ALONSO DE ESPINOSA. THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA AND THE SPANISH CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT.
Алонсо де Эспиноса. Святой Образ Нашей Девы Марии из Канделарии, а также Испанское Завоевание и Заселение.
THE GUANCHES OF TENERIFE.
Гуанчи с острова Тенерифе.
THE ORIGIN AND MIRACLES
THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY
A DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND OF TENERIFE.
ISSUED FOX I907.
Introduction . . . . . i
Remnants of the Guanche Language . . . xx
The Nine Guanche Sentences .... xxv
The Origin and Miracles of the Holy Image of Our Lady of
Candelaria . . . . . i
Table of the Chapters . . . . .3
Table of the Miracles in Book IV . . . .5
Preface of Alonso de Espinosa . . . .9
Report on the Present Condition of the Image of Our Lady of
Candelaria. By Miss Ethel Trew . . . 137
Bibliography, in Four Parts :
PART I.—General History, etc., A.D. 1341-1907. Chronologically
arranged, with the British Museum Press-marks . 139
PART II.—Index of Authors, Editors, etc., A.P. 1341-1907 . 173
PART III.—Index of Titles . . . .185
PART IV.—List of other Works, quoted by the Editor. Alphabeti-
cally arranged, with the British Museum Press-marks . 197
Index . . . . . • 203
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
I. Map of Tenerife. By the Editor . . i
2. Map of the Territory of Our Lady of Candelaria. By the
Editor ...... xxvi
3. Facsimile of the Title-page of Del Origen y Milagros de la
Santa Imagen de nuestra Señora de Candelaria, by Alonso
de Espinosa, Sevilla, 1594, from the Copy in the British
Museum. By Donald Macbeth . . to face 1
4. Facsimile of the Colophon of the same edition. By Donald
Macbeth . . . . to face 136
5. Reduced facsimile of the Engraved Portrait of Nuestra
Señora de Candelaria, by Juan Perez, 1703, inserted in Mr.
Thomas Grenville's copy of Conquista y Antigüedades de
las Islas de la Gran Canaria, by Juan Nuñez de la Peña,
Madrid, 1676 (British Museum). By Donald Macbeth.
to face Title
6. Reduced facsimile of a View of the Catacombs of the Guan-
ches. From the British Museum copy of Allgemeine His-
torie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande, vol ii, p. 40, Plate 4,
Leipzig, 1748. 49. By Donald Macbeth . to face 40
Series II. Vol. XXI.
PORTRAIT OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA,
BY JUAN PEREZ, 1703.
In Mr. Grenville's copy of J nan Nunez de la Pena, "Conquista" &c, 1676.
Reproduced and printed for Uie Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth.
GUANCHES OF TENERIFE
THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY
SPANISH CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT,
THE FRIAR ALONSO UE ESPINOSA
OF THE ORDER OF PREACHERS.
ftranslatefc anil CBDiteD, toítf) |£otes anil an Entrotntrtton,
SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM, K.C.B.,
PRESIDENT OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY,
PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.
PRINTED AT THE BEDFORD PRESS, 20 AND 21, BEDFORDBURY, W.C.
WHOSE INTEREST IN THE PEOPLE OF GUIMAR,
THE LAND OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA,
IS NOT CONFINED TO WORDS ALONE,
THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED
BY HER FRIEND,
HE story of the discovery and
settlement of the Canary Islands
has long been considered by the
Council as a proper and desirable
subject for a volume or more in
the Hakluyt Society's series. The enterprise of
Jean de Bethencourt and his gallant companions
is the opening chapter of the story, and I pro-
posed its translation to our former President
upwards of thirty-six years ago. Sir David
Dundas cordially approved the suggestion, and lent
me his fine copy of Bergeron's edition. My dear
friend, schoolfellow, and messmate, the late Commo-
dore James G. Goodenough, undertook to translate
and edit, and we began to make researches together:
work in which he took a deep interest, and for
which his linguistic and other accomplishments
specially fitted him. But in 1871 he was called away
on important duties connected with relief work in
France, and in 1873 he went out to take command
of the Australian Station, closing a most valuable
and meritorious career by an heroic death two
years afterwards. I secured an equally competent
editor for Bethencourt in Mr. Major, of the British
Museum, and the volume was issued to members in
The authors, Pierre Bontier and Jean le Verrier,
who were Bethencourt's chaplains, knew how to tell
their story. Mr. Major truly says that " there is
much of picturesque beauty about the quaint old
narrative of the adventures of the Sire de Bethen-
court. We find ourselves in an atmosphere of
romance, albeit the story is most essentially true.
It lends the charm of chivalry to an expedition of
discovery, undertaken at a period when chivalry
was itself a reality."
Mr. Major, in his learned and interesting intro-
duction, supplied us with an able resume of all that
was previously known of the Canary Islands. The
allusion of Strabo is followed by the curious notices
given by Plutarch in his Life of Sertorius, and by
Pliny in his remarks on the career of King Juba.
Mr. Major goes on to inform us of what can be
gleaned from the Medicean portolano of 1351: of the
acceptance of a Cañarían kingly crown by Don Luis
de la Cerda, the rightful King of Spain ; and he
gives all the information to be obtained from the
works of Qa da Mosto and Azurara. Bethencourt
himself, and his lieutenant, Gadifer de la Salle, took
possession of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two
most eastern islands. They made descents upon
Canaria, but were driven back to their ships by the
inhabitants. They visited the eastern islands of
Palma, Gomera, and Hierro, but made no attempt
It remains, then, to present the members of the
Hakluyt Society with an account of the island of
Tenerife, the central island, and the most interesting
and important of the group ; of its original inhabi-
tants ; and of its conquest and settlement.
Bethencourt and his gallant adventurers, though
they never landed on the island, must often have
gazed with admiration at the glorious peak of
Tenerife shooting up high above the clouds, and at
the serrated ridges of Anaga. But the conquest
was left for another people, and delayed for well-
nigh another century. The brave Guanches had a
Tenerife is an island of quite exceptional beauty
and interest, gifted by Nature with every attraction
that can please the eye, and by every advantage of
climate, soil, and position. From its backbone of
volcanic mountains the beautiful peak rises into
the region of perpetual snow ; while from the grassy
and forest-covered uplands lovely valleys and
ravines slope down to the sea level. The gap, in
which lies the city of Laguna, separates the moun-
tain mass, culminating in the peak, from the wild
and jagged mountains of Anaga to the north, and
forms a natural highway from the eastern to the
The various elevations ensure a great variety in
the vegetation of the different zones, which has been
well described by Humboldt in his personal narra-
tive. On the hills and in the valleys of the coast
there is an African vegetation represented by date
palms and bananas, by the famous dragon trees, the
wonderful candelabra,1 and several other euphorbias,
and an infinity of wild flowers and ferns in the well-
watered ravines. Higher up, on the lower slopes of
the mountains, are the dark evergreen forests with
shady groves, where the nymphs and shepherds
of Theocritus might have strayed, and where
streams, rippling over the rocks under cool shades,
suggest the abodes of fauns and hamadryads.
Here flourish the Cañarían arbutus,2 laurel,3 and
laurestina4 as tall trees, the Cañarían holly,0 venático,6
and myrtle,7 with the shrubby cineraria, and the
cistus, on which a bright red parasite grows. Ten
or a dozen kinds of ferns hang over the streams,
and derive moisture from their cool spray. Higher
up the forests of mighty pines commence, called tea
by the natives,8 with the Junipertis cedrus, now
nearly extinct, the fruit-bearing mocan ;9 and a
rich undergrowth of broom, and of escaóoii10 and
retama?1 yielding never-failing supplies of firewood.
Higher still are the grass lands up to the verge of
the eternal snow, while a tiny violet12 flourishes at
1 Cardón, Euphorbia Canadensis.
2 Arbutus Canadensis, Sp. madroño.
4 Viburnum rigidum.
6 Persea Indica.
8 Pinus Canadensis.
10 Cytisus proliferus.
12 Viola cheiranthifolia.
3 Laurus Canadensis.
5 Ilex Canadensis, sp.
7 Myrica Faya.
9 Vionea mocanero.
11 Cytisus fragrans.
the summit of the peak. In the course of centuries
the plant life of Tenerife had acquired special
characteristics, combined with remarkable strength
and vigour of growth.
A peculiar race of men had enjoyed the delights
of this favoured island for a long course of centuries.
The Guanches derived their name from Gtiau, a
son, and Chenerfe, the name of Tenerife, a con-
traction of Guanchenerfe. Their ancestors came,
no doubt, from the neighbouring African coast of
Mauritania, but long ages before that country was
overrun by invaders of Arab or Negro blood.
Mauritania was then inhabited by the same ancient
Iberian race which once covered all Western
Europe : a people, fair, tall, and strong ; a people of
many virtues and of few vices. An early Spanish