks of the Manzanares immediately in the rear of the Royal Palace have long been the public lavaderos or washing-places of the city of Madrid, and every day acres of network of lines are covered with drying linen. It is here naturally that the gallants of the lower classes go to meet their sweethearts, and scenes such as we have portrayed later in the play are of frequent occurrence. Cf. note on verse 441.
1510. Prado, formerly, as its name implies, a meadow on the outskirts of Madrid and later converted into a magnificent paseo between the Buen Retiro palace and the city proper. The house of Lope de Vega still stands in the narrow Calle de Cervantes, a short distance from the Prado, and the poet often mentions this celebrated paseo in his works. The name is frequently used to refer to the famous art-gallery located there.
1520. quien, cf. 1. 337 and note.
1527-8. Aprended... hoy. Note the repetition of 11. 1237-8.