ALONSO DE ESPINOSA. THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA AND THE SPANISH CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT. THE GUANCHES OF TENERIFE.


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ALONSO DE ESPINOSA. THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA AND THE SPANISH CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT.
Алонсо де Эспиноса. Святой Образ Нашей Девы Марии из Канделарии, а также Испанское Завоевание и Заселение.
THE GUANCHES OF TENERIFE.
Гуанчи с острова Тенерифе.

THE ORIGIN AND MIRACLES

OF

THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY

OF CANDELARIA,

WITH

A DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLAND OF TENERIFE.

SECOND SERIES.

No. XXL

ISSUED FOX I907.

CONTENTS.

Introduction . . . . . i

Remnants of the Guanche Language . . . xx

The Nine Guanche Sentences .... xxv

The Origin and Miracles of the Holy Image of Our Lady of

Candelaria . . . . . i

Table of the Chapters . . . . .3

Table of the Miracles in Book IV . . . .5

Preface of Alonso de Espinosa . . . .9

Report on the Present Condition of the Image of Our Lady of

Candelaria. By Miss Ethel Trew . . . 137

Bibliography, in Four Parts :

PART I.—General History, etc., A.D. 1341-1907. Chronologically

arranged, with the British Museum Press-marks . 139

PART II.—Index of Authors, Editors, etc., A.P. 1341-1907 . 173

PART III.—Index of Titles . . . .185

PART IV.—List of other Works, quoted by the Editor. Alphabeti-

cally arranged, with the British Museum Press-marks . 197

Index . . . . . • 203

a

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

I. Map of Tenerife. By the Editor . . i

2. Map of the Territory of Our Lady of Candelaria. By the

Editor ...... xxvi

3. Facsimile of the Title-page of Del Origen y Milagros de la

Santa Imagen de nuestra Señora de Candelaria, by Alonso

de Espinosa, Sevilla, 1594, from the Copy in the British

Museum. By Donald Macbeth . . to face 1

4. Facsimile of the Colophon of the same edition. By Donald

Macbeth . . . . to face 136

5. Reduced facsimile of the Engraved Portrait of Nuestra

Señora de Candelaria, by Juan Perez, 1703, inserted in Mr.

Thomas Grenville's copy of Conquista y Antigüedades de

las Islas de la Gran Canaria, by Juan Nuñez de la Peña,

Madrid, 1676 (British Museum). By Donald Macbeth.

to face Title

6. Reduced facsimile of a View of the Catacombs of the Guan-

ches. From the British Museum copy of Allgemeine His-

torie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande, vol ii, p. 40, Plate 4,

Leipzig, 1748. 49. By Donald Macbeth . to face 40

Series II. Vol. XXI.

PORTRAIT OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA,

BY JUAN PEREZ, 1703.

In Mr. Grenville's copy of J nan Nunez de la Pena, "Conquista" &c, 1676.

Reproduced and printed for Uie Hakluyt Society by Donald Macbeth.

THE

GUANCHES OF TENERIFE

THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY

OF CANDELARIA

AND THE

SPANISH CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT,

BY

THE FRIAR ALONSO UE ESPINOSA

OF THE ORDER OF PREACHERS.

ftranslatefc anil CBDiteD, toítf) |£otes anil an Entrotntrtton,

BY

SIR CLEMENTS MARKHAM, K.C.B.,

PRESIDENT OF THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY,

LONDON:

PRINTED FOR THE HAKLUYT SOCIETY.

6

A

LONDON:

PRINTED AT THE BEDFORD PRESS, 20 AND 21, BEDFORDBURY, W.C.

TO

ETHEL TREW,

WHOSE INTEREST IN THE PEOPLE OF GUIMAR,

THE LAND OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA,

IS NOT CONFINED TO WORDS ALONE,

THIS VOLUME IS DEDICATED

BY HER FRIEND,

THE EDITOR.

INTRODUCTION.

HE story of the discovery and

settlement of the Canary Islands

has long been considered by the

Council as a proper and desirable

subject for a volume or more in

the Hakluyt Society's series. The enterprise of

Jean de Bethencourt and his gallant companions

is the opening chapter of the story, and I pro-

posed its translation to our former President

upwards of thirty-six years ago. Sir David

Dundas cordially approved the suggestion, and lent

me his fine copy of Bergeron's edition. My dear

friend, schoolfellow, and messmate, the late Commo-

dore James G. Goodenough, undertook to translate

and edit, and we began to make researches together:

work in which he took a deep interest, and for

which his linguistic and other accomplishments

specially fitted him. But in 1871 he was called away

on important duties connected with relief work in

France, and in 1873 he went out to take command

of the Australian Station, closing a most valuable

and meritorious career by an heroic death two

b

ii

INTRODUCTION.

years afterwards. I secured an equally competent

editor for Bethencourt in Mr. Major, of the British

Museum, and the volume was issued to members in

1872.

The authors, Pierre Bontier and Jean le Verrier,

who were Bethencourt's chaplains, knew how to tell

their story. Mr. Major truly says that " there is

much of picturesque beauty about the quaint old

narrative of the adventures of the Sire de Bethen-

court. We find ourselves in an atmosphere of

romance, albeit the story is most essentially true.

It lends the charm of chivalry to an expedition of

discovery, undertaken at a period when chivalry

was itself a reality."

Mr. Major, in his learned and interesting intro-

duction, supplied us with an able resume of all that

was previously known of the Canary Islands. The

allusion of Strabo is followed by the curious notices

given by Plutarch in his Life of Sertorius, and by

Pliny in his remarks on the career of King Juba.

Mr. Major goes on to inform us of what can be

gleaned from the Medicean portolano of 1351: of the

acceptance of a Cañarían kingly crown by Don Luis

de la Cerda, the rightful King of Spain ; and he

gives all the information to be obtained from the

works of Qa da Mosto and Azurara. Bethencourt

himself, and his lieutenant, Gadifer de la Salle, took

possession of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, the two

most eastern islands. They made descents upon

Canaria, but were driven back to their ships by the

inhabitants. They visited the eastern islands of

INTRODUCTION.

Ill

Palma, Gomera, and Hierro, but made no attempt

on Tenerife.

It remains, then, to present the members of the

Hakluyt Society with an account of the island of

Tenerife, the central island, and the most interesting

and important of the group ; of its original inhabi-

tants ; and of its conquest and settlement.

Bethencourt and his gallant adventurers, though

they never landed on the island, must often have

gazed with admiration at the glorious peak of

Tenerife shooting up high above the clouds, and at

the serrated ridges of Anaga. But the conquest

was left for another people, and delayed for well-

nigh another century. The brave Guanches had a

respite.

Tenerife is an island of quite exceptional beauty

and interest, gifted by Nature with every attraction

that can please the eye, and by every advantage of

climate, soil, and position. From its backbone of

volcanic mountains the beautiful peak rises into

the region of perpetual snow ; while from the grassy

and forest-covered uplands lovely valleys and

ravines slope down to the sea level. The gap, in

which lies the city of Laguna, separates the moun-

tain mass, culminating in the peak, from the wild

and jagged mountains of Anaga to the north, and

forms a natural highway from the eastern to the

western side.

The various elevations ensure a great variety in

the vegetation of the different zones, which has been

well described by Humboldt in his personal narra-

b 2

IV

INTRODUCTION.

tive. On the hills and in the valleys of the coast

there is an African vegetation represented by date

palms and bananas, by the famous dragon trees, the

wonderful candelabra,1 and several other euphorbias,

and an infinity of wild flowers and ferns in the well-

watered ravines. Higher up, on the lower slopes of

the mountains, are the dark evergreen forests with

shady groves, where the nymphs and shepherds

of Theocritus might have strayed, and where

streams, rippling over the rocks under cool shades,

suggest the abodes of fauns and hamadryads.

Here flourish the Cañarían arbutus,2 laurel,3 and

laurestina4 as tall trees, the Cañarían holly,0 venático,6

and myrtle,7 with the shrubby cineraria, and the

cistus, on which a bright red parasite grows. Ten

or a dozen kinds of ferns hang over the streams,

and derive moisture from their cool spray. Higher

up the forests of mighty pines commence, called tea

by the natives,8 with the Junipertis cedrus, now

nearly extinct, the fruit-bearing mocan ;9 and a

rich undergrowth of broom, and of escaóoii10 and

retama?1 yielding never-failing supplies of firewood.

Higher still are the grass lands up to the verge of

the eternal snow, while a tiny violet12 flourishes at

1 Cardón, Euphorbia Canadensis.

2 Arbutus Canadensis, Sp. madroño.

4 Viburnum rigidum.

6 Persea Indica.

8 Pinus Canadensis.

10 Cytisus proliferus.

12 Viola cheiranthifolia.

3 Laurus Canadensis.

5 Ilex Canadensis, sp.

7 Myrica Faya.

9 Vionea mocanero.

11 Cytisus fragrans.

INTRODUCTION.

V

the summit of the peak. In the course of centuries

the plant life of Tenerife had acquired special

characteristics, combined with remarkable strength

and vigour of growth.

A peculiar race of men had enjoyed the delights

of this favoured island for a long course of centuries.

The Guanches derived their name from Gtiau, a

son, and Chenerfe, the name of Tenerife, a con-

traction of Guanchenerfe. Their ancestors came,

no doubt, from the neighbouring African coast of

Mauritania, but long ages before that country was

overrun by invaders of Arab or Negro blood.

Mauritania was then inhabited by the same ancient

Iberian race which once covered all Western

Europe : a people, fair, tall, and strong ; a people of

many virtues and of few vices. An early Spanish

ALONSO DE ESPINOSA. THE HOLY IMAGE OF OUR LADY OF CANDELARIA AND THE SPANISH CONQUEST AND SETTLEMENT. THE GUANCHES OF TENERIFE.
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